Special Issue "Poultry Vaccines"

A special issue of Vaccines (ISSN 2076-393X). This special issue belongs to the section "Veterinary Vaccines".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2021) | Viewed by 28255

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Caterina Lupini
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences, University of Bologna, Via Tolara di Sopra 50, Ozzano dell'Emilia (BO), Italy
Interests: avian viral diseases; vaccines; vaccine development; avian respiratory diseases; viral immunosuppressive disease
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Elena Catelli
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences, University of Bologna, Via Tolara di Sopra 50, Ozzano dell'Emilia, BO, Italy
Interests: vaccines; vaccine development; Marek's disease; avian metapneumovirus; avian coronavirus; infectious bursal disease; Newcastle disease; avian viral respiratory and immunosuppressive diseases
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

the global market of vaccines for poultry accounted for total sales of many hundred million dollars in the last decade. Poultry vaccination is aimed not only to limit the occurrence of clinical diseases but also to reduce environmental infectious pressure and control the emergence and spread of epidemics, such as Avian Influenza. Today’s poultry industry is also asked to use vaccination as a tool to reduce the use of antibiotics, therefore contribute to the control of the occurrence of the antimicrobial resistance that is one of the biggest public health challenges of our time. Although vaccination is certainly of unequivocal advantage for the poultry system, vaccines failures can occur that demands the development of innovative preventive approaches. In this Special Issue, we invite original research and review papers that address recent advances in the field of poultry vaccines either for viral, bacterial and parasitic diseases. Topics of interest include but are not limited to: poultry vaccine basic science, manufacturing, technology, safety, and efficacy. Both experimental or field animal trials are welcomed. Specific topics may include diagnostic strategies to differentiate infected from vaccinated animals, identification of vaccine molecular markers, engineered vaccine development (e.g. vectored vaccines) and novel vaccine delivery tools.  

Dr. Caterina Lupini
Dr. Elena Catelli
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • poultry vaccines
  • avian diseases
  • vaccine basic science
  • manufacturing
  • technology
  • safety
  • efficacy
  • engineered vaccine
  • delivery tools

Published Papers (21 papers)

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Research

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Article
Efficacy of Multivalent, Cochleate-Based Vaccine against Salmonella Infantis, S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium in Laying Hens
Vaccines 2022, 10(2), 226; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020226 - 01 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 696
Abstract
Salmonella enterica is an important foodborne pathogen. Commercial poultry are the main reservoirs of Salmonella enterica, leading to the contamination of food and outbreaks in humans. The vaccination of chickens is one of the most important strategies to reduce the number of Salmonella [...] Read more.
Salmonella enterica is an important foodborne pathogen. Commercial poultry are the main reservoirs of Salmonella enterica, leading to the contamination of food and outbreaks in humans. The vaccination of chickens is one of the most important strategies to reduce the number of Salmonella in poultry farms. Unfortunately, commercial vaccines have not been fully effective in controlling the spread and do not contain all the Salmonella serovars that circulate on farms. In this study, we evaluate a new, cochleate-based, trivalent injectable vaccine against S. Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium and S. Infantis, describing the vaccine security, capacity to induce specific anti-Salmonella serovar IgY and the gene expression of immune markers related to CD4 and CD8 T-cell-mediated immunity. Efficacy was evaluated through oral challenges performed separately for each Salmonella serotype. The efficacy and safety of the trivalent vaccine was proven under controlled conditions. The vaccine has no local or systemic reactions or adverse effects on poultry performance related to the vaccine. The vaccine provided significantly increased serum IgY titer levels, significantly reduced Salmonella CFU/g present in the cecum and an increased CD4+/CD8+ ratio in vaccinated animals when challenged with S. Infantis, S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium. These results indicate that this new trivalent vaccine does not generate adverse effects in poultry and produces an increase in neutralizing antibodies against the three Salmonella serovars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Vaccines)
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Article
A Single Vaccination of IBDV Subviral Particles Generated by Kluyveromyces marxianus Efficiently Protects Chickens against Novel Variant and Classical IBDV Strains
Vaccines 2021, 9(12), 1443; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9121443 - 07 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 813
Abstract
Infectious bursal disease (IBD), caused by the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), is a highly contagious and immunosuppressive disease in chickens worldwide. The novel variant IBDV (nvIBDV) has been emerging in Chinese chicken farms since 2017, but there are no available vaccines that [...] Read more.
