Next Issue
Previous Issue

Table of Contents

Micromachines, Volume 10, Issue 3 (March 2019)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) Laser-ablated superhydrophobic surfaces have received tremendous attention due to their [...] Read more.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-56
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle Process Understanding of Plasma Electrolytic Polishing through Multiphysics Simulation and Inline Metrology
Micromachines 2019, 10(3), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10030214
Received: 27 February 2019 / Revised: 21 March 2019 / Accepted: 22 March 2019 / Published: 26 March 2019
Viewed by 296 | PDF Full-text (8439 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Currently, the demand for surface treatment methods like plasma electrolytic polishing (PeP)—a special case of electrochemical machining—is increasing. This paper provides a literature review on the fundamental mechanisms of the plasma electrolytic polishing process and discusses simulated and experimental results. The simulation shows [...] Read more.
Currently, the demand for surface treatment methods like plasma electrolytic polishing (PeP)—a special case of electrochemical machining—is increasing. This paper provides a literature review on the fundamental mechanisms of the plasma electrolytic polishing process and discusses simulated and experimental results. The simulation shows and describes a modelling approach of the polishing effect during the PeP process. Based on the simulation results, it can be assumed that PeP can be simulated as an electrochemical machining process and that the simulation can be used for roughness and processing time predictions. The simulation results exhibit correlations with the experimentally-achieved approximation for roughness decrease. The experimental part demonstrates the results of the PeP processing for different times. The results for different types of roughness show that roughness decreases exponentially. Additionally, a current efficiency calculation was made. Based on the experimental results, it can be assumed that PeP is a special electrochemical machining process with low passivation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Product/Process Fingerprint in Micro Manufacturing)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditorial Editorial for the Special Issue on Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Based Micro/Nano Devices
Micromachines 2019, 10(3), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10030213
Received: 20 March 2019 / Accepted: 25 March 2019 / Published: 26 March 2019
Viewed by 287 | PDF Full-text (163 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
While conventional group IV or III-V based device technologies have reached their technical limitations (e [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle Fabrication and Characterization of the Li-Doped ZnO Thin Films Piezoelectric Energy Harvester with Multi-Resonant Frequencies
Micromachines 2019, 10(3), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10030212
Received: 12 February 2019 / Revised: 17 March 2019 / Accepted: 22 March 2019 / Published: 26 March 2019
Viewed by 209 | PDF Full-text (5618 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A novel piezoelectric energy harvester with multi-resonant frequencies based on Li-doped ZnO (LZO) thin films is proposed in this paper, consisting of an elastic element with three (or more) different length cantilever beam arrays and a piezoelectric structure (Al/Li-doped ZnO/Pt/Ti). The LZO thin [...] Read more.
A novel piezoelectric energy harvester with multi-resonant frequencies based on Li-doped ZnO (LZO) thin films is proposed in this paper, consisting of an elastic element with three (or more) different length cantilever beam arrays and a piezoelectric structure (Al/Li-doped ZnO/Pt/Ti). The LZO thin films of piezoelectric structure were prepared on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si by using a radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method under certain process conditions. When the LZO thin films were deposited with an LZO target concentration of 5 wt%, the piezoelectric coefficient d33 was 9.86 pm/V. Based on this, the energy harvester chips were fabricated on a <100> silicon substrate using micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology, and its performance can be measured by fixing it to a printed circuit board (PCB) test substrate. The experimental results show that, when exerting an external vibration acceleration of 2.2 g and a vibration frequency of 999 Hz, the energy harvester can achieve a big load voltage of 1.02 V at a load resistance of 600 kΩ, and a high load power of 2.3 µW at a load resistance of 200 kΩ. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section A:Physics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Electromechanical Modeling of a Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvesting Microdevice Based on Multilayer Resonator for Air Conditioning Vents at Office Buildings
Micromachines 2019, 10(3), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10030211
Received: 19 February 2019 / Revised: 11 March 2019 / Accepted: 18 March 2019 / Published: 26 March 2019
Viewed by 377 | PDF Full-text (14525 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting (pVEH) microdevices can convert the mechanical vibrations to electrical voltages. In the future, these microdevices can provide an alternative to replace the electrochemical batteries, which cause contamination due to their toxic materials. We present the electromechanical modeling of a [...] Read more.
Piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting (pVEH) microdevices can convert the mechanical vibrations to electrical voltages. In the future, these microdevices can provide an alternative to replace the electrochemical batteries, which cause contamination due to their toxic materials. We present the electromechanical modeling of a pVEH microdevice with a novel resonant structure for air conditioning vents at office buildings. This electromechanical modeling includes different multilayers and cross-sections of the microdevice resonator as well as the air damping. This microdevice uses a flexible substrate and it does not include toxics materials. The microdevice has a resonant structure formed by multilayer beams and U-shape proof mass of UV-resin (730 μm thickness). The multilayer beams contain flexible substrates (160 μm thickness) of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), two aluminum electrodes (100 nm thickness), and a ZnO layer (2 μm thickness). An analytical model is developed to predict the first bending resonant frequency and deflections of the microdevice. This model considers the Rayleigh and Macaulay methods, and the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. In addition, the electromechanical behavior of the microdevice is determined through the finite element method (FEM) models. In these FEM models, the output power of the microdevice is obtained using different sinusoidal accelerations. The microdevice has a resonant frequency of 60.3 Hz, a maximum deflection of 2.485 mm considering an acceleration of 1.5 m/s2, an output voltage of 2.854 V and generated power of 37.45 μW with a load resistance of 217.5 kΩ. An array of pVEH microdevices connected in series could be used to convert the displacements of air conditioning vents at office buildings into voltages for electronic devices and sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Miniaturised Energy Harvesting)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Design and Analysis of a Turning Dynamometer Embedded in Thin-Film Sensor
Micromachines 2019, 10(3), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10030210
Received: 30 January 2019 / Revised: 22 March 2019 / Accepted: 25 March 2019 / Published: 26 March 2019
Viewed by 244 | PDF Full-text (3554 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper proposes a high-strain sensitivity turning dynamometer that combines several thin-film resistor grids into three Wheatstone full-bridge circuits that can measure triaxial cutting forces. This dynamometer can replace different cutter heads using flange connections. In order to improve the strain effect of [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a high-strain sensitivity turning dynamometer that combines several thin-film resistor grids into three Wheatstone full-bridge circuits that can measure triaxial cutting forces. This dynamometer can replace different cutter heads using flange connections. In order to improve the strain effect of the dynamometer, the strain film sensor is fixed on the regular octagonal connection plates on both ends of the elastomer by vacuum brazing, and the stepped groove structure is also designed inside the elastomer. The dynamometer model is simplified as a four-segment cantilever beam which has different sections. The measurement mechanism model of the dynamometer system is established by the transformation relationship between deflection and strain, under external force. The standard turning tool of 20 mm square is used as a reference. The influence of the structural dimensions of the dynamometer on its strain sensitivity coefficient K is studied. The applicability of the theoretical model of dynamometer strain is verified by finite element analysis. Finally, the dynamometer with the largest K value is subjected to the bending test and compared with a standard turning tool. The experimental results show that the measurement sensitivity of the dynamometer is 2.32 times greater than that of the standard turning tool. The results also show that this dynamometer can effectively avoid the influence of the pasting process on strain transmission, thus indicating its great potential for measuring cutting force in the future. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCommunication Automatic Morphology Control of Liquid Metal using a Combined Electrochemical and Feedback Control Approach
Micromachines 2019, 10(3), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10030209
Received: 4 March 2019 / Revised: 17 March 2019 / Accepted: 25 March 2019 / Published: 26 March 2019
Viewed by 274 | PDF Full-text (2912 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Gallium-based liquid metal alloys have been attracting attention from both industry and academia as soft, deformable, reconfigurable and multifunctional materials in microfluidic, electronic and electromagnetic devices. Although various technologies have been explored to control the morphology of liquid metals, there is still a [...] Read more.
Gallium-based liquid metal alloys have been attracting attention from both industry and academia as soft, deformable, reconfigurable and multifunctional materials in microfluidic, electronic and electromagnetic devices. Although various technologies have been explored to control the morphology of liquid metals, there is still a lack of methods that can achieve precise morphological control over a free-standing liquid metal droplet without the use of mechanical confinement. Electrochemical manipulation can be relatively easy to apply to liquid metals, but there is a need for techniques that can enable automatic and precise control. Here, we investigate the use of an electrochemical technique combined with a feedback control system to automatically and precisely control the morphology of a free-standing liquid metal droplet in a sodium hydroxide solution. We establish a proof-of-concept platform controlled by a microcontroller to demonstrate the reconfiguration of a liquid metal droplet to desired patterns. We expect that this method will be further developed to realize future reconfigurable liquid metal-enabled soft robots. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section D:Materials and Processing)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Design and Fabrication of an Artificial Compound Eye for Multi-Spectral Imaging
Micromachines 2019, 10(3), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10030208
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 17 March 2019 / Accepted: 22 March 2019 / Published: 25 March 2019
Viewed by 200 | PDF Full-text (4296 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The artificial compound eye (ACE) structure is a new type of miniaturized, lightweight and intelligent imaging system. This paper has proposed to design a multi-spectral ACE structure to enable the structure to achieve multi-spectral information on the basis of imaging. The sub-eyes in [...] Read more.
The artificial compound eye (ACE) structure is a new type of miniaturized, lightweight and intelligent imaging system. This paper has proposed to design a multi-spectral ACE structure to enable the structure to achieve multi-spectral information on the basis of imaging. The sub-eyes in the compound eye structure have been designed as diffractive beam splitting lenses with the same focal length of 20 mm, but with the different designed center wavelengths of 650 nm, 532 nm, and 445 nm, respectively. The proximity exposure lithography and reactive ion etching process were used to prepare the designed multi-spectral ACE structure, and the spectral splitting and multi-spectral imaging experiments were carried out to verify the multi-spectral imaging function of the structure without axial movement. Furthermore, the structure can be designed according to actual requirements, which can be applied to covert reconnaissance, camouflage identification, gas leakage or other fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Product/Process Fingerprint in Micro Manufacturing)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Mechanophenotyping of B16 Melanoma Cell Variants for the Assessment of the Efficacy of (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate Treatment Using a Tapered Microfluidic Device
Micromachines 2019, 10(3), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10030207
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 12 March 2019 / Accepted: 17 March 2019 / Published: 25 March 2019
Viewed by 200 | PDF Full-text (5214 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Metastatic cancer cells are known to have a smaller cell stiffness than healthy cells because the small stiffness is beneficial for passing through the extracellular matrix when the cancer cells instigate a metastatic process. Here we developed a simple and handy microfluidic system [...] Read more.
