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Vaccines, Volume 8, Issue 4 (December 2020) – 152 articles

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Open AccessReview
Current Immunotherapy Approaches in Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas
Vaccines 2020, 8(4), 708; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040708 - 27 Nov 2020
Viewed by 114
Abstract
Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) are lymphoid malignancies of B- or T-cell origin. Despite great advances in treatment options and significant improvement of survival parameters, a large part of NHL patients either present with a chemotherapy-refractory disease or experience lymphoma relapse. Chemotherapy-based salvage therapy of [...] Read more.
Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) are lymphoid malignancies of B- or T-cell origin. Despite great advances in treatment options and significant improvement of survival parameters, a large part of NHL patients either present with a chemotherapy-refractory disease or experience lymphoma relapse. Chemotherapy-based salvage therapy of relapsed/refractory NHL is, however, capable of re-inducing long-term remissions only in a minority of patients. Immunotherapy-based approaches, including bispecific antibodies, immune checkpoint inhibitors and genetically engineered T-cells carrying chimeric antigen receptors, single-agent or in combination with therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, immunomodulatory agents, chemotherapy or targeted agents demonstrated unprecedented clinical activity in heavily-pretreated patients with NHL, including chemotherapy-refractory cases with complex karyotype changes and other adverse prognostic factors. In this review, we recapitulate currently used immunotherapy modalities in NHL and discuss future perspectives of combinatorial immunotherapy strategies, including patient-tailored approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Immunotherapy: Advances and Future Prospects)
Open AccessArticle
Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of BCG Vaccination against Tuberculosis in Indonesia: A Model-Based Study
Vaccines 2020, 8(4), 707; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040707 - 26 Nov 2020
Viewed by 121
Abstract
Bacillus Calmette–Guerin (BCG), the only available vaccine for tuberculosis (TB), has been applied for decades. The Indonesian government recently introduced a national TB disease control programme that includes several action plans, notably enhanced vaccination coverage, which can be strengthened through underpinning its favourable [...] Read more.
Bacillus Calmette–Guerin (BCG), the only available vaccine for tuberculosis (TB), has been applied for decades. The Indonesian government recently introduced a national TB disease control programme that includes several action plans, notably enhanced vaccination coverage, which can be strengthened through underpinning its favourable cost-effectiveness. We designed a Markov model to assess the cost-effectiveness of Indonesia’s current BCG vaccination programme. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were evaluated from the perspectives of both society and healthcare. The robustness of the analysis was confirmed through univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA). Using epidemiological data compiled for Indonesia, BCG vaccination at a price US$14 was estimated to be a cost-effective strategy in controlling TB disease. From societal and healthcare perspectives, ICERs were US$104 and US$112 per quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), respectively. The results were robust for variations of most variables in the univariate analysis. Notably, the vaccine’s effectiveness regarding disease protection, vaccination costs, and case detection rates were key drivers for cost-effectiveness. The PSA results indicated that vaccination was cost-effective even at US$175 threshold in 95% of cases, approximating the monthly GDP per capita. Our findings suggest that this strategy was highly cost-effective and merits prioritization and extension within the national TB programme. Our results may be relevant for other high endemic low- and middle-income countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Economics of Vaccines)
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Open AccessReview
DC-Based Vaccines for Cancer Immunotherapy
Vaccines 2020, 8(4), 706; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040706 - 26 Nov 2020
Viewed by 205
Abstract
As the sentinels of the immune system, dendritic cells (DCs) play a critical role in initiating and regulating antigen-specific immune responses. Cross-priming, a process that DCs activate CD8 T cells by cross-presenting exogenous antigens onto their MHCI (Major Histocompatibility Complex class I), plays [...] Read more.
As the sentinels of the immune system, dendritic cells (DCs) play a critical role in initiating and regulating antigen-specific immune responses. Cross-priming, a process that DCs activate CD8 T cells by cross-presenting exogenous antigens onto their MHCI (Major Histocompatibility Complex class I), plays a critical role in mediating CD8 T cell immunity as well as tolerance. Current DC vaccines have remained largely unsuccessful despite their ability to potentiate both effector and memory CD8 T cell responses. There are two major hurdles for the success of DC-based vaccines: tumor-mediated immunosuppression and the functional limitation of the commonly used monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs). Due to their resistance to tumor-mediated suppression as inert vesicles, DC-derived exosomes (DCexos) have garnered much interest as cell-free therapeutic agents. However, current DCexo clinical trials have shown limited clinical benefits and failed to generate antigen-specific T cell responses. Another exciting development is the use of naturally circulating DCs instead of in vitro cultured DCs, as clinical trials with both human blood cDC2s (type 2 conventional DCs) and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) have shown promising results. pDC vaccines were particularly encouraging, especially in light of promising data from a recent clinical trial using a human pDC cell line, despite pDCs being considered tolerogenic and playing a suppressive role in tumors. However, how pDCs generate anti-tumor CD8 T cell immunity remains poorly understood, thus hindering their clinical advance. Using a pDC-targeted vaccine model, we have recently reported that while pDC-targeted vaccines led to strong cross-priming and durable CD8 T cell immunity, cross-presenting pDCs required cDCs to achieve cross-priming in vivo by transferring antigens to cDCs. Antigen transfer from pDCs to bystander cDCs was mediated by pDC-derived exosomes (pDCexos), which similarly required cDCs for cross-priming of antigen-specific CD8 T cells. pDCexos thus represent a new addition in our arsenal of DC-based cancer vaccines that would potentially combine the advantage of pDCs and DCexos. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Immunotherapy: Advances and Future Prospects)
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Open AccessArticle
The Magnitude and Determinants of Missed Opportunities for Childhood Vaccination in South Africa
Vaccines 2020, 8(4), 705; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040705 - 25 Nov 2020
Viewed by 160
Abstract
Missed opportunities for vaccination (MOV) may be among the factors responsible for suboptimal vaccination coverage in South Africa. However, the magnitude and determinants of MOV in the country are not known. Thus, this study seeks to assess the prevalence and determinants of MOV [...] Read more.