Infectious bursal disease (IBD), caused by the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), is a highly contagious and immunosuppressive disease in chickens worldwide. The novel variant IBDV (nvIBDV) has been emerging in Chinese chicken farms since 2017, but there are no available vaccines that can provide effective protection. Herein, the capsid protein VP2 from nvIBDV strain FJ-18 was expressed in Kluyveromyces marxianus with the aim to produce nvIBDV subviral particles (SVPs). Two recombinant strains constructed for expression of nvIBDV VP2 (nvVP2) and His-tagged VP2 (nvHVP2) formed two types of nvIBDV subviral particles (SVPs), namely nvVP2-SVPs and nvHVP2-SVPs. TEM scans showed that both SVPs were about 25 nm in diameter, but there was a large portion of nvVP2-SVPs showing non-spherical particles. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that an N-terminal His tag strengthened the interaction of the nvHVP2 monomer and contributed to the assembly of SVPs. Vaccination of chicks with the nvHVP2-SVPs provided 100% protection against novel variant IBDV infection when challenged with the FJ-18 strain, as well as the classical strain BC6/85. By contrast, vaccination with the nvVP2-SVPs only provided 60% protection against their parent FJ-18 strain, suggesting that the stable conformation of subviral particles posed a great impact on their protective efficacy. Our results showed that the nvHVP2-SVPs produced by the recombinant K. marxianus strain is an ideal vaccine candidate for IBDV eradication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Vaccines)
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Article
Evaluation of Recombinant Herpesvirus of Turkey Laryngotracheitis (rHVT-LT) Vaccine against Genotype VI Canadian Wild-Type Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus (ILTV) Infection
Vaccines 2021, 9(12), 1425; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9121425 - 03 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 997
Abstract
In Alberta, infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) infection is endemic in backyard poultry flocks; however, outbreaks are only sporadically observed in commercial flocks. In addition to ILTV vaccine revertant strains, wild-type strains are among the most common causes of infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT). Given the [...] Read more.
In Alberta, infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) infection is endemic in backyard poultry flocks; however, outbreaks are only sporadically observed in commercial flocks. In addition to ILTV vaccine revertant strains, wild-type strains are among the most common causes of infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT). Given the surge in live attenuated vaccine-related outbreaks, the goal of this study was to assess the efficacy of a recombinant herpesvirus of turkey (rHVT-LT) vaccine against a genotype VI Canadian wild-type ILTV infection. One-day-old specific pathogen-free (SPF) White Leghorn chickens were vaccinated with the rHVT-LT vaccine or mock vaccinated. At three weeks of age, half of the vaccinated and the mock-vaccinated animals were challenged. Throughout the experiment, weights were recorded, and feather tips, cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs were collected for ILTV genome quantification. Blood was collected to isolate peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and quantify CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. At 14 dpi, the chickens were euthanized, and respiratory tissues were collected to quantify genome loads and histological examination. Results showed that the vaccine failed to decrease the clinical signs at 6 days post-infection. However, it was able to significantly reduce ILTV shedding through the oropharyngeal route. Overall, rHVT-LT produced a partial protection against genotype VI ILTV infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Vaccines)
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Article
Vaccination against the Protozoan Parasite Histomonas meleagridis Primes the Activation of Toll-like Receptors in Turkeys and Chickens Determined by a Set of Newly Developed Multiplex RT-qPCRs
Vaccines 2021, 9(9), 960; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9090960 - 27 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 968
Abstract
Histomonosis in turkeys and chickens is caused by the extracellular parasite Histomonas meleagridis, but the outcome of the disease varies depending on the host species. So far, studies on the immune response against histomonosis focus mainly on different traits of the adaptive [...] Read more.
Histomonosis in turkeys and chickens is caused by the extracellular parasite Histomonas meleagridis, but the outcome of the disease varies depending on the host species. So far, studies on the immune response against histomonosis focus mainly on different traits of the adaptive immune system. Activation of toll like receptors (TLR) leads to the interplay between cells of innate and adaptive immunity with consequences on B and T cell clonal expansion. Therefore, the present investigation focused on the interaction of virulent and/or attenuated histomonads with the innate immune system of turkeys and chickens at 4, 10, 21 days post inoculation. The expression of TLRs (TLR1A, 1B, 2A, 2B, 3, 4, 5, 6(Tu), 7, 13(Tu) and 21(Ch)) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL1β and IL6) were analysed in caecum and spleen samples by RT-qPCR. Most frequent significant changes in expression levels of TLRs were observed in the caecum following infection with virulent parasites, an effect noticed to a lower degree in tissue samples from birds vaccinated with attenuated parasites. TLR1B, 2B and 4 showed a continuous up-regulation in the caecum of both species during infection or vaccination, followed by challenge with virulent parasites. Vaccinated birds of both species showed a significant earlier change in TLR expression following challenge than birds kept non-vaccinated but challenged. Expression of TLRs and pro-inflammatory cytokines were associated with severe inflammation of diseased birds in the local organ caecum. In the spleen, changes in TLRs and pro-inflammatory cytokines were less prominent and mainly observed in turkey samples. In conclusion, a detailed comparison of TLRs and pro-inflammatory cytokines of the innate immune system following inoculation with attenuated and/or virulent H. meleagridis of two avian host species provides an insight into regulative mechanisms of TLRs in the development of protection and limitation of the disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Vaccines)
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Article
Evaluation of Avian Reovirus S1133 Vaccine Strain in Neonatal Broiler Chickens in Gastrointestinal Integrity and Performance in a Large-Scale Commercial Field Trial
Vaccines 2021, 9(8), 817; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9080817 - 23 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1184
Abstract
Avian reovirus (ARV) is the principal cause of several diseases. The vaccination of breeders allows for the control of viral arthritis and delivery of maternal-derived antibodies to the progeny. The vaccination of broiler chickens with ARV strain S1133 is used to prevent viral [...] Read more.