Metastatic cancer cells are known to have a smaller cell stiffness than healthy cells because the small stiffness is beneficial for passing through the extracellular matrix when the cancer cells instigate a metastatic process. Here we developed a simple and handy microfluidic system to assess metastatic capacity of the cancer cells from a mechanical point of view. A tapered microchannel was devised through which a cell was compressed while passing. Two metastasis B16 melanoma variants (B16-F1 and B16-F10) were examined. The shape recovery process of the cell from a compressed state was evaluated with the Kelvin–Voigt model. The results demonstrated that the B16-F10 cells showed a larger time constant of shape recovery than B16-F1 cells, although no significant difference in the initial strain was observed between B16-F1 cells and B16-F10 cells. We further investigated effects of catechin on the cell deformability and found that the deformability of B16-F10 cells was significantly decreased and became equivalent to that of untreated B16-F1 cells. These results addressed the utility of the present system to handily but roughly assess the metastatic capacity of cancer cells and to investigate drug efficacy on the metastatic capacity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano Devices for Blood Analysis)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A High Sensitive Flexible Pressure Sensor Designed by Silver Nanowires Embedded in Polyimide (AgNW-PI)
Micromachines 2019, 10(3), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10030206
Received: 20 February 2019 / Revised: 17 March 2019 / Accepted: 19 March 2019 / Published: 24 March 2019
Viewed by 239 | PDF Full-text (7543 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Silver nanowires (AgNW) have excellent electrical conductivity, transparency, and flexing endurance, and are broadly used in flexible electrodes and flexible sensors. This study mixed the silver nanowires and polyimide (PI) polymer using an in situ synthesis method, effectively reducing the problem of silver [...] Read more.
Silver nanowires (AgNW) have excellent electrical conductivity, transparency, and flexing endurance, and are broadly used in flexible electrodes and flexible sensors. This study mixed the silver nanowires and polyimide (PI) polymer using an in situ synthesis method, effectively reducing the problem of silver nanowires falling off the substrate. The selective wet etching method was firstly used to process the surface of AgNW-PI films, greatly enhancing the surface conductivity of AgNW-PI films. A flexible pressure sensor with high sensitivity was designed with two face-to-face AgNW-PI ultrathin layers. The experimental results show that our sensor presented a high sensitivity of about 1.3294 kPa−1 under a pressure of about 600 Pa, and when pressure continued to increase, the sensitivity decreased rapidly and reached saturation. Our flexible pressure sensor has the properties of low cost, high sensitivity, excellent repeatability, durability, and can detect various types of mechanical forces which could be utilized for flexible electronics. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Design of a Novel Axial Gas Pulses Micromixer and Simulations of its Mixing Abilities via Computational Fluid Dynamics
Micromachines 2019, 10(3), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10030205
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 13 March 2019 / Accepted: 19 March 2019 / Published: 23 March 2019
Viewed by 262 | PDF Full-text (2382 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Following the fast development of microfluidics over the last decade, the need for methods for mixing two gases in flow at an overall flow rate ranging from 1 to 100 NmL·min−1 with programmable mixing ratios has been quickly increasing in many fields [...] Read more.
Following the fast development of microfluidics over the last decade, the need for methods for mixing two gases in flow at an overall flow rate ranging from 1 to 100 NmL·min−1 with programmable mixing ratios has been quickly increasing in many fields of application, especially in the calibration of analytical devices such as air pollution sensors. This work investigates numerically the mixing of pure gas pulses at flow rates in the range 1–100 NmL·min−1 in a newly designed multi-stage and modular micromixer composed of 4 buffer tanks of 300 µL each per stage. Results indicate that, for a 1 s pulse of pure gas (formaldehyde) followed by a 9 s pulse of pure carrier gas (air), that is a pulses ratio of 1/10, an effective mixing up to 94–96% can be readily obtained at the exit of the micromixer. This is achieved in less than 20 s for any flow rate ranging from 1 to 100 NmL·min−1 simply by adjusting the number of stages, 1 to 16 respectively. By using an already diluted gas bottle containing 100 ppm of a given compound in an inert gas same as the carrier gas, concentrations ranging from 10 to 90 ppm should be obtained by adjusting the pulses ratio between 1/10 and 9/10 respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Flows in Microsystems)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle An Automated and Miniaturized Rotating-Disk Device for Rapid Nucleic Acid Extraction
Micromachines 2019, 10(3), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10030204
Received: 7 February 2019 / Revised: 8 March 2019 / Accepted: 20 March 2019 / Published: 22 March 2019
Viewed by 230 | PDF Full-text (2575 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The result of molecular diagnostic and detection greatly dependent on the quality and integrity of the isolated nucleic acid. In this work, we developed an automated miniaturized nucleic acid extraction device based on magnetic beads method, consisting of four components including a sample [...] Read more.
The result of molecular diagnostic and detection greatly dependent on the quality and integrity of the isolated nucleic acid. In this work, we developed an automated miniaturized nucleic acid extraction device based on magnetic beads method, consisting of four components including a sample processing disc and its associated rotary power output mechanism, a pipetting module, a magnet module and an external central controller to enable a customizable and automated robust nucleic acid sample preparation. The extracted nucleic acid using 293T cells were verified using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the data implies a comparable efficiency to a manual process, with the advantages of performing a flexible, time-saving (~10 min), and simple nucleic acid sample preparation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microfluidics for Cell and Other Organisms)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Development of the Troponin Detection System Based on the Nanostructure
Micromachines 2019, 10(3), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10030203
Received: 19 February 2019 / Revised: 17 March 2019 / Accepted: 17 March 2019 / Published: 22 March 2019
Viewed by 243 | PDF Full-text (1559 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
During the last 30 years, the World Health Organization (WHO) reported a gradual increase in the number of patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD), not only in developed but also in developing countries. In particular, acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is one of the severe [...] Read more.