Missed opportunities for vaccination (MOV) may be among the factors responsible for suboptimal vaccination coverage in South Africa. However, the magnitude and determinants of MOV in the country are not known. Thus, this study seeks to assess the prevalence and determinants of MOV in the country. South Africa is sub-divided into nine administrative provinces. We used nationally representative data from the 2016 South African Demographic and Health Survey. We considered MOV to have occurred if a child aged 12–23 months old had not taken all scheduled basic vaccine doses despite having any of the following contacts with health services: delivery in a health facility; postnatal clinic visit; receipt of vitamin A; and any child-related treatment at a health facility. Multilevel logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with MOV. The national prevalence of MOV among children aged 12–23 months was 40.1%. Children whose mothers attended facility-based antenatal care were considerably less likely to experience MOV than those whose mothers did not attend antenatal care: odds ratio (OR) 0.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.19 to 0.88. Conversely, the independent predictor of an increased MOV among children was residence in either the Gauteng province (OR 2.97, 95% CI 1.29 to 6.81) or Mpumalanga province (OR 2.32, 95%CI 1.04 to 5.18); compared to residence in the Free State province. Our findings suggest a high burden of MOV among children in South Africa and that MOV may be associated with individual and contextual factors. The findings also underscore the need for further exploration of the contextual factors contributing to MOV in South Africa. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Adjuvanted Influenza Vaccines Elicits Higher Antibody Responses against the A(H3N2) Subtype than Non-Adjuvanted Vaccines
Vaccines 2020, 8(4), 704; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040704 - 25 Nov 2020
Viewed by 205
Abstract
Background: vaccination is the best approach to prevent influenza infections so far. Serological studies on the effect of different vaccine types are important to address vaccination campaigns and protect our population. In our study, we compared the serological response against influenza A subtypes [...] Read more.
Background: vaccination is the best approach to prevent influenza infections so far. Serological studies on the effect of different vaccine types are important to address vaccination campaigns and protect our population. In our study, we compared the serological response against influenza A subtypes using the non-adjuvanted influenza vaccine (NAIV) in adults and the elderly and the adjuvanted influenza vaccine (AIV) in the elderly. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis by hemagglutination inhibition assay (HI) of serum samples right before and 28 days after seasonal influenza vaccination during the 1996–2017 seasons. Conclusions: The AIV presents better performance against the A(H3N2) subtype in the elderly whereas the NAIV induces a better response against A(H1N1)pdm09 in the same group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccinology of Influenza Infection)
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Open AccessArticle
Comprehensive Evaluation of Immune-Checkpoint DNA Cancer Vaccines in a Rat Cholangiocarcinoma Model
Vaccines 2020, 8(4), 703; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040703 - 24 Nov 2020
Viewed by 153
Abstract
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a malignant tumor with aggressive biological behavior. Immune checkpoints such as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4) and antiprogrammed death 1 (PD-1) are critical immune-checkpoint molecules that repress T-cell activation. The DNA vaccine potential against CTLA4 and PD-1 in CCA is [...] Read more.
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a malignant tumor with aggressive biological behavior. Immune checkpoints such as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4) and antiprogrammed death 1 (PD-1) are critical immune-checkpoint molecules that repress T-cell activation. The DNA vaccine potential against CTLA4 and PD-1 in CCA is unknown. We used a thioacetamide (TAA)-induced intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) rat model to investigate the DNA vaccine potential against CTLA4, PD-1, and PD-L1. We detected PD-L1 expression in CCA and CD8+ T-cell infiltration during CCA progression in rats. We validated antibody production, carcinogenesis, and CD8+ T-cell infiltration in rats receiving DNA vaccination against PD-1, PD-L1, or CTLA4. In our TAA-induced iCCA rat model, the expression of PD-L1 and the infiltration of CD8+ T cells increased as in rat CCA tumorigenesis. PD-1 antibodies in rats were not increased after receiving PD-1 DNA vaccination, and CCA tumor growth was not suppressed. However, in rats receiving PD-L1–CTLA4 DNA vaccination, CCA tumor growth was inhibited, and the antibodies of PD-L1 and CTLA4 were produced. Furthermore, the number of CD8+ T cells was enhanced after PD-L1–CTLA4 DNA vaccination. DNA vaccination targeting CTLA4–PD-L1 triggered the production of specific antibodies and suppressed tumor growth in TAA-induced iCCA rats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Immunotherapy: Advances and Future Prospects)
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Open AccessArticle
Anti-Tick Microbiota Vaccine Impacts Ixodes ricinus Performance during Feeding
Vaccines 2020, 8(4), 702; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040702 - 21 Nov 2020
Viewed by 417
Abstract
The tick microbiota is a highly complex ensemble of interacting microorganisms. Keystone taxa, with a central role in the microbial networks, support the stability and fitness of the microbial communities. The keystoneness of taxa in the tick microbiota can be inferred from microbial [...] Read more.
The tick microbiota is a highly complex ensemble of interacting microorganisms. Keystone taxa, with a central role in the microbial networks, support the stability and fitness of the microbial communities. The keystoneness of taxa in the tick microbiota can be inferred from microbial co-occurrence networks. Microbes with high centrality indexes are highly connected with other taxa of the microbiota and are expected to provide important resources to the microbial community and/or the tick. We reasoned that disturbance of vector microbiota by removal of ubiquitous and abundant keystone bacteria may disrupt the tick-microbiota homeostasis causing harm to the tick host. These observations and reasoning prompted us to test the hypothesis that antibodies targeting keystone bacteria may harm the ticks during feeding on immunized hosts. To this aim, in silico analyses were conducted to identify keystone bacteria in the microbiota of Ixodes nymphs. The family Enterobacteriaceae was among the top keystone taxa identified in Ixodes microbiota. Immunization of α-1,3-galactosyltransferase-deficient-C57BL/6 (α1,3GT KO) mice with a live vaccine containing the Enterobacteriaceae bacterium Escherichia coli strain BL21 revealed that the production of anti-E. coli and anti-α-Gal IgM and IgG was associated with high mortality of I. ricinus nymphs during feeding. However, this effect was absent in two different strains of wild type mice, BALB/c and C57BL/6. This result concurred with a wide distribution of α-1,3-galactosyltransferase genes, and possibly α-Gal, in Enterobacteriaceae and other bacteria of tick microbiota. Interestingly, the weight of I. ricinus nymphs that fed on E. coli-immunized C57BL/6 was significantly higher than the weight of ticks that fed on C57BL/6 immunized with a mock vaccine. Our results suggest that anti-tick microbiota vaccines are a promising tool for the experimental manipulation of vector microbiota, and potentially the control of ticks and tick-borne pathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tick-Vaccine and Tick-Control)
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Open AccessArticle
Vaccination Attitude and Communication in Early Settings: An Exploratory Study
Vaccines 2020, 8(4), 701; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040701 - 20 Nov 2020
Viewed by 274
Abstract
Background: This study assesses attitudes towards vaccination in mothers of new-born babies and explores its association with different exposures to communication. Methods: Data were collected through questionnaires administered by means of interviews. Results: Data highlighted that 20% of mothers showed an orientation towards [...] Read more.
