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Behav. Sci., Volume 12, Issue 6 (June 2022) – 41 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Concerns about lawyers’ mental health and well-being are rising against the backdrop of a transforming legal profession that many have noted is operating more like business in recent decades. This study utilized a large, randomly selected sample of lawyers to explore whether an emphasis on productivity undermines physical and emotional well-being by examining the relationship between the perceived values of employers and key aspects of individual well-being, including stress, physical health, mental health, and emotional problems. We also explore the role of feedback as it relates to lawyer health. Overall, our findings paint a compelling picture of a health hierarchy within legal work environments, one that appears linked to the values of employers and their ability to effectively communicate those values through adequate feedback. View this paper
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Article
The “Ifs” and “Hows” of the Role of Music on the Implementation of Emotional Regulation Strategies
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(6), 199; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12060199 - 20 Jun 2022
Viewed by 239
Abstract
Music is believed to aid the implementation of emotion regulation strategies like distraction or reappraisal, but empirical studies have shown null results. However, the moderating role of one’s relation with music (musical sophistication) and/or executive functioning skills has not been considered yet. In [...] Read more.
Music is believed to aid the implementation of emotion regulation strategies like distraction or reappraisal, but empirical studies have shown null results. However, the moderating role of one’s relation with music (musical sophistication) and/or executive functioning skills has not been considered yet. In addition, little is known about how music acts. In the present study, we induced anger in a group of participants characterized by musical sophistication and executive functioning. We asked them to regulate their emotional state and measured regulation efficacy. Participants were split into four groups, defined by regulation strategy (distraction vs. reappraisal) and music (with vs. without). Results indicated music effects in higher, but not in lower musical sophistication participants. In the former, music benefitted from reappraisal but was an impaired distraction. Two different executive functions—working memory and affective flexibility—had opposite effects: higher, but not lower working memory participants benefited from music; lower, but not higher, effective flexibility participants took advantage of music. Reports of subjective experience suggested that music favors more empathic reappraisals, and that these may be more long-lasting. Our findings support the idea that music effects depend on listeners’ characteristics, and they raise new hypotheses concerning the specificity of emotional regulation aided by music. Full article
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Article
Postdiction in Visual Awareness in Schizophrenia
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(6), 198; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12060198 - 20 Jun 2022
Viewed by 233
Abstract
Background: The mistiming of predictive thought and real perception leads to postdiction in awareness. Individuals with high delusive thinking confuse prediction and perception, which results in impaired reality testing. The present observational study investigated how antipsychotic medications and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) modulate postdiction [...] Read more.
Background: The mistiming of predictive thought and real perception leads to postdiction in awareness. Individuals with high delusive thinking confuse prediction and perception, which results in impaired reality testing. The present observational study investigated how antipsychotic medications and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) modulate postdiction in schizophrenia. We hypothesized that treatment reduces postdiction, especially when antipsychotics and CBT are combined. Methods: We enrolled patients with schizophrenia treated in a natural clinical setting and not in a randomized controlled trial. We followed up two schizophrenia groups matched for age, sex, education, and illness duration: patients on antipsychotics (n = 25) or antipsychotics plus CBT (n = 25). The treating clinician assigned the patients to the two groups. Participants completed a postdiction and a temporal discrimination task at weeks 0 and 12. Results: At week 0, postdiction was enhanced in patients relative to controls at a short prediction–perception time interval, which correlated with PANSS positive symptoms and delusional conviction. At week 12, postdiction was reduced in schizophrenia, especially when they received antipsychotics plus CBT. Patients with schizophrenia were also impaired on the temporal discrimination task, which did not change during the treatment. During the 12-week observational period, all PANSS scores were significantly reduced in both clinical groups, but the positive symptoms and emotional distress exhibited a more pronounced response in the antipsychotics plus CBT group. Conclusion: Perceptual postdiction is a putative neurocognitive marker of delusive thinking. Combined treatment with antipsychotics and CBT significantly ameliorates abnormally elevated postdiction in schizophrenia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Psychiatric, Emotional and Behavioral Disorders)
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Article
Social Determinants of Voice Outcomes: The Configurational Analysis of the Effects of LMX and Peer Relationships
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(6), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12060197 - 19 Jun 2022
Viewed by 335
Abstract
From the perspective of social relationships, this study extends the understanding of employee voice by examining voice outcomes, especially a voicer’s influence in their work team. In particular, we explore how two different social relationships, LMX and peer relationship, separately and jointly affect [...] Read more.
From the perspective of social relationships, this study extends the understanding of employee voice by examining voice outcomes, especially a voicer’s influence in their work team. In particular, we explore how two different social relationships, LMX and peer relationship, separately and jointly affect the ‘voice-influence’ relationship. Drawing on social network theory, we propose that higher LMX and central positions in peer networks (i.e., centrality in the friendship network) strengthen the positive impact of voice on individual influence. From a sample of 128 employees from three firms in South Korea, we found that two types of voice (promotive and prohibitive) are positively related with individual influence. This study also found that LMX strengthened the positive effect of promotive voice on a voicer’s influence. Moreover, LMX and peer relationship jointly affect the voice-influence relationship as follows: (1) a voicer with a high LMX-high centrality (in the peer network) is most influential within their team, (2) as for a low LMX-high centrality member, speaking up rather decreases individual influence. These results suggest that voice outcome is not unilateral. Rather, whose voice it is and where a voicer stands may matter more. We discussed the theoretical and practical implications of these findings in employee voice research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organizational Behaviors)
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Article
Antidepressant-like Effects of Polygonum minus Aqueous Extract in Chronic Ultra-Mild Stress-Induced Depressive Mice Model
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(6), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12060196 - 18 Jun 2022
Viewed by 365
Abstract
Depression is the most common behavior disorder that leads to many disabilities. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a Polygonum minus (P. minus) aqueous extract on chronic ultra-mild stress (CUMS)-induced depressive mice model. Chronic ultra-mild stress can [...] Read more.