During the last 30 years, the World Health Organization (WHO) reported a gradual increase in the number of patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD), not only in developed but also in developing countries. In particular, acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is one of the severe CVDs because of the high death rate, damage to the body, and various complications. During these harmful effects, rapid diagnosis of AMI is key for saving patients with CVD in an emergency. The prompt diagnosis and proper treatment of patients with AMI are important to increase the survival rate of these patients. To treat patients with AMI quickly, detection of a CVD biomarker at an ultra-low concentration is essential. Cardiac troponins (cTNs), cardiac myoglobin (cMB), and creatine kinase MB are typical biomarkers for AMI detection. An increase in the levels of those biomarkers in blood implies damage to cardiomyocytes and thus is related to AMI progression. In particular, cTNs are regarded as a gold standard biomarker for AMI diagnosis. The conventional TN detection system for detection of AMI requires long measurement time and is labor-intensive and tedious. Therefore, the demand for sensitive and selective TN detection techniques is increasing at present. To meet this demand, several approaches and methods have been applied to develop a TN detection system based on a nanostructure. In the present review, the authors reviewed recent advances in TN biosensors with a focus on four detection systems: (1) An electrochemical (EC) TN nanobiosensor, (2) field effect transistor (FET)-based TN nanobiosensor, (3) surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based TN nanobiosensor and (4) surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS)-based TN nanobiosensor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Miniature Soft Biomedical Devices)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle The Influence of AlN Intermediate Layer on the Structural and Chemical Properties of SiC Thin Films Produced by High-Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering
Micromachines 2019, 10(3), 202; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10030202
Received: 10 February 2019 / Revised: 12 March 2019 / Accepted: 15 March 2019 / Published: 22 March 2019
Viewed by 236 | PDF Full-text (1594 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Many strategies have been developed for the synthesis of silicon carbide (SiC) thin films on silicon (Si) substrates by plasma-based deposition techniques, especially plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) and magnetron sputtering, due to the importance of these materials for microelectronics and related [...] Read more.
Many strategies have been developed for the synthesis of silicon carbide (SiC) thin films on silicon (Si) substrates by plasma-based deposition techniques, especially plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) and magnetron sputtering, due to the importance of these materials for microelectronics and related fields. A drawback is the large lattice mismatch between SiC and Si. The insertion of an aluminum nitride (AlN) intermediate layer between them has been shown useful to overcome this problem. Herein, the high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) technique was used to grow SiC thin films on AlN/Si substrates. Furthermore, SiC films were also grown on Si substrates. A comparison of the structural and chemical properties of SiC thin films grown on the two types of substrate allowed us to evaluate the influence of the AlN layer on such properties. The chemical composition and stoichiometry of the samples were investigated by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and Raman spectroscopy, while the crystallinity was characterized by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD). Our set of results evidenced the versatility of the HiPIMS technique to produce polycrystalline SiC thin films at near-room temperature by only varying the discharge power. In addition, this study opens up a feasible route for the deposition of crystalline SiC films with good structural quality using an AlN intermediate layer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SiC based Miniaturized Devices)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Three-Dimensionally Structured Flexible Fog Harvesting Surfaces Inspired by Namib Desert Beetles
Micromachines 2019, 10(3), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10030201
Received: 27 February 2019 / Revised: 15 March 2019 / Accepted: 19 March 2019 / Published: 22 March 2019
Viewed by 285 | PDF Full-text (1680 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Fog harvesting of the Namib desert beetles has inspired many researchers to design artificial fog harvesting hybrid surfaces, which commonly involve flat hydrophilic patterns on hydrophobic surfaces. However, relatively less interest has been shown in the bumpy topography of the Namib desert beetle’s [...] Read more.
Fog harvesting of the Namib desert beetles has inspired many researchers to design artificial fog harvesting hybrid surfaces, which commonly involve flat hydrophilic patterns on hydrophobic surfaces. However, relatively less interest has been shown in the bumpy topography of the Namib desert beetle’s dorsal surface as well as its curved body shape when designing artificial hybrid surfaces. In this work, we explore a fog harvesting flexible hybrid surface that has a superhydrophilic 3D copper oxide pattern on a hydrophobic rough elastomer background surface enabled by transferring a copper layer from a prepared donor substrate to a receiving elastomer substrate. The water collection rates of the hybrid surface and control samples are measured, and the results reveal the advantages of 3D bumpy structures on a curved shape surface to facilitate fog harvesting, particularly in more unfavorable fog stream conditions. The curved 3D bumpy hybrid surface exhibits an over 16 times higher water collection rate than the flat 2D hybrid surface in the fog stream in parallel to the hybrid surface. This work provides an improved understanding of the role of the Namib desert beetle’s bumpy dorsal surface and curved body shape, and offers an insight into the design of novel surfaces with enhanced fog harvesting performance. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Single-Sided Near-Field Wireless Power Transfer by A Three-Dimensional Coil Array
Micromachines 2019, 10(3), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10030200
Received: 13 February 2019 / Revised: 8 March 2019 / Accepted: 19 March 2019 / Published: 21 March 2019
Viewed by 215 | PDF Full-text (8019 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wirelessly powered medical microrobots are often driven or localized by magnetic resonance imaging coils, whose signal-to-noise ratio is easily affected by the power transmitter coils that supply the microrobot. A controlled single-sided wireless power transmitter can enhance the imaging quality and suppress the [...] Read more.
Wirelessly powered medical microrobots are often driven or localized by magnetic resonance imaging coils, whose signal-to-noise ratio is easily affected by the power transmitter coils that supply the microrobot. A controlled single-sided wireless power transmitter can enhance the imaging quality and suppress the radiation leakage. This paper presents a new form of electromagnet which automatically cancels the magnetic field to the back lobes by replacing the traditional circular coils with a three-dimensional (3D) coil scheme inspired by a generalized form of Halbach arrays. It is shown that, along with the miniaturization of the transmitter system, it allows for improved magnetic field intensity in the target side. Measurement of the produced magnetic patterns verifies that the power transfer to the back lobe is 15-fold smaller compared to the corresponding distance on the main lobe side, whilst maintaining a powering efficiency similar to that of conventional planar coils. To show the application of the proposed array, a wireless charging pad with an effective powering area of 144 cm2 is fabricated on 3D-assembled printed circuit boards. This 3D structure obviates the need for traditional magnetic shield materials that place limitations on the working frequency and suffer from non-linearity and hysteresis effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Implantable Microdevices)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Deformation of a Red Blood Cell in a Narrow Rectangular Microchannel
Micromachines 2019, 10(3), 199; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10030199
Received: 14 February 2019 / Revised: 15 March 2019 / Accepted: 16 March 2019 / Published: 21 March 2019
Viewed by 223 | PDF Full-text (2262 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The deformability of a red blood cell (RBC) is one of the most important biological parameters affecting blood flow, both in large arteries and in the microcirculation, and hence it can be used to quantify the cell state. Despite numerous studies on the [...] Read more.