Background: This study assesses attitudes towards vaccination in mothers of new-born babies and explores its association with different exposures to communication. Methods: Data were collected through questionnaires administered by means of interviews. Results: Data highlighted that 20% of mothers showed an orientation towards vaccine hesitancy. As for the reasons behind the attitude to vaccine hesitancy, data showed that concern is a common feature. As for the different exposures to communication, 49% of mothers did not remember having received or looked for any information about vaccination during pregnancy and post-partum; 25% stated they received information from several healthcare and non-healthcare sources; 26% declared having received or looked for information by means of healthcare and non-healthcare sources, as well as having taken part in a specific meeting during antenatal classes or at birth centres. The attitude towards vaccine hesitancy tends to reduce as exposure to different communication increases. Conclusions: This study supports the hypothesis that participation in interactive meetings in small groups focused on vaccination during the prenatal course or at the birth point may act as an enabling factor contributing to a decrease in the tendency to experience vaccine hesitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strategies to Increase Vaccination Coverage and Vaccine Confidence)
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Open AccessReview
Immunogenetic Association Underlying Severe COVID-19
Vaccines 2020, 8(4), 700; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040700 - 20 Nov 2020
Viewed by 407
Abstract
SARS-CoV2 has caused the current pandemic of new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide. Clinical outcomes of COVID-19 illness range broadly from asymptotic and mild to a life-threatening situation. This casts uncertainties for defining host determinants underlying the disease severity. Recent genetic analyses based [...] Read more.
SARS-CoV2 has caused the current pandemic of new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide. Clinical outcomes of COVID-19 illness range broadly from asymptotic and mild to a life-threatening situation. This casts uncertainties for defining host determinants underlying the disease severity. Recent genetic analyses based on extensive clinical sample cohorts using genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and high throughput sequencing curation revealed genetic errors and gene loci associated with about 20% of life-threatening COVID-19 cases. Significantly, most of these critical genetic loci are enriched in two immune signaling pathways, i.e., interferon-mediated antiviral signaling and chemokine-mediated/inflammatory signaling. In line with these genetic profiling studies, the broad spectrum of COVID-19 illness could be explained by immuno-pathological regulation of these critical immunogenetic pathways through various epigenetic mechanisms, which further interconnect to other vital components such as those in the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) because of its direct interaction with the virus causing COVID-19. Together, key genes unraveled by genetic profiling may provide targets for precisely early risk diagnosis and prophylactic design to relieve severe COVID-19. The confounding epigenetic mechanisms may be key to understanding the clinical broadness of COVID-19 illness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Immune Mechanisms)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Exosomes Derived from Non- and Gamma-Irradiated Melanoma Cancer Cells as a Potential Antigenic and Immunogenic Source for Dendritic Cell-Based Immunotherapeutic Vaccine
Vaccines 2020, 8(4), 699; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040699 - 19 Nov 2020
Viewed by 266
Abstract
Cancer cells can secrete exosomes under various stressful conditions, whose functions are involved in the delivery of various biologically active materials into host cells and/or modulation of host immune responses. Therefore, an improved understanding of the immunological interventions that stress-induced tumor exosomes have [...] Read more.
Cancer cells can secrete exosomes under various stressful conditions, whose functions are involved in the delivery of various biologically active materials into host cells and/or modulation of host immune responses. Therefore, an improved understanding of the immunological interventions that stress-induced tumor exosomes have may provide novel therapeutic approaches and more effective vaccine designs. Here, we confirmed the phenotypical and functional alterations of dendritic cells (DCs), which act as a bridge between the innate and adaptive arms of immunity, following non-irradiated (N-exo) and gamma-irradiated melanoma cancer cell-derived exosome (G-exo) stimulation, and evaluated the N-exo- and G-exo-stimulated DCs as therapeutic cancer vaccine candidates. We demonstrated that G-exo-stimulated DCs result in DC maturation by the upregulation of surface molecule expression, pro-inflammatory cytokine release, and antigen-presenting ability, and the downregulation of endocytic capacity. In addition, these cells promoted T cell proliferation and the generation of T helper type 1 (Th1) and interferon (IFN)-γ-producing CD8+ T cells. However, N-exo-stimulated DCs induced semi-mature phenotypes and functions, eventually inhibiting T cell proliferation, decreasing IFN-γ, and increasing IL-10-producing CD4+ T cells. In addition, although N-exo and G-exo stimulations showed similar levels of antigen-specific IFN-γ production, which served as tumor antigen sources in melanoma-specific T cells, G-exo-stimulated DC vaccination conferred a stronger tumor growth inhibition than N-exo-stimulated DC vaccination; further, this was accompanied by a high frequency of tumor-specific, multifunctional effector T cells. These results suggest that gamma irradiation could provide important clues for designing and developing effective exosome vaccines that can induce strong immunogenicity, especially tumor-specific multifunctional T cell responses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccine Evaluation Methods and Studies)
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Open AccessArticle
Yersinia pestis Antigen F1 but Not LcrV Induced Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses in Humans Immunized with Live Plague Vaccine—Comparison of Immunoinformatic and Immunological Approaches
Vaccines 2020, 8(4), 698; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040698 - 19 Nov 2020
Viewed by 229
Abstract
The recent progress in immunoinformatics provided the basis for an accelerated development of target-specific peptide vaccines as an alternative to the traditional vaccine concept. However, there is still limited information on whether the in silico predicted immunoreactive epitopes correspond to those obtained from [...] Read more.