Depression is the most common behavior disorder that leads to many disabilities. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a Polygonum minus (P. minus) aqueous extract on chronic ultra-mild stress (CUMS)-induced depressive mice model. Chronic ultra-mild stress can disturb the neurotransmitters levels and plasticity of the hippocampus. Balb/c male mice were used in this study, which consisted of six groups (n = 14). Treatment was given for eight weeks, and chronic ultra-mild stress was applied for six weeks. Commercially available P. minus extract (BioKesum®) was used in this study. The behavior and neurochemical parameters were investigated through behavioral Tests and ELISA assays. P. minus administration significantly (p < 0.05) restored CUMS-induced behavior abnormalities, decreased the immobility time, and increased the sucrose preference and increased the spatial memory. P. minus treatment also showed the decreased level of serum corticosterone and increased the level of hippocampal neurotransmitters (Serotonin and Norepinephrine) significantly (p < 0.05). The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) level also increased significantly in both the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus (p < 0.05). P. minus treatment exhibited significant (p < 0.05) reduction of Monoamine Oxidase-A (MAO-A) in the hippocampus. These findings indicate that P. minus aqueous extract exhibits antidepressant effects, including decreased immobility time, increased spatial memory, reduced corticosterone, increased BDNF level, and reduced MAO-A enzyme level with increasing the monoamines (serotonin and norepinephrine) in the hippocampus. Full article
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Review
Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for the Treatment of Resistant Depression: A Scoping Review
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(6), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12060195 - 17 Jun 2022
Viewed by 314
Abstract
Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) is associated with significant disability, and due to its high prevalence, it results in a substantive socio-economic burden at a global level. TRD is the inability to accomplish and/or achieve remission after an adequate trial of antidepressant treatments. Studies comparing [...] Read more.
Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) is associated with significant disability, and due to its high prevalence, it results in a substantive socio-economic burden at a global level. TRD is the inability to accomplish and/or achieve remission after an adequate trial of antidepressant treatments. Studies comparing repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and pharmacotherapy have revealed evidence of the therapeutic efficacy of rTMS in TRD. These findings suggest a crucial role for rTMS in the management of TRD. This article aims to conduct a comprehensive scoping review of the current literature concerning the use of rTMS and its therapeutic efficacy as a treatment modality for TRD. PubMed, PsycINFO, Medline, Embase, and Cinahl were used to identify important articles on rTMS for TRD. The search strategy was limited to English articles within the last five years of data publication. Articles were included if they reported on a completed randomized controlled trial (RCT) of rTMS intervention for TRD. The exclusion criteria involved studies with rTMS for the treatment of conditions other than TRD, and study and experimental protocols of rTMS on TRD. In total, 17 studies were eligible for inclusion in this review. The search strategy spanned studies published in the last five years, to the date of the data search (14 February 2022). The regional breakdown of the extracted studies was North American (n = 9), European (n = 5), Asian (n = 2) and Australian (n = 1). The applied frequencies of rTMS ranged from 5 Hz to 50 Hz, with stimulation intensities ranging from 80% MT to 120% MT. Overall, 16 out of the 17 studies suggested that rTMS treatment was effective, safe and tolerated in TRD. For patients with TRD, rTMS appears to provide significant benefits through the reduction of depressive symptoms, and while there is progressive evidence in support of the same, more research is needed in order to define standardized protocols of rTMS application in terms of localization, frequency, intensity, and pulse parameters. Full article
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Article
Temperamental Change in Adolescence and Its Predictive Role on Anxious Symptomatology
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(6), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12060194 - 16 Jun 2022
Viewed by 329
Abstract
Growing evidence supports the hypothesis that temperamental traits are not static throughout adolescence. The known links between both reactive and regulatory temperament and anxiety symptoms should be investigated bearing this hypothesis in mind. This study collected self-reported data on behavioral inhibition system (BIS) [...] Read more.
Growing evidence supports the hypothesis that temperamental traits are not static throughout adolescence. The known links between both reactive and regulatory temperament and anxiety symptoms should be investigated bearing this hypothesis in mind. This study collected self-reported data on behavioral inhibition system (BIS) sensitivity, attentional control (AC), and anxiety symptomatology, from 296 adolescents (64.2% girls; M = 12.96 years at the first assessment, SD = 0.47) every six months, four times over eighteen months. The relationships between temperament factors (AC and BIS sensitivity), considered longitudinally (by means of their trajectories) and anxiety symptoms were investigated using Multigroup Latent Growth Modeling (MLGM), as well as the mediating effect of sex on trajectories and anxiety. BIS sensitivity decreased over time and showed differential patterns across sexes. AC remained relatively stable and we found no sex influence on its trajectory. On the other hand, we observed that the BIS sensitivity trajectory was a significant predictor of anxiety symptomatology at age 15. In conclusion, temperamental changes between the ages of 13 and 15 seem to play a relevant role in explaining subsequent anxiety symptomatology, under the mediating influence of sex. Full article
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Article
Rich Get Richer: Extraversion Statistically Predicts Reduced Internet Addiction through Less Online Anonymity Preference and Extraversion Compensation
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(6), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12060193 - 16 Jun 2022
Viewed by 279
Abstract
Internet addiction may arise from multiple factors and personality tendencies have been previously implicated. Prior studies have found that extraversion may be a protective factor mitigating against internet addiction, yielding a “rich-get-richer” effect. However, few studies have explored how extraversion may influence internet [...] Read more.