Avian reovirus (ARV) is the principal cause of several diseases. The vaccination of breeders allows for the control of viral arthritis and delivery of maternal-derived antibodies to the progeny. The vaccination of broiler chickens with ARV strain S1133 is used to prevent viral arthritis. However, the post-vaccination enteric effects have not been well-characterized. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of vaccination with the S1133 strain on the weight gain and feed conversion of broiler chickens and to characterize the gastric, enteric, and pancreatic lesions that the strain could induce. A total of 672,000 chickens were divided into two groups: a group vaccinated with ARV strain S1133 (S1133ARV) and a control group (not vaccinated). Upon histological analysis, the vaccine group showed less proventricular glandular tissue and atrophy of the pancreas and duodenal villi, as well as having a lower average daily profit. The conclusion based on the results of this investigation is that neonatal vaccination with S1133ARV causes atrophy of the pancreatic acini, proventricular glands, and intestinal villi, leading to an increased diameter of the glandular lumen and atrophy of the enteric villous, as well as weight loss, in broiler chickens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Vaccines)
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Article
The Expression of Hemagglutinin by a Recombinant Newcastle Disease Virus Causes Structural Changes and Alters Innate Immune Sensing
Vaccines 2021, 9(7), 758; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9070758 - 07 Jul 2021
Viewed by 976
Abstract
Recombinant Newcastle disease viruses (rNDV) have been used as bivalent vectors for vaccination against multiple economically important avian pathogens. NDV-vectored vaccines expressing the immunogenic H5 hemagglutinin (rNDV-H5) are considered attractive candidates to protect poultry from both highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and Newcastle [...] Read more.
Recombinant Newcastle disease viruses (rNDV) have been used as bivalent vectors for vaccination against multiple economically important avian pathogens. NDV-vectored vaccines expressing the immunogenic H5 hemagglutinin (rNDV-H5) are considered attractive candidates to protect poultry from both highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and Newcastle disease (ND). However, the impact of the insertion of a recombinant protein, such as H5, on the biological characteristics of the parental NDV strain has been little investigated to date. The present study compared a rNDV-H5 vaccine and its parental NDV LaSota strain in terms of their structural and functional characteristics, as well as their recognition by the innate immune sensors. Structural analysis of the rNDV-H5 demonstrated a decreased number of fusion (F) and a higher number of hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) glycoproteins compared to NDV LaSota. These structural differences were accompanied by increased hemagglutinating and neuraminidase activities of rNDV-H5. During in vitro rNDV-H5 infection, increased mRNA expression of TLR3, TLR7, MDA5, and LGP2 was observed, suggesting that the recombinant virus is recognized differently by sensors of innate immunity when compared with the parental NDV LaSota. Given the growing interest in using NDV as a vector against human and animal diseases, these data highlight the importance of thoroughly understanding the recombinant vaccines’ structural organization, functional characteristics, and elicited immune responses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Vaccines)
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Article
Immune Responses in Laying Hens after an Infectious Bronchitis Vaccination of Pullets: A Comparison of Two Vaccination Strategies
Vaccines 2021, 9(5), 531; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9050531 - 20 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1060
Abstract
For decades, vaccinations have been used to limit infectious bronchitis (IB) in both the broiler and layer industries. Depending on the geographical area, live attenuated vaccines are used either alone or in combination with inactivated vaccines to control infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) infections. [...] Read more.
For decades, vaccinations have been used to limit infectious bronchitis (IB) in both the broiler and layer industries. Depending on the geographical area, live attenuated vaccines are used either alone or in combination with inactivated vaccines to control infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) infections. It has been shown that administering inactivated vaccines preceded by priming with live attenuated vaccines in pullets protects laying hens against IB. However, the immunological basis of this protective response has not been adequately investigated. The objective of the study was to compare two vaccination strategies adapted by the Canadian poultry industry in terms of their ability to systemically induce an adequate immune response in IBV-impacted tissues in laying hens. The first vaccination strategy (only live attenuated IB vaccines) and second vaccination strategy (live attenuated and inactivated IB vaccines) were applied. Serum anti-IBV antibodies were measured at two time points, i.e., 3 weeks and 10 weeks post last vaccination. The recruitment of T cell subsets (i.e., CD4+ and CD8+ T cells), and the interferon (IFN)-γ mRNA expression were measured at 10 weeks post last vaccination. We observed that vaccination strategy 2 induced significantly higher serum anti-IBV antibody responses that were capable of neutralizing an IBV Mass variant associated with a flock history of shell-less egg production better than a Delmarva (DMV)1639 variant, as well as a significantly higher IFN-γ mRNA expression in the lungs, kidneys, and oviduct. We also observed that both vaccination strategies recruited CD4+ T cells as well as CD8+ T cells to the examined tissues at various extents. Our findings indicate that vaccination strategy 2 induces better systemic and local host responses in laying hens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Vaccines)
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Article
Vaccine Quality Is a Key Factor to Determine Thermal Stability of Commercial Newcastle Disease (ND)Vaccines
Vaccines 2021, 9(4), 363; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9040363 - 09 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1061
Abstract
Vaccination against Newcastle disease (ND), a devastating viral disease of chickens, is often hampered by thermal inactivation of the live vaccines, in particular in tropical and hot climate conditions. In the past, “thermostable” vaccine strains (I-2) were proposed to overcome this problem but [...] Read more.