The recent progress in immunoinformatics provided the basis for an accelerated development of target-specific peptide vaccines as an alternative to the traditional vaccine concept. However, there is still limited information on whether the in silico predicted immunoreactive epitopes correspond to those obtained from the actual experiments. Here, humoral and cellular immune responses to two major Yersinia pestis protective antigens, F1 and LcrV, were studied in human donors immunized with the live plague vaccine (LPV) based on the attenuated Y. pestis strain EV line NIIEG. The F1 antigen provided modest specific cellular (mixed T helper 1 (Th1)/Th2 type) and humoral immune responses in vaccinees irrespective of the amount of annual vaccinations and duration of the post-vaccination period. The probing of the F1 overlapping peptide library with the F1-positive sera revealed the presence of seven linear B cell epitopes, which were all also predicted by in silico assay. The immunoinformatics study evaluated their antigenicity, toxicity, and allergenic properties. The epitope TSQDGNNH was mostly recognized by the sera from recently vaccinated donors rather than antibodies from those immunized decades ago, suggesting the usefulness of this peptide for differentiation between recent and long-term vaccinations. The in silico analysis predicted nine linear LcrV-specific B-cell epitopes; however, weak antibody and cellular immune responses prevented their experimental evaluation, indicating that LcrV is a poor marker of successful vaccination. No specific Th17 immune response to either F1 or LcrV was detected, and there were no detectable serum levels of F1-specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) in vaccinees. Overall, the general approach validated in the LPV model could be valuable for the rational design of vaccines against other neglected and novel emerging infections with high pandemic potency. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Strategies to Improve Coverage of Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine (TCV) Immunization Campaign in Karachi, Pakistan
Vaccines 2020, 8(4), 697; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040697 - 19 Nov 2020
Viewed by 235
Abstract
The emergence and spread of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) typhoid in Karachi, Pakistan led to an outbreak response in Lyari Town, Karachi utilizing a mass immunization campaign with typhoid conjugate vaccine (TCV), Typbar TCV®. The mass immunization campaign, targeted Lyari Town, Karachi, one of [...] Read more.
The emergence and spread of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) typhoid in Karachi, Pakistan led to an outbreak response in Lyari Town, Karachi utilizing a mass immunization campaign with typhoid conjugate vaccine (TCV), Typbar TCV®. The mass immunization campaign, targeted Lyari Town, Karachi, one of the worst affected towns during the XDR typhoid outbreak. Here we describe the strategies used to improve acceptance and coverage of Typbar TCV in Lyari Town, Karachi. The mass immunization campaign with Typbar TCV was started as a school- and hospital-based vaccination campaign targeting children between the age of 6 months to 15 years old. A dose of 0.5 mL Typbar TCV was administered intramuscularly. A mobile vaccination campaign was added to cope with high absenteeism and non-response from parents in schools and to cover children out of school. Different strategies were found to be effective in increasing the vaccination coverage and in tackling vaccine hesitancy. Community engagement was the most successful strategy to overcome refusals and helped to gain trust in the newly introduced vaccine. Community announcements and playing typhoid jingles helped to increase awareness regarding the ongoing typhoid outbreak. Mop-up activity in schools was helpful in increasing coverage. Networking with locally active groups, clubs and community workers were found to be the key factors in decreasing refusals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strategies to Increase Vaccination Coverage and Vaccine Confidence)
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Open AccessReview
Challenges in Vaccinating Layer Hens against Salmonella Typhimurium
Vaccines 2020, 8(4), 696; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040696 - 19 Nov 2020
Viewed by 254
Abstract
Salmonella Typhimurium is among the most common causes of bacterial foodborne gastrointestinal disease in humans. Food items containing raw or undercooked eggs are frequently identified during traceback investigation as the source of the bacteria. Layer hens can become persistently infected with Salmonella Typhimurium [...] Read more.
Salmonella Typhimurium is among the most common causes of bacterial foodborne gastrointestinal disease in humans. Food items containing raw or undercooked eggs are frequently identified during traceback investigation as the source of the bacteria. Layer hens can become persistently infected with Salmonella Typhimurium and intermittently shed the bacteria over the course of their productive lifetime. Eggs laid in a contaminated environment are at risk of potential exposure to bacteria. Thus, mitigating the bacterial load on farms aids in the protection of the food supply chain. Layer hen producers use a multifaceted approach for reducing Salmonella on farms, including the all-in-all-out management strategy, strict biosecurity, sanitization, and vaccination. The use of live attenuated Salmonella vaccines is favored because they elicit a broader host immune response than killed or inactivated vaccines that have been demonstrated to provide cross-protection against multiple serovars. Depending on the vaccine, two to three doses of Salmonella Typhimurium vaccines are generally administered to layer hens within the first few weeks. The productive life of a layer hen, however, can exceed 70 weeks and it is unclear whether current vaccination regimens are effective for that extended period. The objective of this review is to highlight layer hen specific challenges that may affect vaccine efficacy. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Acellular Pertussis Vaccine Inhibits Bordetella pertussis Clearance from the Nasal Mucosa of Mice
Vaccines 2020, 8(4), 695; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040695 - 19 Nov 2020
Viewed by 289
Abstract
Bordetella pertussis whole-cell vaccines (wP) caused a spectacular drop of global pertussis incidence, but since the replacement of wP with acellular pertussis vaccines (aP), pertussis has resurged in developed countries within 7 to 12 years of the change from wP to aP. In [...] Read more.
Bordetella pertussis whole-cell vaccines (wP) caused a spectacular drop of global pertussis incidence, but since the replacement of wP with acellular pertussis vaccines (aP), pertussis has resurged in developed countries within 7 to 12 years of the change from wP to aP. In the mouse infection model, we examined whether addition of further protective antigens into the aP vaccine, such as type 2 and type 3 fimbriae (FIM2/3) with outer membrane lipooligosaccharide (LOS) and/or of the adenylate cyclase toxoid (dACT), which elicits antibodies neutralizing the CyaA toxin, could enhance the capacity of the aP vaccine to prevent colonization of the nasal mucosa by B. pertussis. The addition of the toxoid and of the opsonizing antibody-inducing agglutinogens modestly enhanced the already high capacity of intraperitoneally-administered aP vaccine to elicit sterilizing immunity, protecting mouse lungs from B. pertussis infection. At the same time, irrespective of FIM2/3 with LOS and dACT addition, the aP vaccination ablated the natural capacity of BALB/c mice to clear B. pertussis infection from the nasal cavity. While wP or sham-vaccinated animals cleared the nasal infection with similar kinetics within 7 weeks, administration of the aP vaccine promoted persistent colonization of mouse nasal mucosa by B. pertussis. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Virus-like Particle Vaccines: A Prospective Panacea Against an Avian Influenza Panzootic
Vaccines 2020, 8(4), 694; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040694 - 19 Nov 2020
Viewed by 394
Abstract
Epizootics of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) have resulted in the deaths of millions of birds leading to huge financial losses to the poultry industry worldwide. The roles of migratory wild birds in the harbouring, mutation, and transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIVs), [...] Read more.