The deformability of a red blood cell (RBC) is one of the most important biological parameters affecting blood flow, both in large arteries and in the microcirculation, and hence it can be used to quantify the cell state. Despite numerous studies on the mechanical properties of RBCs, including cell rigidity, much is still unknown about the relationship between deformability and the configuration of flowing cells, especially in a confined rectangular channel. Recent computer simulation techniques have successfully been used to investigate the detailed behavior of RBCs in a channel, but the dynamics of a translating RBC in a narrow rectangular microchannel have not yet been fully understood. In this study, we numerically investigated the behavior of RBCs flowing at different velocities in a narrow rectangular microchannel that mimicked a microfluidic device. The problem is characterized by the capillary number C a , which is the ratio between the fluid viscous force and the membrane elastic force. We found that confined RBCs in a narrow rectangular microchannel maintained a nearly unchanged biconcave shape at low C a , then assumed an asymmetrical slipper shape at moderate C a , and finally attained a symmetrical parachute shape at high C a . Once a RBC deformed into one of these shapes, it was maintained as the final stable configurations. Since the slipper shape was only found at moderate C a , measuring configurations of flowing cells will be helpful to quantify the cell state. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano Devices for Blood Analysis)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Novel WiFi/MEMS Integrated Indoor Navigation System Based on Two-Stage EKF
Micromachines 2019, 10(3), 198; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10030198
Received: 22 February 2019 / Revised: 18 March 2019 / Accepted: 19 March 2019 / Published: 20 March 2019
Viewed by 225 | PDF Full-text (4863 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Indoor navigation has been developing rapidly over the last few years. However, it still faces a number of challenges and practical issues. This paper proposes a novel WiFi/MEMS integration structure for indoor navigation. The two-stage structure uses the extended Kalman filter (EKF) to [...] Read more.
Indoor navigation has been developing rapidly over the last few years. However, it still faces a number of challenges and practical issues. This paper proposes a novel WiFi/MEMS integration structure for indoor navigation. The two-stage structure uses the extended Kalman filter (EKF) to fuse the information from WiFi/MEMS sensors and contains attitude-determination EKF and position-tracking EKF. In the WiFi part, a partition solution called “moving partition” is originally proposed in this paper. This solution significantly reduces the computation time and enhances the performance of the traditional Weighted K-Nearest Neighbors (WKNN) method. Furthermore, the direction measurement is generated utilizing WiFi positioning results, and a “turn detection” is implemented to guarantee the effectiveness. The navigation performance of the presented integration structure has been verified through indoor experiments. The test results indicate that the proposed WiFi/MEMS solution works well. The root mean square (RMS) position error of WiFi/MEMS is 0.7926 m, which is an improvement of 20.59% and 36.60% when compared to MEMS and WiFi alone. Besides, the proposed algorithm still performs well with very few access points (AP) available and its stability has been proven. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Serrated Chips Formation in Micro Orthogonal Cutting of Ti6Al4V Alloys with Equiaxial and Martensitic Microstructures
Micromachines 2019, 10(3), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10030197
Received: 27 February 2019 / Revised: 11 March 2019 / Accepted: 15 March 2019 / Published: 20 March 2019
Viewed by 206 | PDF Full-text (3728 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The formation of serrated chips is an important feature during machining of difficult-to-cut materials, such as titanium alloy, nickel based alloy, and some steels. In this study, Ti6Al4V alloys with equiaxial and acicular martensitic microstructures were adopted to analyze the effects of material [...] Read more.
The formation of serrated chips is an important feature during machining of difficult-to-cut materials, such as titanium alloy, nickel based alloy, and some steels. In this study, Ti6Al4V alloys with equiaxial and acicular martensitic microstructures were adopted to analyze the effects of material structures on the formation of serrated chips in straight line micro orthogonal machining. The martensitic alloy was obtained using highly efficient electropulsing treatment (EPT) followed by water quenching. The results showed that serrated chips could be formed on both Ti6Al4V alloys, however the chip features varied with material microstructures. The number of chip segments per unit length of the alloy with martensite was more than that of the equiaxial alloy due to poor ductility. Besides, the average cutting and thrust forces were about 8.41 and 4.53 N, respectively, for the equiaxed Ti6Al4V alloys, which were consistently lower than those with a martensitic structure. The high cutting force of martensitic alloy is because of the large yield stress required to overcome plastic deformation, and this force is also significantly affected by the orientations of the martensite. Power spectral density (PSD) analyses indicated that the characteristic frequency of cutting force variation of the equiaxed alloy ranged from 100 to 200 Hz, while it ranged from 200 to 400 Hz for workpieces with martensites, which was supposedly due to the formation of serrated chips during the machining process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section D:Materials and Processing)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Robust Model-Free Adaptive Iterative Learning Control for Vibration Suppression Based on Evidential Reasoning
Micromachines 2019, 10(3), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10030196
Received: 11 February 2019 / Revised: 10 March 2019 / Accepted: 13 March 2019 / Published: 19 March 2019
Viewed by 230 | PDF Full-text (10569 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Through combining P-type iterative learning (IL) control, model-free adaptive (MFA) control and sliding mode (SM) control, a robust model-free adaptive iterative learning (MFA-IL) control approach is presented for the active vibration control of piezoelectric smart structures. Considering the uncertainty of the interaction among [...] Read more.