Vaccination against Newcastle disease (ND), a devastating viral disease of chickens, is often hampered by thermal inactivation of the live vaccines, in particular in tropical and hot climate conditions. In the past, “thermostable” vaccine strains (I-2) were proposed to overcome this problem but previous comparative studies did not include formulation-specific factors of commercial vaccines. In the current study, we aimed to verify the superior thermal stability of commercially formulated I-2 strains by comparing six commercially available ND vaccines. Subjected to 37 °C as lyophilized preparations, two vaccines containing I-2 strains were more sensitive to inactivation than a third I-2 vaccine or compared to three other vaccines based on different ND strains. However, reconstitution strains proved to have a comparable tenacity. Interestingly, all vaccines still retained a sufficient virus dose for protection (106 EID50) after 1 day at 37 °C. These results suggest that there are specific factors that influence thermal stability beyond the strain-specific characteristics. Exposing ND vaccines to elevated temperatures of 51 and 61 °C demonstrated that inactivation of all dissolved vaccines including I-2 vaccine strains occurred within 2 to 4 h. The results revealed important differences among the vaccines and emphasize the importance of the quality of a certain vaccine preparation rather than the strain it contains. These data highlight that regardless of the ND strain used for vaccine preparation, the appropriate cold chain is mandatory for keeping live ND vaccines efficiency in hot climates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Vaccines)
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Article
Protection Conferred by Drinking Water Administration of a Nanoparticle-Based Vaccine against Salmonella Enteritidis in Hens
Vaccines 2021, 9(3), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9030216 - 03 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 736
Abstract
Salmonellosis remains a major medical and an unmet socioeconomic challenge. Worldwide, more than three million deaths per year are associated with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis infections. Although commercially available vaccines for use in poultry exist, their efficacy is limited. We previously described a [...] Read more.
Salmonellosis remains a major medical and an unmet socioeconomic challenge. Worldwide, more than three million deaths per year are associated with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis infections. Although commercially available vaccines for use in poultry exist, their efficacy is limited. We previously described a method for isolating a heat extract (HE) fraction of the cell surface of S. Enteritidis that contained major antigenic complexes immunogenic in hens naturally infected with the bacterium. One single dose of S. Enteritidis’ HE induced protection against lethal salmonellosis in mice. Furthermore, HE encapsulation in nanoparticles of the copolymer of methyl vinyl ether and maleic anhydride (PVM/MA), Gantrez AN, improved and prolonged the protection against the disease in mice. We formulated new preparations of Gantrez AN nanoparticles with HE S. Enteritidis and assessed their stability in drinking water and their efficacy in hens after experimental infection. The oral treatment of six-week-old hens with two doses of HE nanoparticles significantly reduced the Salmonella excretion in hens. Due to the effectiveness of the treatment in reducing bacterial excretion, we conclude that HE nanoencapsulation obtained from S. Enteritidis is a viable novel vaccination approach against salmonellosis in farms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Vaccines)
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Article
Immunogenicity and Protective Activity of Pigeon Circovirus Recombinant Capsid Protein Virus-Like Particles (PiCV rCap-VLPs) in Pigeons (Columba livia) Experimentally Infected with PiCV
Vaccines 2021, 9(2), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9020098 - 28 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1524
Abstract
Pigeon circovirus (PiCV) is the most recurrent virus diagnosed in pigeons and is among the major causative agents of young pigeon disease syndrome (YPDS). Due to the lack of an established laboratory protocol for PiCV cultivation, development of prophylaxis is hampered. Alternatively, virus-like [...] Read more.