Internet addiction may arise from multiple factors and personality tendencies have been previously implicated. Prior studies have found that extraversion may be a protective factor mitigating against internet addiction, yielding a “rich-get-richer” effect. However, few studies have explored how extraversion may influence internet addiction from the perspective of online-offline integration. Drawing on a sample of 428 college students, the current study examined a serial mediation model exploring the underlying mechanisms of how extraversion may statistically predict internet addiction through online-offline integration and antecedent factors. The serial mediation model analyses indicated that extraverted internet users exhibited a weaker preference for online anonymity and less online extraversion compensation, thus formulating a higher level of online-offline integration than introverted individuals, which, in turn, appeared to reduce the risk of internet addiction. In contrast, with regard to specific components of online-offline integration, introverted internet users preferred online anonymity, which reduced their relationship integration and increased their likelihood of internet addiction; similarly, the introverted individuals were also more likely to exhibit an extraversion compensation effect. That is, they were more extraverted on the internet than in general; hence, they had a lower level of self-identity integration, resulting in a greater likelihood of experiencing internet addiction. These results highlight the importance of online-offline integration that may account for personality variations in social and psychological outcomes related to internet use, and suggest a role for online anonymity preference and extraversion compensation in influencing specific components of integration. Full article
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Article
The Development of the Hospitality Sector Facing the Digital Challenge
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(6), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12060192 - 15 Jun 2022
Viewed by 431
Abstract
The widespread use of the Internet has changed consumer buying behavior, especially among tourists, considering the intangibility of the tourist product. Although globally the modern tourist is a consumer of the new online market, there is a lack of studies addressing the level [...] Read more.
The widespread use of the Internet has changed consumer buying behavior, especially among tourists, considering the intangibility of the tourist product. Although globally the modern tourist is a consumer of the new online market, there is a lack of studies addressing the level of development of the hotel business in relation to online bookings by residents of tourist destinations. Furthermore, this article analyzes the factors that impact the use of e-commerce by these residents in the acquisition of tourist accommodation services. A conceptual model was adopted, using the constructs “social influence” and “price” of the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology 2 (UTAUT2), also including “trust” and “perceived risk”. An electronic questionnaire was used to collect data from a sample of 195 residents of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, exploratory factor analysis, Fisher’s exact test, and multiple linear regression. The results show that price and social influence are the most significant constructs associated with booking a hotel online, while trust does not influence the use of the Internet. As practical implications, the findings of this study provide important information for hotel managers, as they allow a better understanding of the profile of respondents who book online, as well as which factors influence online behaviors, contributing to increasing the knowledge of digital platforms in the consumer market and, consequently, the development of the hospitality sector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organizational Behaviors)
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Article
Effectiveness and Factors Associated with Improved Life Skill Levels of Participants of a Large-Scale Youth-Focused Life Skills Training and Counselling Services Program (LSTCP): Evidence from India
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(6), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12060191 - 15 Jun 2022
Viewed by 347
Abstract
(1) Background: To empower and facilitate mental health promotion for nearly 18 million youth, a pioneering state-wide Life Skills Training and Counselling Services Program (LSTCP) was implemented in Karnataka, India. This study assesses the changes in life skills scores, level of life skills [...] Read more.
(1) Background: To empower and facilitate mental health promotion for nearly 18 million youth, a pioneering state-wide Life Skills Training and Counselling Services Program (LSTCP) was implemented in Karnataka, India. This study assesses the changes in life skills scores, level of life skills and factors associated with increased life skills among participants of the LSTCP. (2) Method: This pre–post study design was conducted on 2669 participants who underwent a six-day structured LSTCP. Changes in mean life skills scores and level of life skill categories pre- and post-LSTCP were assessed. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to assess the factors associated with increases in life skills. (3) Results: The LSTCP resulted in significant changes in life skill scores and level of life skills, indicating the effectiveness of the training. All life skill domains, except empathy and self-awareness, increased post-training. There was a positive shift in the level of life skills. Age (AOR = 1.34, CI = 1.11–1.62), gender (AOR = 1.39, CI = 1.15–1.68), education (AOR = 1.44, CI = 1.05–1.97) and physical (AOR = 1.02, CI = 1.01–1.03) and psychological (AOR = 1.02, CI = 1.01–1.03) quality of life was associated with an increase in life skills among participants. (4) Conclusions: The LSTCP is effective in improving the life skills of participants. The LSTCP modules and processes can be used to further train youth and contribute to mental health promotion in the state. Full article
Article
Assessing the Capability of Government Information Intervention and Socioeconomic Factors of Information Sharing during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-Country Study Using Big Data Analytics
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(6), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12060190 - 15 Jun 2022
Viewed by 338
Abstract
(1) Background: This study introduces a novel computational approach to examine government capabilities in information intervention for risk management, influential agents in a global information network, and the socioeconomic factors of information-sharing behaviors of the public across regions during the COVID-19 pandemic. (2) [...] Read more.
(1) Background: This study introduces a novel computational approach to examine government capabilities in information intervention for risk management, influential agents in a global information network, and the socioeconomic factors of information-sharing behaviors of the public across regions during the COVID-19 pandemic. (2) Methods: Citation network analysis was employed to gauge the online visibility of governmental health institutions across regions. A bipartite exponential random graph modeling (ERGM) procedure was conducted to measure network dynamics. (3) Results: COVID-19 response agencies in Europe had the highest web impact, whereas health agencies in North America had the lowest. Various stakeholders, such as businesses, non-profit organizations, governments, and educational institutions played a key role in sharing the COVID-19 response by agencies’ information given on their websites. Income inequality and GDP per capita were associated with the high online visibility of governmental health agencies. Other factors, such as population size, an aging population, death rate, and case percentage, did not contribute to the agencies’ online visibility, suggesting that demographic characteristics and health status are not predictors of sharing government resources. (4) Conclusions: A combination of citation network analysis and ERGM helps reveal information flow dynamics and understand the socioeconomic consequences of sharing the government’s COVID-19 information during the pandemic. Full article
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Article
Medical Students and Professionals Facing the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-Sectional Survey Study about Similarities and Differences
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(6), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12060189 - 15 Jun 2022
Viewed by 314
Abstract
This study aimed at exploring the emotional reaction that medical students (MS) and professionals have faced during the COVID-19 pandemic and investigating the differences between the two groups. A total of 362 MS and 330 professionals filled in an online survey during the [...] Read more.