Epizootics of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) have resulted in the deaths of millions of birds leading to huge financial losses to the poultry industry worldwide. The roles of migratory wild birds in the harbouring, mutation, and transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIVs), and the lack of broad-spectrum prophylactic vaccines present imminent threats of a global panzootic. To prevent this, control measures that include effective AIV surveillance programmes, treatment regimens, and universal vaccines are being developed and analysed for their effectiveness. We reviewed the epidemiology of AIVs with regards to past avian influenza (AI) outbreaks in birds. The AIV surveillance programmes in wild and domestic birds, as well as their roles in AI control were also evaluated. We discussed the limitations of the currently used AI vaccines, which necessitated the development of a universal vaccine. We evaluated the current development of AI vaccines based upon virus-like particles (VLPs), particularly those displaying the matrix-2 ectodomain (M2e) peptide. Finally, we highlighted the prospects of these VLP vaccines as universal vaccines with the potential of preventing an AI panzootic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Vaccines Based on Virus-Like Particles)
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Open AccessArticle
Understanding How Adolescents Think about the HPV Vaccine
Vaccines 2020, 8(4), 693; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040693 - 18 Nov 2020
Viewed by 209
Abstract
Despite educational efforts, Tennessee human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates are 43%, among the lowest in the United States. This study examined how adolescents think about the HPV vaccine to identify patterns and misconceptions to enhance educational efforts. Adolescents (ages 11–12) (N = [...] Read more.
Despite educational efforts, Tennessee human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates are 43%, among the lowest in the United States. This study examined how adolescents think about the HPV vaccine to identify patterns and misconceptions to enhance educational efforts. Adolescents (ages 11–12) (N = 168) responded to open-ended questions regarding their thinking about the HPV vaccine. Data were analyzed and interpreted using qualitative thematic analysis. Three domains of themes emerged from responses: (1) characteristics of HPV vaccination, (2) knowledge-related themes, and (3) beliefs-related themes. Prevention of HPV and cancer was the most referenced characteristic of HPV vaccination followed by HPV vaccine rates and HPV vaccine efficacy. Student inquiries were mostly centered on HPV vaccine composition, administration, duration and how the vaccine interacts with the body. Some responses indicated a desire for more information about HPV not specific to the HPV vaccine. Overall, adolescent attitudes were positive towards the HPV vaccine. This study highlights specific questions adolescents have about the vaccine that can be used to tailor future HPV educational efforts, empowering adolescents with the knowledge to be more active students in the decision-making process. In addition, the potential for adolescents to serve as community advocates for the vaccine should be considered for future interventions. Full article
Open AccessCommunication
COVID-19 Infection Detection and Prevention by SARS-CoV-2 Active Antigens: A Synthetic Vaccine Approach
Vaccines 2020, 8(4), 692; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040692 - 18 Nov 2020
Viewed by 362
Abstract
COVID-19, a global pandemic causing to date more than 50 million cases and more than a million deaths, has to be controlled. SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) was identified as the causative agent. Controversy about this virus origin and infectious mechanism [...] Read more.
COVID-19, a global pandemic causing to date more than 50 million cases and more than a million deaths, has to be controlled. SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) was identified as the causative agent. Controversy about this virus origin and infectious mechanism for adapting to humans remains a matter for discussion. Among all strategies for obtaining safe and potent vaccines, approaches based on attenuated-killed virus and non-replicating RNA viral vectors are demonstrating promising results. However, specificity of viral components targeted by human antibodies so far has not been demonstrated. A consistent strategy for obtaining functional-active antigens from SARS-CoV-2 specific ligands lead us to propose and test a number of synthetic components. From hundreds of starting sequences only fifteen fulfilled the design requirements and were produced as monomer and polymer forms and immuno-chemically tested. The design was based on worldwide representative reported virus genomes. A bioinformatics scheme by conventional methods and knowledge on MHC-I and II antigen processing mechanisms and HLA haplotype-restriction was performed including sensitive and resistant human populations to virus infection. Covid-19 patients’ sera reactivity for synthetic SARS-CoV-2-designed components have proven a high recognition of specific molecules, as well as some evidence for a long-lasting humoral immune response. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Characterizing News Report of the Substandard Vaccine Case of Changchun Changsheng in China: A Text Mining Approach
Vaccines 2020, 8(4), 691; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040691 - 17 Nov 2020
Viewed by 245
Abstract
Background: The substandard vaccine case of that broke out in July 2018 in China triggered an outburst of news reports both domestically and aboard. Distilling the abundant textual information is helpful for a better understanding of the character during this public event. Methods [...] Read more.
Background: The substandard vaccine case of that broke out in July 2018 in China triggered an outburst of news reports both domestically and aboard. Distilling the abundant textual information is helpful for a better understanding of the character during this public event. Methods: We collected the texts of 2211 news reports from 83 mainstream media outlets in China between 15 July and 25 August 2018, and used a structural topic model (STM) to identify the major topics and features that emerged. We also used dictionary-based sentiment analysis to uncover the sentiments expressed by the topics as well as their temporal variations. Results: The main topics of the news report fell into six major categories, including: (1) Media Investigation, (2) Response from the Top Authority, (3) Government Action, (4) Knowledge Dissemination, (5) Finance Related and (6) Commentary. The topic prevalence shifted during different stages of the events, illustrating the actions by the government. Sentiments generally spanned from negative to positive, but varied according to different topics. Conclusion: The characteristics of news reports on vaccines are shaped by various topics at different stages. The inner dynamics of the topic and its alterations are driven by the interaction between social sentiment and governmental intervention. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Phase I and II Clinical Trial Comparing the LBSap, Leishmune®, and Leish-Tec® Vaccines against Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis
Vaccines 2020, 8(4), 690; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040690 - 17 Nov 2020
Viewed by 357
Abstract
In this study, we performed a phase I and II clinical trial in dogs to evaluate the toxicity and immunogenicity of LBSap-vaccine prototype, in comparison to Leishmune® and Leish-Tec® vaccines. Twenty-eight dogs were classified in four groups: (i) control group received [...] Read more.