Pigeon circovirus (PiCV) is the most recurrent virus diagnosed in pigeons and is among the major causative agents of young pigeon disease syndrome (YPDS). Due to the lack of an established laboratory protocol for PiCV cultivation, development of prophylaxis is hampered. Alternatively, virus-like particles (VLPs), which closely resemble native viruses but lack the viral genetic material, can be generated using a wide range of expression systems and are shown to have strong immunogenicity. Therefore, the use of VLPs provides a promising prospect for vaccine development. In this study, transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cells, a mammalian expression system, were used to express the PiCV capsid protein (Cap), which is a major component of PiCV and believed to contain antibody epitopes, to obtain self-assembled VLPs. The VLPs were observed to have a spherical morphology with diameters ranging from 12 to 26 nm. Subcutaneous immunization of pigeons with 100 µg PiCV rCap-VLPs supplemented with water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) adjuvant induced specific antibodies against PiCV. Observations of the cytokine expression and T-cell proliferation levels in spleen samples showed significantly higher T-cell proliferation and IFN- γ expression in pigeons immunized with VLPs compared to the controls (p < 0.05). Experimentally infected pigeons that were vaccinated with VLPs also showed no detectable viral titer. The results of the current study demonstrated the potential use of PiCV rCap-VLPs as an effective vaccine candidate against PiCV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Vaccines)
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Article
Design and Characterization of a DNA Vaccine Based on Spike with Consensus Nucleotide Sequence against Infectious Bronchitis Virus
Vaccines 2021, 9(1), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9010050 - 14 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1588
Abstract
Avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes severe economic losses in the poultry industry, but its control is hampered by the continuous emergence of new genotypes and the lack of cross-protection among different IBV genotypes. We designed a new immunogen based on a [...] Read more.
Avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes severe economic losses in the poultry industry, but its control is hampered by the continuous emergence of new genotypes and the lack of cross-protection among different IBV genotypes. We designed a new immunogen based on a spike with the consensus nucleotide sequence (S_con) that may overcome the extraordinary genetic diversity of IBV. S_con was cloned into a pVAX1 vector to form a new IBV DNA vaccine, pV-S_con. pV-S_con could be correctly expressed in HD11 cells with corresponding post-translational modification, and induced a neutralizing antibody response to the Vero-cell-adapted IBV strain Beaudette (p65) in mice. To further evaluate its immunogenicity, specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens were immunized with the pV-S_con plasmid and compared with the control pVAX1 vector and the H120 vaccine. Detection of IBV-specific antibodies and cell cytokines (IL-4 and IFN-γ) indicated that vaccination with pV-S_con efficiently induced both humoral and cellular immune responses. After challenge with the heterologous strain M41, virus shedding and virus loading in tissues was significantly reduced both by pV-S_con and its homologous vaccine H120. Thus, pV-S_con is a promising vaccine candidate for IBV, and the consensus approach is an appealing method for vaccine design in viruses with high variability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Vaccines)
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Article
Efficacy of a Turkey Herpesvirus Vectored Newcastle Disease Vaccine against Genotype VII.1.1 Virus: Challenge Route Affects Shedding Pattern
Vaccines 2021, 9(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9010037 - 11 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1039
Abstract
The control of Newcastle disease (ND) highly relies on vaccination. Immunity provided by a ND vaccine can be characterized by measuring the level of clinical protection and reduction in challenge virus shedding. The extent of shedding depends a lot on the characteristics of [...] Read more.
The control of Newcastle disease (ND) highly relies on vaccination. Immunity provided by a ND vaccine can be characterized by measuring the level of clinical protection and reduction in challenge virus shedding. The extent of shedding depends a lot on the characteristics of vaccine used and the quality of vaccination, but influenced also by the genotype of the challenge virus. We demonstrated that vaccination of SPF chicks with recombinant herpesvirus of turkey expressing the F-gene of genotype I ND virus (rHVT-ND) provided complete clinical protection against heterologous genotype VII.1.1 ND virus strain and reduced challenge virus shedding significantly. 100% of clinical protection was achieved already by 3 weeks of age, irrespective of the challenge route (intra-muscular or intra-nasal) and vaccination blocked cloacal shedding almost completely. Interestingly, oro-nasal shedding was different in the two challenge routes: less efficiently controlled following intra-nasal than intra-muscular challenge. Differences in the shedding pattern between the two challenge routes indicate that rHVT-ND vaccine induces strong systemic immunity, that is capable to control challenge virus dissemination in the body (no cloacal shedding), even when it is a heterologous strain, but less efficiently, although highly significantly (p < 0.001) suppresses the local replication of the challenge virus in the upper respiratory mucosa and consequent oro-nasal shedding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Vaccines)
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Article
Molecular Differentiation of Mycoplasma gallisepticum Outbreaks: A Last Decade Study on Italian Farms Using GTS and MLST
Vaccines 2020, 8(4), 665; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040665 - 09 Nov 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1077
Abstract
Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infects many avian species and leads to significant economic losses in the poultry industry. Transmission of this pathogen occurs both horizontally and vertically, and strategies to avoid the spread of MG rely on vaccination and the application of biosecurity measures [...] Read more.
Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infects many avian species and leads to significant economic losses in the poultry industry. Transmission of this pathogen occurs both horizontally and vertically, and strategies to avoid the spread of MG rely on vaccination and the application of biosecurity measures to maintain breeder groups as pathogen-free. Two live attenuated MG vaccine strains are licensed in Italy: 6/85 and ts-11. After their introduction, the implementation of adequate genotyping tools became necessary to distinguish between field and vaccine strains and to guarantee proper infection monitoring activity. In this study, 40 Italian MG isolates collected between 2010–2019 from both vaccinated and unvaccinated farms were genotyped using gene-targeted sequencing (GTS) of the cythadesin gene mgc2 and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) based on six housekeeping genes. The discriminatory power of GTS typing ensures 6/85-like strain identification, but the technique does not allow the identification ts-11 strains; conversely, MLST differentiates both vaccine strains, describing more detailed interrelation structures. Our study describes MG genetic scenario within a mixed farming context. In conclusion, the use of adequate typing methods is essential to understand the evolutionary dynamics of MG strains in a particular area and to conduct epidemiological investigations in the avian population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Vaccines)
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Article
Recombinant Fowlpox Virus Expressing gB Gene from Predominantly Epidemic Infectious Larygnotracheitis Virus Strain Demonstrates Better Immune Protection in SPF Chickens
Vaccines 2020, 8(4), 623; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040623 - 22 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 949
Abstract
Background: Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease of chickens. Antigenic mutation of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) may result in a vaccination failure in the poultry industry and thus a protective vaccine against predominant ILTV strains is highly desirable. [...] Read more.
Background: Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease of chickens. Antigenic mutation of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) may result in a vaccination failure in the poultry industry and thus a protective vaccine against predominant ILTV strains is highly desirable. Methods: The full-length glycoprotein B (gB) gene of ILTV with the two mutated synonymous sites of fowlpox virus (FPV) transcription termination signal sequence was cloned into the insertion vector p12LS, which was co-transfected with wild-type (wt) FPV into chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) to develop a recombinant fowlpox virus-gB (rFPV-gB) candidate vaccine strain. Furthermore, its biological and immunological characteristics were evaluated. Results: The results indicated that gB gene was expressed correctly in the rFPV by indirect immunofluorescent assay and Western blot, and the rFPV-gB provided a 100% protection in immunized chickens against the challenge of predominant ILTV strains that were screened by pathogenicity assay when compared with the commercialized rFPV vaccine, which only provided 83.3%. Conclusion: rFPV-gB can be used as a potential vaccine against predominant ILTV strains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Vaccines)
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Article
Effectiveness of a Simultaneous rHVT-F(ND) and rHVT-H5(AI) Vaccination of Day-Old Chickens and the Influence of NDV- and AIV-Specific MDA on Immune Response and Conferred Protection
Vaccines 2020, 8(3), 536; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8030536 - 16 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1345
Abstract
The recombinant herpesvirus of turkey (rHVT) vaccines targeting Newcastle disease (ND) and H5Nx avian influenza (AI) have been demonstrated efficient in chickens when used individually at day-old. Given the practical field constraints associated with administering two vaccines separately and in the absence of [...] Read more.
The recombinant herpesvirus of turkey (rHVT) vaccines targeting Newcastle disease (ND) and H5Nx avian influenza (AI) have been demonstrated efficient in chickens when used individually at day-old. Given the practical field constraints associated with administering two vaccines separately and in the absence of a currently available bivalent rHVT vector vaccine expressing both F(ND) and H5(AI) antigens, the aim of this study was to investigate whether interference occurs between the two vaccines when simultaneously administered in a single shot. The studies have been designed to determine (i) the ND and AI-specific protection and antibody response conferred by these vaccines inoculated alone or in combination at day-old, (ii) the influence of maternally-derived antibodies (MDA), and (iii) the potential interference between the two vaccine. Our results demonstrate that their combined administration is efficient to protect chickens against clinical signs of velogenic Newcastle disease virus (vNDV) and H5-highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infections. Viral shedding following co-vaccination is also markedly reduced, while slightly lower NDV- and AIV-specific antibody responses are observed. NDV- and AIV-specific MDA show negative effects on the onset of the specific antibody responses. However, if AIV-specific MDA reduce the protection against H5-HPAIV induced by rHVT-H5(AI) vaccine, it was not observed for ND. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Vaccines)
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Article
Evaluation of Glycosylated FlpA and SodB as Subunit Vaccines Against Campylobacter jejuni Colonisation in Chickens
Vaccines 2020, 8(3), 520; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8030520 - 11 Sep 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1429
Abstract
Campylobacter jejuni is the leading bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide and the handling or consumption of contaminated poultry meat is the key source of infection. C. jejuni proteins FlpA and SodB and glycoconjugates containing the C. jejuni N-glycan have been separately [...] Read more.
