Next Issue
Volume 7, December
Previous Issue
Volume 7, October

Table of Contents

Sports, Volume 7, Issue 11 (November 2019)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) What are injuries in elite ice hockey, and how often do they occur? Injuries in high caliber ice [...] Read more.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle
Exploring Children’s Physical Activity Behaviours According to Location: A Mixed-Methods Case Study
Sports 2019, 7(11), 240; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7110240 - 18 Nov 2019
Abstract
The school environment is ideally placed to facilitate physical activity (PA) with numerous windows of opportunity from break and lunch times, to lesson times and extracurricular clubs. However, little is known about how children interact with the school environment to engage in PA [...] Read more.
The school environment is ideally placed to facilitate physical activity (PA) with numerous windows of opportunity from break and lunch times, to lesson times and extracurricular clubs. However, little is known about how children interact with the school environment to engage in PA and the other locations they visit daily, including time spent outside of the school environment i.e., evening and weekend locations. Moreover, there has been little research incorporating a mixed-methods approach that captures children’s voices alongside objectively tracking children’s PA patterns. The aim of this study was to explore children’s PA behaviours according to different locations. Sixty children (29 boys, 31 girls)—35 key stage 2 (aged 9–11) and 25 key stage 3 (aged 11–13)—wore an integrated global positioning systems (GPS) and heart rate (HR) monitor over four consecutive days. A subsample of children (n = 32) were invited to take part in one of six focus groups to further explore PA behaviours and identify barriers and facilitators to PA. Children also completed a PA diary. The KS2 children spent significantly more time outdoors than KS3 children (p = 0.009). Boys engaged in more light PA (LPA) when on foot and in school, compared with girls (p = 0.003). KS3 children engaged in significantly more moderate PA (MPA) at school than KS2 children (p = 0.006). Focus groups revealed fun, enjoyment, friends, and family to be associated with PA, and technology, costs, and weather to be barriers to PA. This mixed methodological study highlights differences in the PA patterns and perceptions of children according to age and gender. Future studies should utilize a multi-method approach to gain a greater insight into children’s PA patterns and inform future health policies that differentiate among a range of demographic groups of children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity for Health in Youth)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Vitamin D Status Differs by Sex, Sport-Season, and Skin Pigmentation among Elite Collegiate Basketball Players
Sports 2019, 7(11), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7110239 - 18 Nov 2019
Abstract
Vitamin D plays a key role in bone health, musculoskeletal function, and sport performance. Collegiate athletes competing in indoor sports may be at greater risk of vitamin D deficiency due to limited outdoor time. Therefore, the purpose was to assess 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) [...] Read more.
Vitamin D plays a key role in bone health, musculoskeletal function, and sport performance. Collegiate athletes competing in indoor sports may be at greater risk of vitamin D deficiency due to limited outdoor time. Therefore, the purpose was to assess 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations among collegiate men and women basketball (MBB, WBB) athletes. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I men (MBB, n = 11) and women (WBB, n = 9) were tested during the off-season (T1; July) and pre-season (T2; October). Measurements included serum 25(OH)D; skin pigmentation, bone mineral density, and daily sun exposure (self-reported). Paired t-tests determined changes in 25(OH)D by sport-season and sex. Pearson correlations examined relationships between outcome variables. MBB athletes (mean ± SD; 19.6 ± 1.3 years) showed a reduction in 25(OH)D (T1: 64.53 nmol·L−1 ± 11.96) (T2: 56.11 nmol·L−1 ± 7.90) (p = 0.001). WBB (20.1 ± 1.1 years) had no change in 25(OH)D (T1: 99.07 nmol·L−1 ± 49.94. T2: 97.56 nmol·L−1 ± 36.47, p = 0.848). A positive association between 25(OH)D and skin pigmentation was observed (r = 0.47, p = 0.038). 25(OH)D was inversely correlated with lean body mass (LBM), body mass (BM), and bone mineral density (BMD), while a positive association was seen between 25(OH)D and skin pigmentation. In summary, 25(OH)D insufficiency was prevalent amongst male collegiate basketball athletes, with 25(OH)D levels being lower in the pre-season (October) than the off-season (July). Furthermore, darker skin pigmentation significantly correlated with 25(OH)D, indicating that individuals with darker skin tones may be at a greater risk of insufficiency/deficiency. More research is needed to examine the relationships between 25(OH)D and bone health in athletes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Athletic Performance)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
SwimBIT: A Novel Approach to Stroke Analysis During Swim Training Based on Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS)
Sports 2019, 7(11), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7110238 - 16 Nov 2019
Abstract
In a world where technology is assuming a pervasive role, sports sciences are also increasingly exploiting the possibilities opened by advanced sensors and intelligent algorithms. This paper focuses on the development of a convenient, practical, and low-cost system, SwimBIT, which is intended to [...] Read more.