In this study, we performed a phase I and II clinical trial in dogs to evaluate the toxicity and immunogenicity of LBSap-vaccine prototype, in comparison to Leishmune® and Leish-Tec® vaccines. Twenty-eight dogs were classified in four groups: (i) control group received 1 mL of sterile 0.9% saline solution; (ii) LBSap group received 600 μg of Leishmania braziliensis promastigotes protein and 1 mg of saponin adjuvant; (iii) Leishmune®; and (iv) Leish-Tec®. The safety and toxicity of the vaccines were measured before and after three immunizations by clinical, biochemical, and hematological parameters. The clinical examinations revealed that some dogs of LBSap and Leishmune® groups presented changes at the site of vaccination inoculum, such as nodules, mild edema, and local pain, which were transient and disappeared seventy-two hours after vaccination, but these results indicate that adverse changes caused by the immunizations are tolerable. The immunogenicity results demonstrate an increase of B lymphocytes CD21+ regarding the Leishmune® group and monocytes CD14+ concerning LBSap and Leishmune® groups. In the in vitro analyses, an increase in lymphoproliferative activity in LBSap and Leishmune® groups was observed, with an increase of antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in the LBSap group. A second approach of in vitro assays aimed at evaluating the percentage of antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes producers of IFN-γ and IL-4, where an increase in both IFN-γ producing subpopulations in the LBSap group was observed, also showed an increase in IFN-γ producers in CD8+ lymphocytes in the Leish-Tec® group. Our data regarding immunogenicity indicate that the vaccination process, especially with the LBSap vaccine, generated a protective immune response compatible with L. infantum parasite control. Based on the foregoing, the LBSap vaccine would be suitable for further studies of phase III clinical trial in endemic areas with high prevalence and incidence of canine visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of ShigETEC, a Novel Live Attenuated Combined Vaccine against Shigellae and ETEC
Vaccines 2020, 8(4), 689; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040689 - 16 Nov 2020
Viewed by 634
Abstract
Background: Shigella spp. and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) remain the two leading bacterial causes of diarrheal diseases worldwide. Attempts to develop preventive vaccines against Shigella and ETEC have not yet been successful. The major challenge for a broad Shigella vaccine is the [...] Read more.
Background: Shigella spp. and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) remain the two leading bacterial causes of diarrheal diseases worldwide. Attempts to develop preventive vaccines against Shigella and ETEC have not yet been successful. The major challenge for a broad Shigella vaccine is the serotype-specific immune response to the otherwise protective LPS O-antigen. ETEC vaccines mainly rely on the heat-labile enterotoxin (LT), while heat-stable toxin (ST) has also been shown to be an important virulence factor. Methods: We constructed a combined Shigella and ETEC vaccine (ShigETEC) based on a live attenuated Shigella strain rendered rough and non-invasive with heterologous expression of two ETEC antigens, LTB and a detoxified version of ST (STN12S). This new vaccine strain was characterized and tested for immunogenicity in relevant animal models. Results: Immunization with ShigETEC resulted in serotype independent protection in the mouse lung shigellosis model and induced high titer IgG and IgA antibodies against bacterial lysates, and anti-ETEC toxin antibodies with neutralizing capacity. Conclusions: ShigETEC is a promising oral vaccine candidate against Shigella and ETEC infections and currently in Phase 1 testing. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria Interference with BCG-Current Controversies and Future Directions
Vaccines 2020, 8(4), 688; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040688 - 16 Nov 2020
Viewed by 316
Abstract
The global tuberculosis (TB) epidemic caused by the bacterial pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) continues unabated. The Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccination is widely utilized worldwide to protect against infection with M.tb. BCG vaccine protection against TB has had widely [...] Read more.
The global tuberculosis (TB) epidemic caused by the bacterial pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) continues unabated. The Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccination is widely utilized worldwide to protect against infection with M.tb. BCG vaccine protection against TB has had widely varying results for reasons that are not well understood. BCG vaccine interference by non-tuberculosis (NTM) mycobacterial species has been implicated as the potential cause of reduced BCG vaccine efficacy against M.tb. Ongoing efforts to develop new vaccines for TB requires a thorough understanding of the effect of NTM exposure on BCG vaccine efficacy, which may ultimately be a critical determinant of success. We reviewed the conflicting reports on whether NTM interferes with the BCG vaccine, potential explanations to help resolve the controversy, and strategies for developing better animal models. Further studies are needed to longitudinally track the effects of NTM exposure on BCG vaccine-induced host-protective anti-TB immunity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Vaccines against Tuberculosis: One Health Approach)
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Open AccessArticle
Parental Vaccine Preferences for Their Children in China: A Discrete Choice Experiment
Vaccines 2020, 8(4), 687; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040687 - 16 Nov 2020
Viewed by 338
Abstract
Background: Vaccination is one of the most cost-effective health investments to prevent and control communicable diseases. Improving the vaccination rate of children is important for all nations, and for China in particular since the advent of the two-child policy. This study aims to [...] Read more.
Background: Vaccination is one of the most cost-effective health investments to prevent and control communicable diseases. Improving the vaccination rate of children is important for all nations, and for China in particular since the advent of the two-child policy. This study aims to elicit the stated preference of parents for vaccination following recent vaccine-related incidents in China. Potential preference heterogeneity was also explored among respondents. Methods: A discrete choice experiment was developed to elicit parental preferences regarding the key features of vaccines in 2019. The study recruited a national sample of parents from 10 provinces who had at least one child aged between 6 months and 5 years old. A conditional logit model and a mixed logit model were used to estimate parental preference. Results: A total of 598 parents completed the questionnaire; among them, 428 respondents who passed the rational tests were analyzed. All attributes except for the severity of diseases prevented by vaccines were statistically significant. The risk of severe side effects and protection rates were the two most important factors explaining parents’ decisions about vaccination. The results of the mixed logit model with interactions indicate that fathers or rural parents were more likely to vaccinate their children, and children whose health was not good were also more likely to be vaccinated. In addition, parents who were not more than 30 years old had a stronger preference for efficiency, and well-educated parents preferred imported vaccines with the lowest risk of severe side effects. Conclusion: When deciding about vaccinations for their children, parents in China are mostly driven by vaccination safety and vaccine effectiveness and were not affected by the severity of diseases. These findings will be useful for increasing the acceptability of vaccination in China. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Attitudes and Perception of Healthcare Workers Concerning Influenza Vaccination during the 2019/2020 Season: A Survey of Sicilian University Hospitals
Vaccines 2020, 8(4), 686; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040686 - 16 Nov 2020
Viewed by 237
Abstract
Influenza is an infectious disease with a high impact on the population in terms of morbidity and mortality, but despite International and European guidelines, vaccination coverage rates among healthcare workers (HCWs) remain very low. The aim of the present study was to evaluate [...] Read more.