Campylobacter jejuni is the leading bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide and the handling or consumption of contaminated poultry meat is the key source of infection. C. jejuni proteins FlpA and SodB and glycoconjugates containing the C. jejuni N-glycan have been separately reported to be partially protective vaccines in chickens. In this study, two novel glycoproteins generated by protein glycan coupling technology—G-FlpA and G-SodB (with two and three N-glycosylation sites, respectively)—were evaluated for efficacy against intestinal colonisation of chickens by C. jejuni strain M1 relative to their unglycosylated variants. Two independent trials of the same design were performed with either a high challenge dose of 107 colony-forming units (CFU) or a minimum challenge dose of 102 CFU of C. jejuni M1. While antigen-specific serum IgY was detected in both trials, no reduction in caecal colonisation by C. jejuni M1 was observed and glycosylation of vaccine antigens had no effect on the outcome. Our data highlight inconsistencies in the outcome of C. jejuni vaccination trials that may reflect antigen-, challenge strain-, vaccine administration-, adjuvant- and chicken line-specific differences from previously published studies. Refinement of glycoconjugate vaccines by increasing glycosylation levels or using highly immunogenic protein carriers could improve their efficacy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Vaccines)
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Article
A Novel Rhoptry Protein as Candidate Vaccine against Eimeria tenella Infection
Vaccines 2020, 8(3), 452; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8030452 - 12 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2024
Abstract
Eimeria tenella (E. tenella) is a highly pathogenic and prevalent species of Eimeria that infects chickens, and it causes a considerable disease burden worldwide. The secreted proteins and surface antigens of E. tenella at the sporozoite stage play an essential role [...] Read more.
Eimeria tenella (E. tenella) is a highly pathogenic and prevalent species of Eimeria that infects chickens, and it causes a considerable disease burden worldwide. The secreted proteins and surface antigens of E. tenella at the sporozoite stage play an essential role in the host–parasite interaction, which involves attachment and invasion, and these interactions are considered vaccine candidates based on the strategy of cutting off the invasion pathway to interrupt infection. We selected two highly expressed surface antigens (SAGs; Et-SAG13 and Et-SAG) and two highly expressed secreted antigens (rhoptry kinases Eten5-A, Et-ROPK-Eten5-A and dense granule 12, Et-GRA12) at the sporozoite stage. Et-ROPK-Eten5-A and Et-GRA12 were two unexplored proteins. Et-ROPK-Eten5-A was an E. tenella-specific rhoptry (ROP) protein and distributed in the apical pole of sporozoites and merozoites. Et-GRA12 was scattered in granular form at the sporozoite stage. To evaluate the potential of rEt-ROPK-Eten5-A, rEt-GRA12, rEt-SAG13 and rEt-SAG proteins as a coccidiosis vaccine, the protective efficacy was examined based on survival rate, lesion score, body weight gain, relative body weight gain and oocyst output. The survival rate was significantly improved in rEt-ROPK-Eten5-A (100%) and rEt-GRA12 (100%) immune chickens compared to the challenged control group (40%). The average body weight gains of rEt-ROPK-Eten5-A, rEt-GRA12, rEt-SAG13 and rEt-SAG immunized chickens were significantly higher than those of unimmunized chickens. The mean lesion score and oocyst output of the rEt-ROPK-Eten5-A immunized chickens were significantly reduced compared to unimmunized challenged chickens. These results suggest that the rEt-ROPK-Eten5-A protein effectively triggered protection against E. tenella in chickens and provides a useful foundation for future work developing anticoccidial vaccines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Vaccines)
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Article
Vaccine Efficacy on the Novel Reassortant H9N2 Virus in Indonesia
Vaccines 2020, 8(3), 449; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8030449 - 10 Aug 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1823
Abstract
Vaccination is one of the leading methods of controlling the spread of the Avian Influenza (AI) viruses in Indonesia. The variety of circulating viruses and their ability to mutate must be followed by updating the vaccine master seed used in the field. In [...] Read more.
Vaccination is one of the leading methods of controlling the spread of the Avian Influenza (AI) viruses in Indonesia. The variety of circulating viruses and their ability to mutate must be followed by updating the vaccine master seed used in the field. In this study, we identified the reassortant H9N2 viruses in chicken farms that showed significant problems in decreased egg production with high mortality. The reassortant H9N2 viruses derived the PB2 gene from the H5N1 virus. The pathogenicity test results of the reassortant virus showed various clinical signs of illness, a high mortality rate (10%), and decreased egg production down to 63.12% at two weeks post-infection. In a vaccine efficacy test, the vaccinated groups showed minimally decreased egg production that started to increase to more than 80% at 4–7 weeks post-challenge. Our study showed that inactivated bivalent and monovalent reassortant H9N2 vaccines can induce antibody response, reducing the mortality and virus shedding caused by reassortant H9N2 virus infection. The reassortant H9N2 virus is a threat that requires vigilance in poultry farms and the industry. The vaccines used in this study can be one of the options for control or prevention measures on farms infected with the reassortant H9N2 viruses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Vaccines)
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Article
Nitric Oxide Production and Fc Receptor-Mediated Phagocytosis as Functional Readouts of Macrophage Activity upon Stimulation with Inactivated Poultry Vaccines In Vitro
by , , and
Vaccines 2020, 8(2), 332; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8020332 - 22 Jun 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2398
Abstract
Vaccine batches must pass routine quality control to confirm that their ability to induce protection against disease is consistent with batches of proven efficacy from development studies. For poultry vaccines, these tests are often performed in laboratory chickens by vaccination-challenge trials or serological [...] Read more.