In a world where technology is assuming a pervasive role, sports sciences are also increasingly exploiting the possibilities opened by advanced sensors and intelligent algorithms. This paper focuses on the development of a convenient, practical, and low-cost system, SwimBIT, which is intended to help swimmers and coaches in performance evaluation, improvement, and injury reduction. Real-world data were collected from 13 triathletes (age 20.8 ± 3.5 years, height 173.7 ± 5.3 cm, and weight 63.5 ± 6.3 kg) with different skill levels in performing the four competitive styles of swimming in order to develop a representative database and allow assessment of the system’s performance in swimming conditions. The hardware collects a set of signals from swimmers based on an attitude and heading reference system (AHRS), and a machine learning workflow for data analysis is used to extract a selection of indicators that allows analysis of a swimmer’s performance. Based on the AHRS data, three novel indicators are proposed: trunk elevation, body balance, and body rotation. Experimental evaluation has shown promising results, with a 100% accuracy in swim lap segmentation, a precision of 100% in the recognition of backstroke, and a precision of 89.60% in the three remaining swimming techniques (butterfly, breaststroke, and front crawl). The performance indicators proposed here provide valuable information for both swimmers and coaches in their quest for enhancing performance and preventing injuries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sport Science for Elite Athletes)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Effects of Two Competitive Soccer Matches on Landing Biomechanics in Female Division I Soccer Players
Sports 2019, 7(11), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7110237 - 14 Nov 2019
Abstract
Fatigue has been proposed to increase the risk of knee injury. This study tracked countermovement jump, knee isometric strength, and kinetics and kinematics in 8 female soccer players (experimental group) during an anticipated sidestep maneuver before and after two matches played over a [...] Read more.
Fatigue has been proposed to increase the risk of knee injury. This study tracked countermovement jump, knee isometric strength, and kinetics and kinematics in 8 female soccer players (experimental group) during an anticipated sidestep maneuver before and after two matches played over a 43-h period. Time points were: Before and after match 1 (T0 and T1), 12 h after the first match (T2), and immediately after the second match (T3). A control group participated only in practice sessions. Isometric knee extension strength decreased by 14.8% at T2 (p = 0.003), but knee flexion was not affected until T3, declining by 12.6% (p = 0.018). During the sidestep maneuver, knee joint degrees of flexion at initial contact was increased by 17.1% at T3, but maximum knee and hip angle at initial contact were unchanged. Peak resultant ground reaction force (GRF) increased by 12.6% (p = 0.047) at T3 (3.03 xBW) from 2.69 xBW at T0, while posterior GRF was significantly higher than T0 at all three subsequent time points (T1 = 0.82 ± 0.23 xBW, T2 = 0.87 ± 0.22 xBW, T3 = 0.89 ± 0.22 xBW). Anterior tibial shear force increased significantly (p = 0.020) at T3 (1.24 ± 0.12 xBW) compared to T1 (1.15 ± 0.13 xBW), an 8.8% increase. Lateral tibial shear force was significantly higher at both T1 (0.95 ± 0.20 xBW) and T3 (1.15 ± 0.38 xBW) compared to T0 (0.67 ± 0.25 xBW). These findings suggest that participation in a soccer match has significant effects on both physical performance parameters and kinetics/kinematics during a sidestep cut, but these can be more pronounced after a second match with short rest. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Mental Health Symptoms Related to Body Shape Idealization in Female Fitness Physique Athletes
Sports 2019, 7(11), 236; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7110236 - 14 Nov 2019
Abstract
Physical activity relates to optimal health, still the prevalence of mental health issues is high among athletes. Being young, female, and competing in aesthetic sports is a high-risk combination for mental health symptoms. Fitness physique athletes (FA) match this profile but are understudied. [...] Read more.