Influenza is an infectious disease with a high impact on the population in terms of morbidity and mortality, but despite International and European guidelines, vaccination coverage rates among healthcare workers (HCWs) remain very low. The aim of the present study was to evaluate influenza vaccination adherence in the three Sicilian University Hospitals of Catania, Messina, and Palermo and to understand the attitudes and perceptions of vaccinated healthcare workers and the main reasons for vaccination refusal. A cross-sectional survey through a self-administered questionnaire was conducted during the 2019/2020 influenza season. Overall, 2356 vaccinated healthcare workers answered the questionnaire. The main reason reported for influenza vaccination adherence during the 2019/2020 season was to protect patients. Higher self-perceived risk of contracting influenza and a positive attitude to recommending vaccination to patients were significantly associated with influenza vaccination adherence during the last five seasons via multivariable analysis. Fear of an adverse reaction was the main reason for influenza vaccine refusal. In accordance with these findings, Public Health institutions should develop and tailor formative and informative campaigns to reduce principal barriers to the immunization process and promote influenza vaccination adherence among HCWs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Combined Exercise Training and l-Glutamine Supplementation Enhances Both Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses after Influenza Virus Vaccination in Elderly Subjects
Vaccines 2020, 8(4), 685; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040685 - 16 Nov 2020
Viewed by 285
Abstract
Background: Since aging affects the immune responses against vaccination, the present study evaluated the effects of L-glutamine (Gln) supplementation in the humoral and cellular immune responses in elderly subjects, practitioners or not, of physical exercise training. Methods: Eighty-four elderly people (aged 72.6 ± [...] Read more.
Background: Since aging affects the immune responses against vaccination, the present study evaluated the effects of L-glutamine (Gln) supplementation in the humoral and cellular immune responses in elderly subjects, practitioners or not, of physical exercise training. Methods: Eighty-four elderly people (aged 72.6 ± 6.1), non-practitioners (NP, n = 31), and practitioners of combined-exercise training (CET, n = 53) were submitted to Influenza virus vaccination and supplemented with Gln (0.3 g/kg of weight + 10 g of maltodextrin, groups: NP-Gln (n = 14), and CET-Gln (n = 26)), or placebo (10 g of maltodextrin, groups: NP-PL (n = 17), and CET-PL (n = 27)). Blood samples were collected pre (baseline) and 30 days post-vaccination and supplementation. Results: Comparing with the baseline values, whereas the NP-Gln and CET-PL groups showed higher specific-IgM levels, the CET-Gln group showed higher specific-IgM and IgA levels post-vaccination. The titer rate of hemagglutination inhibition was higher in the CET-Gln, NP-PL, and NP-Gln groups post-vaccination than baseline values. The absolute number of naive and effector CD4+ T cells was higher especially in the NP-Gln and CET-Gln groups, whilst activated CD4+ T cells were higher in CET subgroups post-vaccination. Conclusion: Our results showed that both l-glutamine supplementation and combined-exercise training can improve the immune responses to the Influenza virus vaccine in elderly subjects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccinology of Influenza Infection)
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Open AccessArticle
Antibody Responses to SARS-CoV-2 Antigens in Humans and Animals
Vaccines 2020, 8(4), 684; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040684 - 16 Nov 2020
Viewed by 491
Abstract
To optimize the public health response to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), we must first understand the antibody response to individual proteins on the severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the antibody’s cross reactivity to other coronaviruses. Using a panel of 37 [...] Read more.
To optimize the public health response to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), we must first understand the antibody response to individual proteins on the severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the antibody’s cross reactivity to other coronaviruses. Using a panel of 37 convalescent COVID-19 human serum samples, we showed that the magnitude and specificity of responses varied across individuals, independent of their reactivity to seasonal human coronaviruses (HCoVs). These data suggest that COVID-19 vaccines will elicit primary humoral immune responses in naïve individuals and variable responses in those previously exposed to SARS-CoV-2. Unlike the limited cross-coronavirus reactivities in humans, serum samples from 96 dogs and 10 cats showed SARS-CoV-2 protein-specific responses focused on non–S1 proteins. The correlation of this response with those to other coronaviruses suggests that the antibodies are cross-reactive and generated to endemic viruses within these hosts, which must be considered in seroepidemiologic studies. We conclude that substantial variation in antibody generation against coronavirus proteins will influence interpretations of serologic data in the clinical and veterinary settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evaluation of Vaccine Immunogenicity)
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Open AccessCommentary
Impact of Pre-Existing Immunity to Influenza on Live-Attenuated Influenza Vaccine (LAIV) Immunogenicity
Vaccines 2020, 8(4), 683; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040683 - 16 Nov 2020
Viewed by 301
Abstract
During the previous influenza seasons, between 2010 and 2016, the live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) provided variable efficacy against influenza in the U.S., causing the recommendation against the use of the LAIV. In striking contrast, pre-clinical studies have repeatedly demonstrated superior efficacy of [...] Read more.
During the previous influenza seasons, between 2010 and 2016, the live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) provided variable efficacy against influenza in the U.S., causing the recommendation against the use of the LAIV. In striking contrast, pre-clinical studies have repeatedly demonstrated superior efficacy of LAIV against mismatched influenza viruses, compared to inactivated influenza vaccines (IIV). This disparity in reported vaccine efficacies between pre-clinical and clinical studies may in part be explained by limitations of the animal models of influenza. In particular, the absence of pre-existing immunity in animal models has recently emerged as a potential explanation for the discrepancies between preclinical findings and human studies. This commentary focuses on the potential impact of pre-existing immunity on LAIV induced immunogenicity with an emphasis on cross-protective immunity. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Specific Antibodies and Arachidonic Acid Mediate the Protection Induced by the Schistosoma mansoni Cysteine Peptidase-Based Vaccine in Mice
Vaccines 2020, 8(4), 682; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040682 - 16 Nov 2020
Viewed by 305
Abstract
Several reports have documented the reproducible and considerable efficacy of the cysteine peptidase-based schistosomiasis vaccine in the protection of mice and hamsters against infection with Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosomahaematobium, respectively. Here, we attempt to identify and define the protection mechanism(s) of [...] Read more.
