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Open AccessArticle

Duty Factor Is a Viable Measure to Classify Spontaneous Running Forms

1
Research and Development Department, Volodalen Swiss SportLab, 1860 Aigle, Switzerland
2
Research and Development Department, Volodalen, 39134 Chavéria, France
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Research Unit EA3920 Prognostic Markers and Regulatory Factors of Cardiovascular Diseases and Exercise Performance, Health, Innovation platform, University of Fanche-Comté, 25000 Besançon, France
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Division for Physical Education, Tomsk Polytechnic University, 634050 Tomsk, Russia
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Adams Centre for High Performance, Division of Health, Engineering, Computing and Science, Te Huataki Waiora School of Health, University of Waikato, Tauranga 3116, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sports 2019, 7(11), 233; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7110233 (registering DOI)
Received: 23 October 2019 / Revised: 7 November 2019 / Accepted: 8 November 2019 / Published: 10 November 2019
Runners were classified using two different methods based on their spontaneous running form: (1) subjectively using the V®score from the Volodalen® scale, leading to terrestrial and aerial groups; and (2) objectively using the duty factor (DF), leading to high (DFhigh) and low (DFlow) DF groups. This study aimed to compare these two classification schemes. Eighty-nine runners were divided in two groups using the V®score (VOL groups) and were also ranked according to their DF. They ran on a treadmill at 12 km·h−1 with simultaneous recording of running kinematics, using a three-dimensional motion capture system. DF was computed from data as the ratio of ground contact time to stride time. The agreement (95% confidence interval) between VOL and DF groups was 79.8% (69.9%, 87.6%), with relatively high sensitivity (81.6% (68.0%, 91.2%)) and specificity (77.5% (61.6%, 89.2%)). Our results suggest that the DF and V®score reflect similar constructs and lead to similar subgroupings of spontaneous running form (aerial runners if DF < 27.6% and terrestrial runners if DF > 28.8% at 12 km·h−1). These results suggest that DF could be a useful objective measure to monitor real-time changes in spontaneous running form using wearable technology. As a forward-looking statement, spontaneous changes in running form during racing or training could assist in identifying fatigue or changes in environmental conditions, allowing for a better understanding of runners. View Full-Text
Keywords: running; biomechanics; running form running; biomechanics; running form
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Patoz, A.; Gindre, C.; Thouvenot, A.; Mourot, L.; Hébert-Losier, K.; Lussiana, T. Duty Factor Is a Viable Measure to Classify Spontaneous Running Forms. Sports 2019, 7, 233.

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