This study aimed at exploring the emotional reaction that medical students (MS) and professionals have faced during the COVID-19 pandemic and investigating the differences between the two groups. A total of 362 MS and 330 professionals filled in an online survey during the second outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy. The outcome measures were psychological distress with the General Health Questionnaire, stress, fear for themselves, fear for family members and cohabitants, perceived control, anger, loneliness, and feeling abandoned by institutions with Visual Analog Scales (VAS) and two open-ended questions about their perceived difficulties and the perceived consequences of the pandemic. The results showed that the level of distress among the two groups was above the threshold (MS mean: 21.85; professionals mean: 21.25). The means of the VAS of MS and professionals showed different results for the two groups, and we analyzed them with independent samples t-tests and linear regressions. MS reported higher levels of perceived loneliness (t(673.177) = −1.970, p < 0.05), while physicians reported more fear for themselves (t(655.183) = 4.799, p < 0.001), anger (t(690) = 2.096, p < 0.05), and feeling abandoned by the institutions (t(690) = 7.296, p < 0.001). The open questions were analyzed considering the most frequent words used to describe their perceived difficulties and consequences; the specificity analysis emphasizes the differences in the words used by the two groups. In conclusion, MS and physicians reported similar levels of psychological symptoms. Physicians were mostly worried about themselves, they were afraid of getting infected, while MS suffered from loneliness and the missed possibilities concerning their education. Full article
Article
Professional Quality of Life of Healthcare Workers in Hospital Emergency Departments
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(6), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12060188 - 13 Jun 2022
Viewed by 372
Abstract
In previous publications, we have reported that professionals in emergency departments undergo high levels of stress according to the amounts of salivary biomarkers (α-amylase and cortisol). The stress seems to be counteracted by increased levels of dehydroepiandrosterone. This hypothesis is confirmed in the [...] Read more.
In previous publications, we have reported that professionals in emergency departments undergo high levels of stress according to the amounts of salivary biomarkers (α-amylase and cortisol). The stress seems to be counteracted by increased levels of dehydroepiandrosterone. This hypothesis is confirmed in the answers to different tests indicating no working stress, no anxiety, optimal self-efficacy, and good sleeping quality. Altogether, these previous results suggest an optimal adaptation of these workers to the demanding situations that occur in emergency departments. To complete this research, we decided to evaluate the quality of life of health professionals working in the emergency departments of two Spanish hospitals. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out during the pre-pandemic months of July and August 2019. We determined the professional quality of life through the QPL-35 questionnaire in 97 participants, including nurses (n = 59) and medical doctors (n = 38). Answers to the test indicate that the studied participants working in emergency departments have a good perception of professional quality of life. This is reflected in the three dimensions of the questionnaire: managerial support, workloads, and intrinsic motivation. Based on the results of all answered tests, emergency healthcare staff seem to have adequate professional management, with levels of stress, sleep, and quality of life in line with a controlled lifestyle. Altogether, this would allow a correct adaptation to the demanding situations experienced in emergency departments. The relevance to clinical practice is that the COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted this controlled professional management. Full article
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Article
The Thin Ideal and Attitudes towards Appearance as Correlates of Exercise Addiction among Sporty People during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(6), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12060187 - 11 Jun 2022
Viewed by 444
Abstract
The stress and anxiety caused by the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) have exacerbated body image concerns. A society that perpetuates the attempt for a perfect and thin appearance represents a fertile ground for the development of exercise addiction (EA). This cross-sectional study aims to [...] Read more.
The stress and anxiety caused by the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) have exacerbated body image concerns. A society that perpetuates the attempt for a perfect and thin appearance represents a fertile ground for the development of exercise addiction (EA). This cross-sectional study aims to explore EA during the second wave of the pandemic (October–December 2020) and to examine the independent influence of both time spent on moderate and vigorous physical activities and body image variables (i.e., drive for leanness and sociocultural attitudes toward appearance) on EA. A sample of Italian sporty people (N = 194; 48.5% females; Mage = 25.91 ± 6.32) was surveyed using the Exercise Addiction Inventory, the Drive for Leanness Scale, the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire, and the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire. A total of 82% of the sample were symptomatic of and 11.3% were at risk of EA. Hierarchical regressions revealed an association between the time spent on vigorous physical activities and levels of EA (p < 0.05). Moreover, body image variables were positively related to EA, explaining an additional 11% of variance (p < 0.05). Results showed the importance of considering and addressing body image factors to investigate and dampen the risk of EA among sporty people. Full article
Article
Medical Mistrust, COVID-19 Stress, and Intent to Vaccinate in Racial–Ethnic Minorities
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(6), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12060186 - 10 Jun 2022
Viewed by 357
Abstract
Members of the Black, Asian, and Latinx community have been particularly vulnerable to the COVID-19 pandemic but may be hesitant to vaccinate. In a December 2020 study in Black, Asian, and Latinx adults in the U.S. (n = 779), only 50% of [...] Read more.
