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Open AccessArticle

Vitamin D Status Differs by Sex, Sport-Season, and Skin Pigmentation among Elite Collegiate Basketball Players

1
Frank Pettrone Center for Sports Performance, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030, USA
2
School of Kinesiology, George Mason University, Manassas, VA 20110, USA
3
Nutrition and Food Studies, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sports 2019, 7(11), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7110239
Received: 21 September 2019 / Revised: 26 October 2019 / Accepted: 8 November 2019 / Published: 18 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Athletic Performance)
Vitamin D plays a key role in bone health, musculoskeletal function, and sport performance. Collegiate athletes competing in indoor sports may be at greater risk of vitamin D deficiency due to limited outdoor time. Therefore, the purpose was to assess 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations among collegiate men and women basketball (MBB, WBB) athletes. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I men (MBB, n = 11) and women (WBB, n = 9) were tested during the off-season (T1; July) and pre-season (T2; October). Measurements included serum 25(OH)D; skin pigmentation, bone mineral density, and daily sun exposure (self-reported). Paired t-tests determined changes in 25(OH)D by sport-season and sex. Pearson correlations examined relationships between outcome variables. MBB athletes (mean ± SD; 19.6 ± 1.3 years) showed a reduction in 25(OH)D (T1: 64.53 nmol·L−1 ± 11.96) (T2: 56.11 nmol·L−1 ± 7.90) (p = 0.001). WBB (20.1 ± 1.1 years) had no change in 25(OH)D (T1: 99.07 nmol·L−1 ± 49.94. T2: 97.56 nmol·L−1 ± 36.47, p = 0.848). A positive association between 25(OH)D and skin pigmentation was observed (r = 0.47, p = 0.038). 25(OH)D was inversely correlated with lean body mass (LBM), body mass (BM), and bone mineral density (BMD), while a positive association was seen between 25(OH)D and skin pigmentation. In summary, 25(OH)D insufficiency was prevalent amongst male collegiate basketball athletes, with 25(OH)D levels being lower in the pre-season (October) than the off-season (July). Furthermore, darker skin pigmentation significantly correlated with 25(OH)D, indicating that individuals with darker skin tones may be at a greater risk of insufficiency/deficiency. More research is needed to examine the relationships between 25(OH)D and bone health in athletes. View Full-Text
Keywords: college athletes; 25(OH)D; indoor sports college athletes; 25(OH)D; indoor sports
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fields, J.B.; Payne, D.C.; Gallo, S.; Busteed, D.R.; Jones, M.T. Vitamin D Status Differs by Sex, Sport-Season, and Skin Pigmentation among Elite Collegiate Basketball Players. Sports 2019, 7, 239. https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7110239

AMA Style

Fields JB, Payne DC, Gallo S, Busteed DR, Jones MT. Vitamin D Status Differs by Sex, Sport-Season, and Skin Pigmentation among Elite Collegiate Basketball Players. Sports. 2019; 7(11):239. https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7110239

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fields, Jennifer B.; Payne, Daniel C.; Gallo, Sina; Busteed, Deanna R.; Jones, Margaret T. 2019. "Vitamin D Status Differs by Sex, Sport-Season, and Skin Pigmentation among Elite Collegiate Basketball Players" Sports 7, no. 11: 239. https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7110239

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