Physical activity relates to optimal health, still the prevalence of mental health issues is high among athletes. Being young, female, and competing in aesthetic sports is a high-risk combination for mental health symptoms. Fitness physique athletes (FA) match this profile but are understudied. We aimed to study the intensity of mental health symptoms (i.e., body image, eating behaviour, relation to and routines for exercise, and perfectionism) in FA and in female references (FR), and to evaluate how preparing for fitness sport competitions affects these mental health symptoms. Before competition, FA had higher levels of drive for leanness (DFL) and eating restraint compared to FR. At the time of competition, eating restraint increased in FA only, concurrent with a reduction in symptoms of disordered eating. The levels of DFL, drive for muscularity, eating restraint, and exercising for figure toning were higher in FA compared to FR. At one-month post-competition, the differences between groups from competition time remained. Generally, perfectionism correlated with eating restrictions in FA and with disordered eating in FR. Overall, FA coped with the dieting, but self-control deteriorated post-competition with higher levels of disordered eating and an increased body shape concern. High DFL generally associated with more disordered eating behaviour, specifically in FR. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Maximal Heart Rate for Swimmers
Sports 2019, 7(11), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7110235 - 12 Nov 2019
Abstract
The main purpose of this study was to identify whether a different protocol to achieve maximal heart rate should be used in sprinters when compared to middle-distance swimmers. As incorporating running training into swim training is gaining increased popularity, a secondary aim was [...] Read more.
The main purpose of this study was to identify whether a different protocol to achieve maximal heart rate should be used in sprinters when compared to middle-distance swimmers. As incorporating running training into swim training is gaining increased popularity, a secondary aim was to determine the difference in maximal heart rate between front crawl swimming and running among elite swimmers. Twelve elite swimmers (4 female and 8 male, 7 sprinters and 5 middle-distance, age 18.8 years and body mass index 22.9 kg/m2) swam three different maximal heart rate protocols using a 50 m, 100 m and 200 m step-test protocol followed by a maximal heart rate test in running. There were no differences in maximal heart rate between sprinters and middle-distance swimmers in each of the swimming protocols or between land and water (all p ≥ 0.05). There were no significant differences in maximal heart rate beats-per-minute (bpm) between the 200 m (mean ± SD; 192.0 ± 6.9 bpm), 100 m (190.8 ± 8.3 bpm) or 50 m protocol (191.9 ± 8.4 bpm). Maximal heart rate was 6.7 ± 5.3 bpm lower for swimming compared to running (199.9 ± 8.9 bpm for running; p = 0.015). We conclude that all reported step-test protocols were suitable for achieving maximal heart rate during front crawl swimming and suggest that no separate protocol is needed for swimmers specialized on sprint or middle-distance. Further, we suggest conducting sport-specific maximal heart rate tests for different sports that are targeted to improve the aerobic capacity among the elite swimmers of today. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring Physiological Adaptation to Physical Training)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Comparison of Two Commercial Swim Bench Ergometers in Determining Maximal Aerobic Power and Correlation to a Paddle Test in a Recreational Surfing Cohort
Sports 2019, 7(11), 234; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7110234 - 11 Nov 2019
Abstract
The recent addition of surfing to the Tokyo 2020 Olympic Games has fueled a surge in commercial and research interest in understanding the physiological demands of the sport. However, studies specific to maximal aerobic testing of surfers are scarce. Therefore, the primary aim [...] Read more.
The recent addition of surfing to the Tokyo 2020 Olympic Games has fueled a surge in commercial and research interest in understanding the physiological demands of the sport. However, studies specific to maximal aerobic testing of surfers are scarce. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to compare two commercially available swim bench (SWB) ergometers in the determination of maximal aerobic capacity in recreational surfers. A secondary aim was to correlate (independent of one another) the two ergometer findings of VO2peak to the time taken to complete a water-based 400-m paddle test. This cross-sectional study consisted of 17 recreational surfers aged between 18–58 years. Participants were randomized to either the SwimFast ergometer or VASA ergometer and tested for maximal aerobic capacity, followed by a 400-m paddle test. There were no significant differences between the two SWB ergometers in the determination of relative VO2peak (mean difference 0.33 mL/kg/min; 95% CI −1.24–1.90; p = 0.66). Correlations between VO2peak obtained from maximal paddling effort on the SwimFast and the VASA and the 400-m paddle test (total time (s)) showed a negative significant correlation r = −0.819, p = 0.024; r = −0.818, p = 0.024, respectively. Results suggest that either ergometer (SwimFast or VASA) can be used to determine peak aerobic capacity within a recreational surfing cohort. The significant correlation of the two SWB ergometers and the 400-m paddle test suggest that the 400-m paddle test may be a suitable field-based method of determining aerobic capability. Collectively, these preliminary findings provide initial evidence for similarities in VO2peak on two commercial ergometers and their correlations with a field-based test. However, further research is needed with a larger sample size and inclusive of competitive surfers to provide robust findings which can be generalized to the surfing population. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Duty Factor Is a Viable Measure to Classify Spontaneous Running Forms
Sports 2019, 7(11), 233; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7110233 - 10 Nov 2019
Abstract
Runners were classified using two different methods based on their spontaneous running form: (1) subjectively using the V®score from the Volodalen® scale, leading to terrestrial and aerial groups; and (2) objectively using the duty factor (DF), leading to high (DF [...] Read more.