Members of the Black, Asian, and Latinx community have been particularly vulnerable to the COVID-19 pandemic but may be hesitant to vaccinate. In a December 2020 study in Black, Asian, and Latinx adults in the U.S. (n = 779), only 50% of Black respondents endorsed intending to vaccinate against COVID-19, followed by 65% and 75% of Latinx and Asian participants, respectively. Medical mistrust, fears about COVID-19 contamination, and a proclivity for compulsive checking behaviors related to COVID-19 were significant predictors of intent to vaccinate in Black respondents. Similarly, Asian respondents’ intent to vaccinate was predicted by medical mistrust, fears of the dangerous nature of the virus, and xenophobic concerns about viral spread. In Latinx participants, medical mistrust and compulsive checking for COVID-19-related information were significant predictors of intent to vaccinate. Our findings identify specific behaviors, attitudes, and beliefs we can target to inform community-wide outreach and increase the uptake of COVID-19 vaccines. Full article
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Article
Personal Cell Phones among Children: Parental Perception of Content-Related Threats and Attempts to Control Them in a Lithuanian Sample
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(6), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12060185 - 09 Jun 2022
Viewed by 331
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Various content-related threats such as provocative content, disinformation, cyberbullying, or sexual and commercial messages might reach children by phone and have a negative effect on their health. Amongst parents who are able to control it, we aimed to assess [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Various content-related threats such as provocative content, disinformation, cyberbullying, or sexual and commercial messages might reach children by phone and have a negative effect on their health. Amongst parents who are able to control it, we aimed to assess parental attitudes towards the use of mobile phones among children and control measures taken. Materials and Methods: A total number of 619 parents of primary school children from a middle-sized town in Lithuania participated in this study. Parents anonymously filled out our original questionnaire. Distribution of the respondents was assessed according to control measures taken, threat awareness, and sociodemographic factors. Results: Most of the respondents (79.8%) thought that personal mobile phones might be harmful to children’s health, 99.5% of the parents used at least one control measure. Further, 91.9% of the respondents did not think that children might receive messages from strangers. Respectively, 85.5% and 95.2% of the parents thought that children do not receive offensive or sexual content messages. Many parents (25.5%) helped their children register to social networks. Parents with lower education and parents of younger children had lower awareness of threats (p < 0.05). Fathers, higher educated, single, and unemployed parents indicated application of fewer control measures (p < 0.05). Other sociodemographic factors were not related with threat awareness or control measures taken (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Nearly all parents of primary school children take measures in order to control their children’s usage of mobile phones but most of them underestimate content-related threats brought by mobile phones. Full article
Article
Creating and Sustaining Service Industry Relationships and Families: Theorizing How Personal Workplace Relationships Both Build Community and Perpetuate Organizational Violence
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(6), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12060184 - 08 Jun 2022
Viewed by 447
Abstract
Service industry workers experience challenging labor conditions in the United States, including pay below the minimum wage, expected emotional labor, and harassment. Additionally, in part because they work long shifts in high stress environments in restaurants and bars, many build and form personal [...] Read more.
Service industry workers experience challenging labor conditions in the United States, including pay below the minimum wage, expected emotional labor, and harassment. Additionally, in part because they work long shifts in high stress environments in restaurants and bars, many build and form personal workplace relationships (PWRs). In 2021, we interviewed 38 service industry workers and managers during the COVID-19 pandemic where we examined occupational challenges they faced in the state of Texas, USA. Through our interpretive research, this essay showcases our inductive findings on how service industry workers and managers utilize communication to create and sustain PWRs. We identified how some PWRs are sustained through a unique form of occupational identification that cultivates a “service industry family”, which we term familial personal workplace relationships (familial PWRs). This extends past organizational communication scholarship on family to consider occupational identification. Furthermore, our research reveals that while PWRs may build communities through care and support, they also perpetuate organizational violence, like sexual harassment and bullying. Full article
Article
An Arabic Sedentary Behaviors Questionnaire (ASBQ): Development, Content Validation, and Pre-Testing Findings
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(6), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12060183 - 08 Jun 2022
Viewed by 368
Abstract
Background: Sedentary behaviors (SB) are very prevalent nowadays. Prolonged sitting associates with chronic disease risks and increased mortality even while controlling for physical activity. Objective measurement of SB is costly, requires technical expertise, and is challenging in terms of time and management. Currently, [...] Read more.
Background: Sedentary behaviors (SB) are very prevalent nowadays. Prolonged sitting associates with chronic disease risks and increased mortality even while controlling for physical activity. Objective measurement of SB is costly, requires technical expertise, and is challenging in terms of time and management. Currently, there is no validated self-reported instrument in the Arabic language that assesses SB among individuals and relates sedentary time to social, environmental, and health outcomes. The aim of this research was to develop a multi-item Arabic SB questionnaire (ASBQ). Methods: The ASBQ was developed through an extensive literature review and discussion by the research team (n = 5), then went through content validation (n = 10 experts) and pre-testing using cognitive interviewing procedures (n = 51 respondents, mean (SD) age was 38.3 (18.2) years, and with 49% females). Results: The ASBQ included 13 questions comprising a wide range of sedentary activities. The Arabic SB instrument showed excellent content validity for assessing sedentary time in adolescents and adults with a very high item-level and scale-level content validity index. A kappa statistic, a measure of interrater reliability, was 0.95. The pre-testing showed that the instrument was highly rated by a diverse sample of Saudi adolescents and adults. Conclusion: The ASBQ received excellent acceptance by a panel of experts with promising pre-test results. Further testing of psychometric properties, including test-retest reliability and criterion validity is required. Full article
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Article
Multiple Identifications of Employees in an Organization: Salience and Relationships of Foci and Dimensions
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(6), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12060182 - 07 Jun 2022
Viewed by 368
Abstract
This research addresses: (1) the salience of employees’ social (organizational, sub-organizational, group, micro-group), interpersonal, and personal identifications and their dimensions (cognitive and affective); (2) and the relationship and structure of the identifications of employees in different areas of professional activity. The study was [...] Read more.
This research addresses: (1) the salience of employees’ social (organizational, sub-organizational, group, micro-group), interpersonal, and personal identifications and their dimensions (cognitive and affective); (2) and the relationship and structure of the identifications of employees in different areas of professional activity. The study was conducted on independent samples of employees in the socio-economic sphere (241 participants), in the law enforcement agency (265), and in higher education (172). To assess the respective identification foci and dimensions, the study employed four questionnaires. The personal identification was the weakest and the micro-group identification was the strongest for both dimensions in all samples. The affective dimension prevails over the cognitive in all identifications, except for interpersonal. Social identifications were significantly positively correlated to each other in all samples whereas personal identification was significantly negatively correlated with all social identifications (on the affective dimension) in two samples. The results expand our understanding of the identifications of employees in organizations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organizational Behaviors)
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Article
A Multivariate Analysis of the Interest in Starting Family Businesses within a Developing Economy
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(6), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12060181 - 07 Jun 2022
Viewed by 390
Abstract
The main objective of the research is to analyze the factors which influence the intention to start an intergenerational family business in a developing economy, highlighting the measures that can be implemented by decision-makers to stimulate these initiatives. PLS-SEM was used to analyze [...] Read more.