Vaccine batches must pass routine quality control to confirm that their ability to induce protection against disease is consistent with batches of proven efficacy from development studies. For poultry vaccines, these tests are often performed in laboratory chickens by vaccination-challenge trials or serological assays. The aim of this study was to investigate innate immune responses against inactivated poultry vaccines and identify candidate immune parameters for in vitro quality tests as alternatives for animal-based quality tests. For this purpose, we set up assays to measure nitric oxide production and phagocytosis by the macrophage-like cell line HD11, upon stimulation with inactivated poultry vaccines for infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), and egg drop syndrome virus (EDSV). In both assays, macrophages became activated after stimulation with various toll-like receptor agonists. Inactivated poultry vaccines stimulated HD11 cells to produce nitric oxide due to the presence of mineral oil adjuvant. Moreover, inactivated poultry vaccines were found to enhance Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis due to the presence of allantoic fluid in the vaccine antigen preparations. We showed that inactivated poultry vaccines stimulated nitric oxide production and Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis by chicken macrophages. Similar to antigen quantification methods, the cell-based assays described here can be used for future assessment of vaccine batch-to-batch consistency. The ability of the assays to determine the immunopotentiating properties of inactivated poultry vaccines provides an additional step in the replacement of current in vivo batch-release quality tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Vaccines)
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Article
Mannose-Modified Chitosan-Nanoparticle-Based Salmonella Subunit OralVaccine-Induced Immune Response and Efficacy in a Challenge Trial in Broilers
Vaccines 2020, 8(2), 299; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8020299 - 11 Jun 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1393
Abstract
Controlling Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) infection in broilers is a huge challenge. In this study, our objective was to improve the efficacy of a chitosan nanoparticle (CS)-based Salmonella subunit vaccine for SE, containing immunogenic outer membrane proteins (OMP) and flagellin (FLA), called [...] Read more.
Controlling Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) infection in broilers is a huge challenge. In this study, our objective was to improve the efficacy of a chitosan nanoparticle (CS)-based Salmonella subunit vaccine for SE, containing immunogenic outer membrane proteins (OMP) and flagellin (FLA), called the CS(OMP+FLA) vaccine, by surface conjugating it with mannose to target dendritic cells, and comparing the immune responses and efficacy with a commercial live Salmonella vaccine in broilers. The CS(OMP+FLA)-based vaccines were administered orally at age 3 days and as a booster dose after three weeks, and the broilers were challenged with SE at 5 weeks of age. Birds were sacrificed 10 days post-challenge and it was observed that CS(OMP+FLA) vaccine surface conjugated with both mannose and FLA produced the greatest SE reduction, by over 1 log10 colony forming unit per gram of the cecal content, which was comparable to a commercial live vaccine. Immunologically, specific mucosal antibody responses were enhanced by FLA-surface-coated CS(OMP+FLA) vaccine, and mannose-bound CS(OMP+FLA) improved the cellular immune response. In addition, increased mRNA expression of Toll-like receptors and cytokine was observed in CS(OMP+FLA)-based-vaccinated birds. The commercial live vaccine failed to induce any such substantial immune response, except that they had a slightly improved T helper cell frequency. Our data suggest that FLA-coated and mannose-modified CS(OMP+FLA) vaccine induced robust innate and adaptive cell-mediated immune responses and substantially reduced the Salmonella load in the intestines of broilers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Vaccines)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Review
Development of Plant-Based Vaccines for Prevention of Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease in Poultry
Vaccines 2022, 10(3), 478; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10030478 - 19 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1447
Abstract
Viral diseases, including avian influenza (AI) and Newcastle disease (ND), are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in poultry, resulting in significant economic losses. Despite the availability of commercial vaccines for the major viral diseases of poultry, these diseases continue to pose [...] Read more.
Viral diseases, including avian influenza (AI) and Newcastle disease (ND), are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in poultry, resulting in significant economic losses. Despite the availability of commercial vaccines for the major viral diseases of poultry, these diseases continue to pose a significant risk to global food security. There are multiple factors for this: vaccine costs may be prohibitive, cold chain storage for attenuated live-virus vaccines may not be achievable, and commercial vaccines may protect poorly against local emerging strains. The development of transient gene expression systems in plants provides a versatile and robust tool to generate a high yield of recombinant proteins with superior speed while managing to achieve cost-efficient production. Plant-derived vaccines offer good stability and safety these include both subunit and virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines. VLPs offer potential benefits compared to currently available traditional vaccines, including significant reductions in virus shedding and the ability to differentiate between infected and vaccinated birds (DIVA). This review discusses the current state of plant-based vaccines for prevention of the AI and ND in poultry, challenges in their development, and potential for expanding their use in low- and middle-income countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Vaccines)
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