Runners were classified using two different methods based on their spontaneous running form: (1) subjectively using the V®score from the Volodalen® scale, leading to terrestrial and aerial groups; and (2) objectively using the duty factor (DF), leading to high (DFhigh) and low (DFlow) DF groups. This study aimed to compare these two classification schemes. Eighty-nine runners were divided in two groups using the V®score (VOL groups) and were also ranked according to their DF. They ran on a treadmill at 12 km·h−1 with simultaneous recording of running kinematics, using a three-dimensional motion capture system. DF was computed from data as the ratio of ground contact time to stride time. The agreement (95% confidence interval) between VOL and DF groups was 79.8% (69.9%, 87.6%), with relatively high sensitivity (81.6% (68.0%, 91.2%)) and specificity (77.5% (61.6%, 89.2%)). Our results suggest that the DF and V®score reflect similar constructs and lead to similar subgroupings of spontaneous running form (aerial runners if DF < 27.6% and terrestrial runners if DF > 28.8% at 12 km·h−1). These results suggest that DF could be a useful objective measure to monitor real-time changes in spontaneous running form using wearable technology. As a forward-looking statement, spontaneous changes in running form during racing or training could assist in identifying fatigue or changes in environmental conditions, allowing for a better understanding of runners. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Relationship between Cyclic and Non-Cyclic Force-Velocity Characteristics in BMX Cyclists
Sports 2019, 7(11), 232; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7110232 - 09 Nov 2019
Abstract
Especially for bicycle motocross (BMX) cyclists, transfer of muscular force-velocity (Fv) characteristics between common strength training exercises and cycling is important. This study investigated the relationship between Fv characteristics in a common training exercise (squat jumps) and a sport-specific task (cycling) [...] Read more.
Especially for bicycle motocross (BMX) cyclists, transfer of muscular force-velocity (Fv) characteristics between common strength training exercises and cycling is important. This study investigated the relationship between Fv characteristics in a common training exercise (squat jumps) and a sport-specific task (cycling) in high-level BMX racers by exploring the degree to which Fv and torque–cadence (Tc) characteristics correspond. Twelve BMX racers performed an Fv (multiple loaded squat jump) and two Tc tests (ramp starts and flat-ground sprints). Results revealed very large correlations between F 0 and T o r 0   s t a r t (r = 0.77) and between P m a x   j u m p and P m a x   s t a r t (r = 0.85). On the other hand, the relationships between v 0 and C a d 0   s t a r t (r = –0.25) and between S F v and S T c   s t a r t (r = –0.14) were small and negative. Similar results were observed for sprints. Based on dichotomous classifications (greater or less than group median), several discrepancies occurred, particularly for the profile slopes and high-speed variables. Thus, we recommend performing both jump-based and cycling-specific F v testing. Of additional note, T c characteristics on flat ground were similar to, but slightly different from those on the start ramp. Therefore, where possible, Tc tests should be carried out on a ramp. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sport Science for Elite Athletes)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
A Pilot Study to Examine the Impact of Beta-Alanine Supplementation on Anaerobic Exercise Performance in Collegiate Rugby Athletes
Sports 2019, 7(11), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7110231 - 07 Nov 2019
Abstract
Beta-alanine (BA) is a precursor to carnosine which functions as a buffer assisting in the maintenance of intracellular pH during high-intensity efforts. Rugby is a sport characterized by multiple intermittent periods of maximal or near maximal efforts with short periods of rest/active recovery. [...] Read more.