The main objective of the research is to analyze the factors which influence the intention to start an intergenerational family business in a developing economy, highlighting the measures that can be implemented by decision-makers to stimulate these initiatives. PLS-SEM was used to analyze the data issued from 200 valid questionnaires. The survey was applied to 950 individuals from Romania. We focused on four variables: the closeness to family members, the financial support expected from family, the independence of individuals regarding the intention to start their own business and the intention to form partnerships with family members. All the hypotheses were validated, according to the final results. Thus, closeness to family members has a direct and positive impact on both the financial support expected from the family and the intention to form intergenerational family businesses. There is also a direct correlation between the financial support received from family and the intention to have partnerships with family members. Individuals who are closer to their families are not interested in developing independent businesses. There are several studies on family businesses in Romania, but there is no research analyzing the impact of closeness to family on the intention to develop an intergenerational family business. The study is useful for the decision-makers who can create national strategies in order to stimulate families to develop their own businesses. Full article
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Article
Chewing Revenge or Becoming Socially Desirable? Anger Rumination in Refugees and Immigrants Experiencing Racial Hostility: Latin-Americans in Spain
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(6), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12060180 - 07 Jun 2022
Viewed by 373
Abstract
This paper explores how real scenarios of racial hostility and discrimination trigger anger rumination tendencies in refugees, asylum seekers and immigrants (hereafter RASI). Undergoing discrimination often leads to the development of negative thoughts and behaviors, and to a loss of meaning and self-worth. [...] Read more.
This paper explores how real scenarios of racial hostility and discrimination trigger anger rumination tendencies in refugees, asylum seekers and immigrants (hereafter RASI). Undergoing discrimination often leads to the development of negative thoughts and behaviors, and to a loss of meaning and self-worth. This could make young RASI particularly vulnerable to being recruited and exploited by extremist groups as they search for identity. We developed a picture-elicitation instrument (the PEI) to provide professionals with a tool that could identify groups of RASI according to their reactions to discrimination scenarios and explore how racial hostility might influence withdrawal levels. The tool was applied with the Anger Rumination Scale (ARS_19) to 509 RASI of Latin American origin living in Spain. Four categories were identified, according to how RASI processed anger when observing discrimination scenarios: “Social desirability”, “Chewing”, “Grudge”, and “Vengeful”. Further analyses showed that the youngest (18–29) fell under the “Grudge” and “Vengeful” categories and revealed more despair and social isolation. This study makes a positive contribution by being the first to investigate the problem of anger rumination in RASI undergoing racial hostility. Moreover, it equips professionals with two tools that, once validated, may help plan and implement strategies to reduce the impact of hostility on both RASI and their host societies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Psychology)
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Article
An Exploratory Study of Consumers’ Perceptions of Product Types and Factors Affecting Purchase Intentions in the Subscription Economy: 99 Subscription Business Cases
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(6), 179; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12060179 - 06 Jun 2022
Viewed by 441
Abstract
This study examined changes in consumer perceptions of product types and purchase intentions when a subscription model is introduced for products normally sold on a one-time basis. It then proposed product types likely to affect consumers’ purchasing intentions in the subscription economy and [...] Read more.
This study examined changes in consumer perceptions of product types and purchase intentions when a subscription model is introduced for products normally sold on a one-time basis. It then proposed product types likely to affect consumers’ purchasing intentions in the subscription economy and product categories best suited for the subscription economy. To this end, an experimental study was conducted with experts and general consumers using 99 subscription business cases. It was found that a regular delivery of products on a subscription basis gradually changes consumer perceptions of the products from utilitarian to hedonic and from search to experience ones. It was also found that consumption motivation is an important predictor of consumer purchase intentions in the subscription economy. In addition, experience-utilitarian and search-utilitarian products were associated with the highest purchase intentions among experts and general consumers, respectively. This suggests that a company’s strategy should be adjusted in line with consumers’ understanding of the subscription model. Therefore, suppliers need to understand the full implications of the new model, such as changed consumer perceptions and purchasing intentions, and strive to design a subscription model that is suitable for the target segments and product selections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organizational Behaviors)
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Article
Investigation of the Serotonergic Activity and the Serotonin Content in Serum and Platelet, and the Possible Role of the Serotonin Transporter in Patients with Depression
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(6), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12060178 - 03 Jun 2022
Viewed by 375
Abstract
According to the monoamine hypothesis, the development of depression is associated with dysfunctions of the serotonergic system. Alterations in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR), the serotonergic activity in the brain, and the content of serotonin (5-HT) have been related to depression and were [...] Read more.
According to the monoamine hypothesis, the development of depression is associated with dysfunctions of the serotonergic system. Alterations in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR), the serotonergic activity in the brain, and the content of serotonin (5-HT) have been related to depression and were examined separately by previous studies. This study investigates these parameters in 89 depressed patients and 89 healthy participants. We investigated the serotonergic activity measured by the loudness dependence of auditory evoked potentials (LDAEP). In addition to the examination of the serotonin content (serum and platelet), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were used and 5-HTTLPR genotypes were analyzed. We observed a lower serotonin content in patients compared to healthy participants. Further, we noticed a correlation between anxiety and depression-associated symptoms with serotonergic activity. Patients treated with SSRI/SNRI showed decreased contents of serum serotonin compared to patients without any psychotropic medication or other psychotropic medications. Since the serotonergic activity, peripheral serotonin content, and 5-HTTLPR were unrelated, the results suggest independent alterations of central and peripheral serotonergic systems in depression. In line with this finding, serotonergic activity was related to anxiety and depression symptoms. Furthermore, the applied medication seems to influence serum serotonin content in patients with depression. Full article
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Article
People, Professionals, and Profit Centers: The Connection between Lawyer Well-Being and Employer Values
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(6), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12060177 - 03 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1632
Abstract
Concerns about the well-being of lawyers are rising against the backdrop of a transforming legal profession, one which many observe to be operating more like a business in recent decades. However, aspects of this change, such as lawyers perceiving that their employers value [...] Read more.