Several reports have documented the reproducible and considerable efficacy of the cysteine peptidase-based schistosomiasis vaccine in the protection of mice and hamsters against infection with Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosomahaematobium, respectively. Here, we attempt to identify and define the protection mechanism(s) of the vaccine in the outbred CD-1 mice-S. mansoni model. Mice were percutaneously exposed to S. mansoni cercariae following immunization twice with 0 or 10 μg S. mansoni recombinant cathepsin B1 (SmCB1) or L3 (SmCL3). They were examined at specified intervals post infection (pi) for the level of serum antibodies, uric acid, which amplifies type 2 immune responses and is an anti-oxidant, lipids, in particular, arachidonic acid (ARA), which is an endoschistosomicide and ovocide, as well as uric acid and ARA in the lung and liver. Memory IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b antibodies to the cysteine peptidase immunogen were detectable at and following day 17 pi. Serum, lung, and liver uric acid levels in immunized mice were higher than in naïve and unimmunized mice, likely as a consequence of cysteine peptidase-mediated catabolic activity. Increased circulating uric acid in cysteine peptidase-immunized mice was associated with elevation in the amount of ARA in lung and liver at every test interval, and in serum starting at day 17 pi. Together, the results suggest the collaboration of humoral antibodies and ARA schistosomicidal potential in the attrition of challenge S. mansoni (p < 0.0005) at the liver stage, and ARA direct parasite egg killing (p < 0.005). The anti-oxidant and reactive oxygen species-scavenger properties of uric acid may be responsible for the cysteine peptidase vaccine protection ceiling. This article represents a step towards clarifying the protection mechanism of the cysteine peptidase-based schistosomiasis vaccine. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Frequent and Durable Anti-HIV Envelope VIV2 IgG Responses Induced by HIV-1 DNA Priming and HIV-MVA Boosting in Healthy Tanzanian Volunteers
Vaccines 2020, 8(4), 681; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040681 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 253
Abstract
We evaluated antibody responses to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope variable regions 1 and 2 (V1V2) in 29 vaccinees who had received three HIV-1 DNA immunizations and two HIV-modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) boosts in the phase I/II HIVIS03 vaccine trial. Twenty [...] Read more.
We evaluated antibody responses to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope variable regions 1 and 2 (V1V2) in 29 vaccinees who had received three HIV-1 DNA immunizations and two HIV-modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) boosts in the phase I/II HIVIS03 vaccine trial. Twenty vaccinees received a third HIV-MVA boost after three years in the HIVIS06 trial. IgG and IgG antibody subclasses to gp70V1V2 proteins of HIV-1 A244, CN54, Consensus C, and Case A2 were analysed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cyclic V2 peptides of A244, Consensus C, and MN were used in a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) assay. Four weeks after the second HIV-MVA, anti-V1V2 IgG antibodies to A244 were detected in 97% of HIVIS03 vaccinees, in 75% three years later, and in 95% after the third HIV-MVA. Anti-CN54 V1V2 IgG was detectable in 48% four weeks after the second HIV-MVA. The SPR data supported the findings. The IgG response was predominantly IgG1. Four weeks after the second HIV-MVA, 85% of vaccinees had IgG1 antibodies to V1V2 A244, which persisted in 25% for three-years. IgG3 and IgG4 antibodies to V1V2 A244 were rare. In conclusion, the HIV-DNA/MVA vaccine regimen induced durable V1V2 IgG antibody responses in a high proportion of vaccinees. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue HIV Vaccine)
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Open AccessReview
Development and Applications of Viral Vectored Vaccines to Combat Zoonotic and Emerging Public Health Threats
Vaccines 2020, 8(4), 680; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040680 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 358
Abstract
Vaccination is arguably the most cost-effective preventative measure against infectious diseases. While vaccines have been successfully developed against certain viruses (e.g., yellow fever virus, polio virus, and human papilloma virus HPV), those against a number of other important public health threats, such as [...] Read more.
Vaccination is arguably the most cost-effective preventative measure against infectious diseases. While vaccines have been successfully developed against certain viruses (e.g., yellow fever virus, polio virus, and human papilloma virus HPV), those against a number of other important public health threats, such as HIV-1, hepatitis C, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), have so far had very limited success. The global pandemic of COVID-19, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, highlights the urgency of vaccine development against this and other constant threats of zoonotic infection. While some traditional methods of producing vaccines have proven to be successful, new concepts have emerged in recent years to produce more cost-effective and less time-consuming vaccines that rely on viral vectors to deliver the desired immunogens. This review discusses the advantages and disadvantages of different viral vaccine vectors and their general strategies and applications in both human and veterinary medicines. A careful review of these issues is necessary as they can provide important insights into how some of these viral vaccine vectors can induce robust and long-lasting immune responses in order to provide protective efficacy against a variety of infectious disease threats to humans and animals, including those with zoonotic potential to cause global pandemics. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Anti-Influenza Effect of Nanosilver in a Mouse Model
Vaccines 2020, 8(4), 679; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040679 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 423
Abstract
The present study assesses copper metabolism of the host organism as a target of antiviral strategy, basing on the “virocell” concept. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were used as a specific active agent because they reduce the level of holo-ceruloplasmin, the main extracellular cuproenzyme. The [...] Read more.
The present study assesses copper metabolism of the host organism as a target of antiviral strategy, basing on the “virocell” concept. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were used as a specific active agent because they reduce the level of holo-ceruloplasmin, the main extracellular cuproenzyme. The mouse model of influenza virus A infection was used with two doses: 1 LD50 and 10 LD50. Three treatment regimens were used: Scheme 1—mice were pretreated 4 days before infection and then every day during infection development; Scheme 2—mice were pretreated four days before infection and on the day of virus infection; Scheme 3—virus infection and AgNP treatment started simultaneously, and mice were injected with AgNPs until the end of the experiment. The mice treated by Scheme 1 demonstrated significantly lower mortality, the protection index reached 60–70% at the end of the experiment, and mean lifespan was prolonged. In addition, the treatment of the animals with AgNPs resulted in normalization of the weight dynamics. Despite the amelioration of the infection, AgNP treatment did not influence influenza virus replication. The possibility of using nanosilver as an effective indirectly-acting antiviral drug is discussed. Full article
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