Through combining P-type iterative learning (IL) control, model-free adaptive (MFA) control and sliding mode (SM) control, a robust model-free adaptive iterative learning (MFA-IL) control approach is presented for the active vibration control of piezoelectric smart structures. Considering the uncertainty of the interaction among actuators in the learning control process, MFA control is adopted to adaptively adjust the learning gain of the P-type IL control in order to improve the convergence speed of feedback gain. In order to enhance the robustness of the system and achieve fast response for error tracking, the SM control is integrated with the MFA control to design the appropriate learning gain. Real-time feedback gains which are extracted from controllers construct the basic probability functions (BPFs). The evidence theory is adopted to the design and experimental investigations on a piezoelectric smart cantilever plate are performed to validate the proposed control algorithm. The results demonstrate that the robust MFA-IL control presents a faster learning speed, higher robustness and better control performance in vibration suppression when compared with the P-type IL control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Transducers: Materials, Devices and Applications)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Selective Detection of Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells Based on the Aptamer-Conjugated Self-Assembled Monolayer of Gold Nanoparticles
Micromachines 2019, 10(3), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10030195
Received: 19 February 2019 / Revised: 9 March 2019 / Accepted: 17 March 2019 / Published: 19 March 2019
Viewed by 319 | PDF Full-text (3168 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study established a microfluidic chip for the capture of A549 human lung circulating tumor cells via the aptamer-conjugated self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in the channel. AuNPs are among the most attractive nanomaterials for the signal enhancement of biosensors owing [...] Read more.
This study established a microfluidic chip for the capture of A549 human lung circulating tumor cells via the aptamer-conjugated self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in the channel. AuNPs are among the most attractive nanomaterials for the signal enhancement of biosensors owing to their unique chemical, physical, and mechanical properties. The microchip was fabricated using soft photolithography and casting and molding techniques. A self-assembly method was designed to attach AuNPs, cell-specific aptamers, and target cells onto the desired area (i.e., SAM area). In this study, the gold microelectrode configuration was characterized by fluorescence microscopy and impedance measurements to confirm the important modification steps. Subsequently, several investigations with the proposed assay were conducted with different cell samples to determine the specific binding ability of the device for A549 adenocarcinoma cancer cells. This work has ensured a simple, convenient, selective, and sensitive approach for the development of biosensors for lung cancer detection during the early stages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microfluidics Technologies for Cell-based Assays)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Tunable Graphene-based Plasmonic Perfect Metamaterial Absorber in the THz Region
Micromachines 2019, 10(3), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10030194
Received: 9 January 2019 / Revised: 1 March 2019 / Accepted: 15 March 2019 / Published: 18 March 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 260 | PDF Full-text (2585 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The optical performance of a periodically tunable plasma perfect metamaterial absorber based on a square-square-circle array we propose in the terahertz region is analyzed in this work by the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. We not only discuss the impact of various [...] Read more.
The optical performance of a periodically tunable plasma perfect metamaterial absorber based on a square-square-circle array we propose in the terahertz region is analyzed in this work by the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. We not only discuss the impact of various parameters such as period a, length L, radius R, and incident angle θ under transverse magnetic (TM)- and transverse electric (TE)-polarization on the absorption spectra of the absorber but also study the effect of the Fermi energy EF and relaxation time τ. Finally, we simulate the spectra as the surrounding refractive index n changes to better evaluate the sensing performance of the structure, producing a sensitivity S of the structure of up to 15006 nm/RIU. On account of this research, we find that the absorber is beneficial to sensors and detectors in the terahertz region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasmonics: From Materials to Devices)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Development of a Toluene Detector Based on Deep UV Absorption Spectrophotometry Using Glass and Aluminum Capillary Tube Gas Cells with a LED Source
Micromachines 2019, 10(3), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10030193
Received: 14 February 2019 / Revised: 8 March 2019 / Accepted: 11 March 2019 / Published: 18 March 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 191 | PDF Full-text (2334 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A simple deep-ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectrophotometer based on ultraviolet light-emitting diode (UV LED) was developed for the detection of air-borne toluene with a good sensitivity. A fiber-coupled deep UV-LED was employed as a light source, and a spectrometer was used as a detector [...] Read more.
A simple deep-ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectrophotometer based on ultraviolet light-emitting diode (UV LED) was developed for the detection of air-borne toluene with a good sensitivity. A fiber-coupled deep UV-LED was employed as a light source, and a spectrometer was used as a detector with a gas cell in between. 3D printed opto-fluidics connectors were designed to integrate the gas flow with UV light. Two types of hollow core waveguides (HCW) were tested as gas cells: a glass capillary tube with aluminum-coated inner walls and an aluminum capillary tube. The setup was tested for different toluene concentrations (10–100 ppm), and a linear relationship was observed with sensitivities of 0.20 mA·U/ppm and 0.32 mA·U/ppm for the glass and aluminum HCWs, respectively. The corresponding limits of detection were found to be 8.1 ppm and 12.4 ppm, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Flows in Microsystems)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Rapid Prototyping of Soft Lithography Masters for Microfluidic Devices Using Dry Film Photoresist in a Non-Cleanroom Setting
Micromachines 2019, 10(3), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10030192
Received: 12 February 2019 / Revised: 10 March 2019 / Accepted: 11 March 2019 / Published: 15 March 2019
Viewed by 277 | PDF Full-text (7065 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fabrication of microfluidic devices by soft lithography is by far the most popular approach due to simplicity and low cost. In this approach PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) is cast on a photoresist master to generate replicas that are then sealed against glass slides using oxygen [...] Read more.
Fabrication of microfluidic devices by soft lithography is by far the most popular approach due to simplicity and low cost. In this approach PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) is cast on a photoresist master to generate replicas that are then sealed against glass slides using oxygen plasma. In this work, we demonstrated fabrication of soft photolithography masters using lamination of ADEX dry film as an alternative to the now classic SU-8 resist masters formed by spin coating. Advantages of using ADEX dry film include the easily-achievable uniform thickness without edge bead; simplicity of the process with significant time savings due to non-sticky nature of the film; and fewer health concerns due to less toxic developing solution and antimony-free composition. As we demonstrate, the process can be performed in a low-cost improvised fabrication room in ambient light, in place of a conventional yellow-light cleanroom environment. We believe this approach holds the promise of delivering state-of-the-art microfluidic techniques to the broad field of biomedical and pharmaceutical research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Micromachines)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Cavitating Flow through a Micro-Orifice
Micromachines 2019, 10(3), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10030191
Received: 17 February 2019 / Revised: 10 March 2019 / Accepted: 11 March 2019 / Published: 15 March 2019
Viewed by 212 | PDF Full-text (3835 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Microfluidic systems have witnessed rapid development in recent years. As one of the most common structures, the micro-orifice is always included inside microfluidic systems. Hydrodynamic cavitation in the micro-orifice has been experimentally discovered and is harmful to microfluidic systems. This paper investigates cavitating [...] Read more.
Microfluidic systems have witnessed rapid development in recent years. As one of the most common structures, the micro-orifice is always included inside microfluidic systems. Hydrodynamic cavitation in the micro-orifice has been experimentally discovered and is harmful to microfluidic systems. This paper investigates cavitating flow through a micro-orifice. A rectangular micro-orifice with a l/d ratio varying from 0.25 to 4 was selected and the pressure difference between the inlet and outlet varied from 50 to 300 kPa. Results show that cavitation intensity increased with an increase in pressure difference. Decreasing exit pressure led to a decrease in cavitation number and cavitation could be prevented by increasing the exit pressure. In addition, the vapor cavity also increased with an increase in pressure difference and l/d ratio. Results also show the pressure ratio at cavitation inception was 1.8 when l/d was above 0.5 and the cavitation number almost remained constant when l/d was larger than 2. Moreover, there was an apparent difference in cavitation number depending on whether l/d was larger than 1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section A:Physics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Design and Evaluation of a Novel Hybrid Soft Surgical Gripper for Safe Digital Nerve Manipulation
Micromachines 2019, 10(3), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10030190
Received: 13 February 2019 / Revised: 7 March 2019 / Accepted: 12 March 2019 / Published: 15 March 2019
Viewed by 218 | PDF Full-text (10661 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Forceps are essential tools for digital nerve manipulation during digital nerve repair surgery. However, surgeons have to operate forceps with extreme caution to prevent detrimental post-operative complications caused by over-gripping force. Their intrinsically safe characteristics have led to the increasing adoption of soft [...] Read more.
Forceps are essential tools for digital nerve manipulation during digital nerve repair surgery. However, surgeons have to operate forceps with extreme caution to prevent detrimental post-operative complications caused by over-gripping force. Their intrinsically safe characteristics have led to the increasing adoption of soft robotics in various biomedical applications. In this paper, a miniaturized hybrid soft surgical gripper is proposed for safe nerve manipulation in digital nerve repair surgery. This new surgical gripper includes a soft inflatable actuator and a gripper shell with a hook-shaped structure. The ability to achieve a compliant grip and safe interaction with digital nerves is provided by the inflated soft pneumatic actuator, while the rigid hook retractor still allows surgeons to scoop up the nerve from its surrounding tissues during surgery. The performance of the proposed surgical gripper was evaluated by the contact/pulling force sensing experiments and deformation measurement experiments. In the cadaver experiments, this new surgical gripper was able to complete the required nerve manipulation within the limited working space. The average deformation of the digital nerve with an average diameter of 1.45 mm gripped by the proposed surgical gripper is less than 0.22 mm. The average deformity is less than 15% of its original diameter. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Single-Molecule Detection of DNA in a Nanochannel by High-Field Strength-Assisted Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy
Micromachines 2019, 10(3), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10030189
Received: 10 February 2019 / Revised: 12 March 2019 / Accepted: 12 March 2019 / Published: 15 March 2019
Viewed by 239 | PDF Full-text (3680 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Many researchers have fabricated micro and nanofluidic devices incorporating optical, chemical, and electrical detection systems with the aim of achieving on-chip analysis of macromolecules. The present study demonstrates a label-free detection of DNA using a nanofluidic device based on impedance measurements that is [...] Read more.
Many researchers have fabricated micro and nanofluidic devices incorporating optical, chemical, and electrical detection systems with the aim of achieving on-chip analysis of macromolecules. The present study demonstrates a label-free detection of DNA using a nanofluidic device based on impedance measurements that is both sensitive and simple to operate. Using this device, the electrophoresis and dielectrophoresis effect on DNA conformation and the length dependence were examined. A low alternating voltage was applied to the nanogap electrodes to generate a high intensity field (>0.5 MV/m) under non-faradaic conditions. In addition, a 100 nm thick gold electrode was completely embedded in the substrate to allow direct measurements of a solution containing the sample passing through the gap, without any surface modification required. The high intensity field in this device produced a dielectrophoretic force that stretched the DNA molecule across the electrode gap at a specific frequency, based on back and forth movements between the electrodes with the DNA in a random coil conformation. The characteristics of 100 bp, 500 bp, 1 kbp, 5 kbp, 10 kbp, and 48 kbp λ DNA associated with various conformations were quantitatively analyzed with high resolution (on the femtomolar level). The sensitivity of this system was found to be more than about 10 orders of magnitude higher than that obtained from conventional linear alternating current (AC) impedance for the analysis of bio-polymers. This new high-sensitivity process is expected to be advantageous with regard to the study of complex macromolecules and nanoparticles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical (Bio)sensors for Biomarkers Analysis)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Effect of Etching Depth on Threshold Characteristics of GaSb-Based Middle Infrared Photonic-Crystal Surface-Emitting Lasers
Micromachines 2019, 10(3), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10030188
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 12 March 2019 / Accepted: 13 March 2019 / Published: 14 March 2019
Viewed by 207 | PDF Full-text (4221 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We study the effect of etching depth on the threshold characteristics of GaSb-based middle infrared (Mid-IR) photonic-crystal surface-emitting lasers (PCSELs) with different lattice periods. The below-threshold emission spectra are measured to identify the bandgap as well as band-edge modes. Moreover, the bandgap separation [...] Read more.
We study the effect of etching depth on the threshold characteristics of GaSb-based middle infrared (Mid-IR) photonic-crystal surface-emitting lasers (PCSELs) with different lattice periods. The below-threshold emission spectra are measured to identify the bandgap as well as band-edge modes. Moreover, the bandgap separation widens with increasing etching depth as a result of enhanced diffraction feedback coupling. However, the coupling is nearly independent of lattice period. The relationship between threshold gain and Bragg detuning is also experimentally determined for PCSELs and is similar to that calculated theoretically for one-dimensional distributed feedback lasers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infrared Nanophotonics: Materials, Devices, and Applications)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Sub-ppb Level Detection of BTEX Gaseous Mixtures with a Compact Prototype GC Equipped with a Preconcentration Unit
Micromachines 2019, 10(3), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10030187
Received: 8 February 2019 / Revised: 4 March 2019 / Accepted: 7 March 2019 / Published: 13 March 2019
Viewed by 267 | PDF Full-text (2494 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, a compact gas chromatograph prototype for near real-time benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) detection at sub-ppb levels has been developed. The system is composed of an aluminium preconcentrator (PC) filled with Basolite C300, a 20 m long Rxi-624 capillary [...] Read more.
In this work, a compact gas chromatograph prototype for near real-time benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) detection at sub-ppb levels has been developed. The system is composed of an aluminium preconcentrator (PC) filled with Basolite C300, a 20 m long Rxi-624 capillary column and a photoionization detector. The performance of the device has been evaluated in terms of adsorption capacity, linearity and sensitivity. Initially, PC breakthrough time for an equimolar 1 ppm BTEX mixture has been determined showing a remarkable capacity of the adsorbent to quantitatively trap BTEX even at high concentrations. Then, a highly linear relationship between sample volume and peak area has been obtained for all compounds by injecting 100-ppb samples with volumes ranging from 5–80 mL. Linear plots were also observed when calibration was conducted in the range 0–100 ppb using a 20 mL sampling volume implying a total analysis time of 19 min. Corresponding detection limits of 0.20, 0.26, 0.49, 0.80 and 1.70 ppb have been determined for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m/p-xylenes and o-xylene, respectively. These experimental results highlight the potential applications of our device to monitor indoor or outdoor air quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Flows in Microsystems)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Design, Fabrication and Experiment of Double U-Beam MEMS Vibration Ring Gyroscope
Micromachines 2019, 10(3), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10030186
Received: 12 February 2019 / Revised: 2 March 2019 / Accepted: 8 March 2019 / Published: 13 March 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 223 | PDF Full-text (11531 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study presents a new microelectromechanical system, a vibration ring gyroscope with a double U-beam (DUVRG), which was designed using a combination of mathematical analysis and the finite element method. First, a ring vibration resonator with eight double U-beam structures was developed, and [...] Read more.
This study presents a new microelectromechanical system, a vibration ring gyroscope with a double U-beam (DUVRG), which was designed using a combination of mathematical analysis and the finite element method. First, a ring vibration resonator with eight double U-beam structures was developed, and 24 capacitive electrodes were designed for drive and sense according to the advantageous characteristics of a thin-shell vibrating gyroscope. Then, based on the elastic mechanics and thin-shell theory, a mathematical stiffness model of the double U-beam was established. The maximum mode resonant frequency error calculated by the DUVRG stiffness model, finite element analysis (FEA) and experiments was 0.04%. DUVRG structures were manufactured by an efficient fabrication process using silicon-on-glass (SOG) and deep reactive ion etching (DRIE), and the FEA value and theoretical calculation had differences of 5.33% and 5.36% with the measured resonant frequency value, respectively. Finally, the static and dynamic performance of the fabricated DUVRG was tested, and the bias instability and angular random walk were less than 8.86 (°)/h and 0.776 (°)/√h, respectively. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Technological Platform for Vertical Multi-Wafer Integration of Microscanners and Micro-Optical Components
Micromachines 2019, 10(3), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10030185
Received: 12 February 2019 / Revised: 26 February 2019 / Accepted: 4 March 2019 / Published: 13 March 2019
Viewed by 239 | PDF Full-text (10210 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We describe an original integration technological platform for the miniaturization of micromachined on-chip optical microscopes, such as the laser scanning confocal microscope. The platform employs the multi-wafer vertical integration approach, combined with integrated glass-based micro-optics as well as micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) components, where [...] Read more.
We describe an original integration technological platform for the miniaturization of micromachined on-chip optical microscopes, such as the laser scanning confocal microscope. The platform employs the multi-wafer vertical integration approach, combined with integrated glass-based micro-optics as well as micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) components, where the assembly uses the heterogeneous bonding and interconnecting technologies. Various heterogeneous components are disposed in vertically stacked building blocks (glass microlens, MEMS actuator, beamsplitter, etc.) in a minimum space. The platform offers the integrity and potential of MEMS microactuators integrated with micro-optics, providing miniaturized and low cost solutions to create micromachined on-chip optical microscopes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heterogeneous Integration for Optical Micro and Nanosystems)
Figures

Figure 1

Micromachines EISSN 2072-666X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top