Concerns about the well-being of lawyers are rising against the backdrop of a transforming legal profession, one which many observe to be operating more like a business in recent decades. However, aspects of this change, such as lawyers perceiving that their employers value financial performance and productivity above all else, could be associated with unhealthy work practices detrimental to lawyer well-being. The objective of the present study was to determine whether the perceived values of employers were differentially associated with lawyer well-being, stress, and work overcommitment. To this end, 1959 participants from a random sample of attorneys completed a survey designed to assess well-being. Participants were separated into one of three groups based on what they perceived their employer to value most about them: (1) Professionalism/Individual (professionalism and skills), (2) Financial Worth/Availability (revenue generation and availability), and (3) No Value/No Feedback (feeling unvalued or lacking feedback) and compared on measures of mental and physical health (SF-12), stress (Perceived Stress Scale), and work over commitment (Effort–Reward Imbalance Questionnaire). MANOVA results indicated that mental health, stress, and work overcommitment significantly differed between groups in the following rank order: Professionalism/Individual > Financial Worth/Availability > No Value/No Feedback. Overall, our findings paint a compelling picture of a health hierarchy within legal work environments, one that appears to be linked to employer values. Full article
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Article
Causal Analysis and Prevention Measures for Extreme Heavy Rainstorms in Zhengzhou to Protect Human Health
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(6), 176; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12060176 - 02 Jun 2022
Viewed by 416
Abstract
This study focused on the extreme heavy rainstorm that occurred in Zhengzhou in July 2021; approximately 380 people were killed or missing as a result of this storm. To investigate the evolution behaviors of this rainstorm and take corresponding prevention measures, several methods [...] Read more.
This study focused on the extreme heavy rainstorm that occurred in Zhengzhou in July 2021; approximately 380 people were killed or missing as a result of this storm. To investigate the evolution behaviors of this rainstorm and take corresponding prevention measures, several methods and models were adopted, including cloud modeling, preliminary hazard analysis (PHA), fault tree analysis (FTA), bow-tie modeling, and chaos theory. The main reasons for this rainstorm can be divided into the following three aspects: force majeure, such as terrain and extreme weather conditions, issues with city construction, and insufficient emergency rescue. The secondary disasters caused by this rainstorm mainly include urban water logging, river flooding, and mountain torrents and landslides. The main causes of the subway line-5 accident that occurred can be described as follows: the location of the stabling yard was low, the relevant rules and regulations of the subway were not ideal, insufficient attention was given to the early warning information, and the emergency response mechanism was not ideal. Rainstorms result from the cross-coupling of faults in humans, objects, the environment, and management subsystems, and the evolution process shows an obvious butterfly effect. To prevent disasters caused by rainstorms, the following suggestions should be adopted: vigorously improve the risk awareness and emergency response capabilities of leading cadres, improve the overall level of urban disaster prevention and mitigation, reinforce the existing reservoirs in the city, strengthen the construction of sponge cities, and improve the capacity of urban disaster emergency rescue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Psychology Research and Public Health)
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Article
Psychosocial Mediation of Light-Moderate Physical Activity and Cognitive Performance among Adults Aged 60+ in China
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(6), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12060175 - 01 Jun 2022
Viewed by 450
Abstract
Physical activity is a key determinant of healthy ageing; yet, little is known about the varying degrees of benefits by intensity nor the mediating mechanisms that operate through psychosocial health. Leveraging structural mediation analysis using the 2018 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study [...] Read more.
Physical activity is a key determinant of healthy ageing; yet, little is known about the varying degrees of benefits by intensity nor the mediating mechanisms that operate through psychosocial health. Leveraging structural mediation analysis using the 2018 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) national survey data, we screened 4371 community-dwelling older adults, and investigated the mediation mechanism of psychosocial health on the link between light-moderate physical activity and cognitive performance. Physical activity intensity, psychosocial health, and cognitive performance were measured by the international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ), the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CESD), and the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) instruments, respectively. Results show that, while light physical activity (LPA) and moderate physical activity (MPA) both significantly contribute to better cognitive performance, psychosocial health is a significant mediator only for LPA but not for MPA. For direct pathways, both LPA (std. β = 0.062, p < 0.001, 95% confidence interval = 0.032–0.091) and MPA (std. β = 0.049, p = 0.001, 95% CI = 0.019–0.078) have significant influence on cognitive performance. For mediation pathways, results show that there exists only one indirect channel through which psychosocial health mediates the influence of LPA (std. β = 0.024, p < 0.001, 95% CI = 0.016–0.033), which accounts for 27.9% of the total effect linking LPA and cognitive performance. Findings uncover an important indirect psychosocial mediation channel through which LPA affects cognitive performance among older adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity, Physical and Psychological Health)
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Article
Attitudes and Involvement of Employees in the Process of Implementing Innovations and Changes in Companies
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(6), 174; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12060174 - 01 Jun 2022
Viewed by 440
Abstract
The main goal of the paper is to evaluate the perception and acceptance of change by human resources in companies in Slovakia and to propose specific recommendations to increase the involvement and active approach of business representatives in the interest of business sustainability. [...] Read more.
The main goal of the paper is to evaluate the perception and acceptance of change by human resources in companies in Slovakia and to propose specific recommendations to increase the involvement and active approach of business representatives in the interest of business sustainability. Based on the set goal, the issue of perception and attitudes of employees were evaluated through data obtained by a questionnaire survey through a sample survey in 816 companies operating in the Slovak Republic. The obtained data were analyzed using association analysis by application of the independence test based on formulated hypotheses and the found dependencies were presented by correspondence analysis. Innovative activities of companies do not always have to be perceived only positively by employees and it is also appropriate to consider the opposite behavior of employees. To minimize adverse events, we recommend companies formulate appropriate strategies to reduce and overcome the effects of negative attitudes to organizational change and then implement them appropriately, which is essential for the successful implementation of innovative practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organizational Behaviors)
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Article
Personality Traits of Croatian University Students with Internet Addiction
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(6), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12060173 - 01 Jun 2022
Viewed by 461
Abstract
Specific personality traits may predispose individuals to various forms of addictive behaviors. This study aimed to investigate the association between personality traits of university students and Internet addiction (IA). A sample of 1051 university students was recruited from the largest university in Eastern [...] Read more.
Specific personality traits may predispose individuals to various forms of addictive behaviors. This study aimed to investigate the association between personality traits of university students and Internet addiction (IA). A sample of 1051 university students was recruited from the largest university in Eastern Croatia. A structured anonymous questionnaire that included questions regarding students’ sociodemographic information and Internet usage patterns, the Young Internet Addiction Test and Big Five Inventory served as a research tool. The study revealed that 1.0% of the studied sample expressed severe IA while 24.6% of study participants expressed some signs of addiction. The IA was detected in 576 (80.0%) students who used the Internet mainly for social networking, in 30 (78.9%) students who mainly used it for online gaming, and in 153 (52.2%) students who mainly used it for university assignments (p < 0.001). Higher neuroticism, higher extraversion, and higher openness to new experiences were connected with IA in general (p < 0.001). Higher neuroticism, higher extraversion, and higher openness to new experiences were significantly associated with addictive behavior during social networking (p < 0.001). Higher extraversion and higher openness to new experiences were significantly associated with addictive behavior during Internet usage for university assignments (p = 0.025), while there were no significant associations between specific personality traits and addictive behavior during online gaming (p = 0.059). Personality traits must be taken into account while developing programs and implementing interventions for preventing IA in the university student population. Full article
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Brief Report
Influence of an Esports Program on Problematic Gaming in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Study
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(6), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12060172 - 31 May 2022
Viewed by 441
Abstract
Esports (electronic sports) programs are a variant of competitive gaming and have expanded worldwide in recent years. The prevalence of problematic gaming and gaming disorders (GD) is predicted to increase in adolescents. Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have a high rate of [...] Read more.
Esports (electronic sports) programs are a variant of competitive gaming and have expanded worldwide in recent years. The prevalence of problematic gaming and gaming disorders (GD) is predicted to increase in adolescents. Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have a high rate of digital gaming use, and their characteristics, such as social communication deficits and restricted interests, might contribute to problematic gaming. In this study, we aimed to examine whether participation in an Esports program would lead to problematic gaming or GD in children with ASD. The Internet Gaming Disorder Test (IGD-20) scores, Kid-KINDL scores, and gaming time at home were assessed in eight children with ASD before beginning the Esports program and at the three-month follow-up timepoint. The program was held once a week at the welfare service center, where the participants played a set game for 60 min. The results indicated there was no significant worsening in any of the scores after the program. Our program provided the participation time and frequency of Esports, type of game, and motivation of the participants are adequately considered. Even though this pilot study is limited by the small sample size, we concluded that the risk of these activities leading to problematic gaming might be low. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
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Article
Effects of Early Weaning Associated with Alimentary Stress on Emotional and Feeding Behavior of Female Adult Wistar Rats
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(6), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12060171 - 31 May 2022
Viewed by 414
Abstract
Maternal lactation proves crucial for mammals’ nutrition during their early development, influencing the development of adult physiological mechanisms. Its premature termination has been associated with several disorders, but these have been primarily documented in males, when they are most prevalent in women. Therefore, [...] Read more.
Maternal lactation proves crucial for mammals’ nutrition during their early development, influencing the development of adult physiological mechanisms. Its premature termination has been associated with several disorders, but these have been primarily documented in males, when they are most prevalent in women. Therefore, we subjected adult female Wistar rats to Early Weaning through maternal separation at age 15 days to acute alimentary stress in the form of visual and olfactory exposition to a cafeteria diet sans consumption for 22 days. We measured standard diet intake and water intake daily and cafeteria diet intake every 7 days. Additionally, we evaluated anxiety using the elevated plus maze and measured body weight in similar intervals. Results showed less consumption of the cafeteria diet among Early Weaning rats on day 2 and more time spent in the maze’s central area by the Early Weaning rats during the basal evaluation and in the maze’s open arms by control rats on day 7 when compared to the same group’s basal time. No other significant differences were found. These results show the importance of determining the impact that female steroidal gonadal hormones such as estradiol have upon feeding behavior and anxiety and determining to what degree these parameters are influenced by hormonal action. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Experimental and Clinical Neurosciences)
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Article
Trust in Institutions, Not in Political Leaders, Determines Compliance in COVID-19 Prevention Measures within Societies across the Globe
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(6), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12060170 - 30 May 2022
Viewed by 580
Abstract
A core assumption often heard in public health discourse is that increasing trust in national political leaders is essential for securing public health compliance during crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic (2019–ongoing). However, studies of national government trust are typically too coarse-grained to [...] Read more.
A core assumption often heard in public health discourse is that increasing trust in national political leaders is essential for securing public health compliance during crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic (2019–ongoing). However, studies of national government trust are typically too coarse-grained to differentiate between trust in institutions versus more interpersonal trust in political leaders. Here, we present multiscale trust measurements for twelve countries and territories across the West, Oceania and East Asia. These trust results were used to identify which specific domains of government and social trust were most crucial for securing public health compliance (frequency of mask wearing and social distancing) and understanding the reasons for following health measures (belief in effectiveness of public health measures). Through the use of linear regression and structural equation modeling, our cross-cultural survey-based analysis (N = 3369 subjects) revealed that higher trust in national and local public health institutions was a universally consistent predictor of public health compliance, while trust in national political leaders was not predictive of compliance across cultures and geographical regions. Institutional trust was mediated by multiple types of transparency, including providing rationale, securing public feedback, and honestly expressing uncertainty. These results highlight the importance of distinguishing between components of government trust, to better understand which entities the public gives the most attention to during crises. Full article
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