Beta-alanine (BA) is a precursor to carnosine which functions as a buffer assisting in the maintenance of intracellular pH during high-intensity efforts. Rugby is a sport characterized by multiple intermittent periods of maximal or near maximal efforts with short periods of rest/active recovery. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the impact of six weeks of beta-alanine supplementation on anaerobic performance measures in collegiate rugby players. Twenty-one male, collegiate rugby players were recruited, while fifteen completed post-testing (Mean ± SD; Age: 21.0 ± 1.8 years, Height: 179 ± 6.3 cm, Body Mass: 91.8 ± 13.3 kg, % Body Fat: 21.3 ± 4.4). Supplementation was randomized in a double-blind, placebo-controlled manner between 6.4 g/d of beta-alanine and 6.4 g/d of maltodextrin placebo. Body composition, upper and lower-body maximal strength and muscular endurance, intermittent sprint performance, and post-exercise lactate, heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion were assessed before and after supplementation. Data were analyzed using a 2 × 2 (group × time) mixed factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures on time. No significant interaction effects were noted for body mass, fat mass, fat-free mass, and percent bodyfat (p > 0.05). No performance effects resulting from beta-alanine supplementation were detected. Results from this initial pilot investigation suggest that BA exerts little to no impact on body composition parameters, muscular strength, muscular endurance, or intermittent sprinting performance. With the limited research exploring the impact of BA in this sporting context, these initial findings offer little support for BA use, but more research is needed to fully understand the potential impact of BA on various aspects of resistance exercise performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Intervention in Exercise)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Reliability and Criterion Validity of the Assess2Perform Bar Sensei
Sports 2019, 7(11), 230; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7110230 - 07 Nov 2019
Abstract
The Assess2Perform Bar Sensei is a device used to measure barbell velocity for velocity-based training that has not yet been validated. The purpose of this study was to determine criterion validity and reliability of the Assess2Perform Bar Sensei in barbell back squats by [...] Read more.
The Assess2Perform Bar Sensei is a device used to measure barbell velocity for velocity-based training that has not yet been validated. The purpose of this study was to determine criterion validity and reliability of the Assess2Perform Bar Sensei in barbell back squats by comparing it against the GymAware PowerTool, a previously validated instrument. Sixteen injury-free, resistance-trained subjects (eleven males and five females) were recruited. Subjects were tested for their back squat one repetition maximum (1RM). Then, on two separate days, subjects performed two sets of three repetitions at loads of 45%, 60% and 75% 1RM. The GymAware PowerTool and Bar Sensei were attached to the barbell in similar locations for concurrent collection of mean concentric velocity (MCV) and peak concentric velocity (PCV). The Bar Sensei and PowerTool showed generally fair to poor agreement for MCV and PCV when subjects lifted 45% of 1RM (intraclass correlation;ICC 0.4–0.59), and they showed poor agreement when subjects lifted 60% and 75% of 1RM (ICC 0.3–0.4). Inter-repetition/within-set reliability for the Bar Sensei ranged between ICC = 0.273–0.451 for MCV and PCV compared to the far more reliable PowerTool (ICC = 0.651–0.793). Currently, the Bar Sensei is not a reliable or valid tool for measuring barbell velocity in back squats. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
An Evaluation of Heart Rate Variability in Female Youth Soccer Players Following Soccer Heading: A Pilot Study
Sports 2019, 7(11), 229; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7110229 - 04 Nov 2019
Abstract
Most head impacts in soccer occur from purposeful heading; however, the link between heading and neurological impairment is unknown. Previous work suggests concussion may result in an uncoupling between the autonomic nervous system and cardiovascular system. Accordingly, heart rate variability (HRV) may be [...] Read more.
Most head impacts in soccer occur from purposeful heading; however, the link between heading and neurological impairment is unknown. Previous work suggests concussion may result in an uncoupling between the autonomic nervous system and cardiovascular system. Accordingly, heart rate variability (HRV) may be a sensitive measure to provide meaningful information regarding repetitive heading in soccer. The purpose of this pilot study assesses the feasibility of measuring HRV to evaluate autonomic function following soccer heading. Sixteen youth female participants underwent heart rate monitoring during a heading and footing condition. Participants completed a five minute resting supine trial at the start and end of each testing session. Standard 450 g soccer balls were projected at 6 m/s towards participants. Participants performed five headers, for the header condition, and five footers for the footer condition. The HRV for resting supine trials, pre- and post-header and footer conditions were assessed for both time and frequency domains. HRV effect sizes were small when comparing conditions, except absolute low frequency (d = 0.61) and standard deviation of the normal-normal (NN) intervals (d = 0.63). Participant retention and adherence were high, without adverse events. Findings suggest HRV is a feasible measure for evaluating the effects of heading on autonomic function. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Increased Parasympathetic Activity by Foot Reflexology Massage after Repeated Sprint Test in Collegiate Football Players: A Randomised Controlled Trial
Sports 2019, 7(11), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7110228 - 03 Nov 2019
Abstract
Foot reflexology massage (FRM) has positive effects on cardiovascular and haemodynamic functions. However, information regarding the physiological changes after FRM post exercise-stress is limited. This study investigated the acute effects of FRM on heart rate variability (HRV) after the repeated sprint ability (RSA) [...] Read more.
Foot reflexology massage (FRM) has positive effects on cardiovascular and haemodynamic functions. However, information regarding the physiological changes after FRM post exercise-stress is limited. This study investigated the acute effects of FRM on heart rate variability (HRV) after the repeated sprint ability (RSA) test and the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 (YY). Twenty-six collegiate male football players were randomly assigned to the FRM group (n = 14) or to the control group (n = 12). Electrocardiographic (ECG) signals were recorded for 15 min in supine position before and after the intervention/control period in the RSA test and the YY test. In comparison to the control group, the FRM group demonstrated higher values of root mean squared successive difference in the RR interval (RMSSD; p = 0.046, ES = 0.76) and in the proportion of differences of adjacent RR intervals >50 ms (pNN50; p = 0.031, ES = 0.87); and higher percent changes in mean RR interval (%MeanRR; p = 0.040, ES = 0.99), standard deviation of RR intervals (%SDNN; p = 0.008, ES = 1.10), normalised high-frequency power (%nHFP; p = 0.008, ES = 0.77), total power (%TP; p = 0.009, ES = 0.84) and standard deviation 1 and 2 (%SD1; p = 0.008, ES = 1.08, %SD2; p = 0.020, ES = 1.04) after the RSA test. The magnitude effect of post-exercise HRV was small after the FRM RSA protocol (ES = 0.32–0.57). Conversely, the results demonstrated a moderate and large magnitude effect of HRV in the RSA and YY protocols of the control group (ES: RSA = 1.07–2.00; YY = 0.81–1.61) and in the YY protocol of the FRM group (ES = 0.99–1.59). The FRM intervention resulted in beneficial effects on the cardiac parasympathetic reactivity and the sympatho-vagal balance after RSA performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Training Process in Soccer Players)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
What Is Injury in Ice Hockey: An Integrative Literature Review on Injury Rates, Injury Definition, and Athlete Exposure in Men’s Elite Ice Hockey
Sports 2019, 7(11), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7110227 - 23 Oct 2019
Abstract
Injuries in men’s elite ice hockey have been studied over the past 40 years, however, there is a lack of consensus on definitions of both injury and athlete exposure. These inconsistencies compromise the reliability and comparability of the research. While many individual studies [...] Read more.
Injuries in men’s elite ice hockey have been studied over the past 40 years, however, there is a lack of consensus on definitions of both injury and athlete exposure. These inconsistencies compromise the reliability and comparability of the research. While many individual studies report injury rates in ice hockey, we are not aware of any literature reviews that have evaluated the definitions of injury and athlete exposure in men’s elite ice hockey. The purpose of this integrative review was to investigate the literature on hockey musculoskeletal injury to determine injury rates and synthesize information about the definitions of injury and athlete exposure. Injury rates varied from 13.8/1000 game athlete exposures to 121/1000 athlete exposures as measured by player-game hours. The majority of variability between studies is explained by differences in the definitions of both injury and athlete exposure. We were unable to find a consensus injury definition in elite ice hockey. In addition, we were unable to observe a consistent athlete exposure metric. We recommend that a consistent injury definition be adopted to evaluate injury risk in elite ice hockey. We recommend that injuries should be defined by a strict list that includes facial lacerations, dental injuries, and fractures. We also recommend that athlete exposure should be quantified using player-game hours. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop