Special Issue "Piezoelectric Transducers: Materials, Devices and Applications"

A special issue of Micromachines (ISSN 2072-666X). This special issue belongs to the section "A:Physics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Jose Luis Sanchez-Rojas
Website
Guest Editor
Microsystems, Actuators and Sensors Lab, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071, Ciudad Real, Spain
Interests: MEMS/NEMS; Piezoelectric microsystems; integrated sensors and transducers; miniaturization of instrumentation for applications in chemistry, food technology, robotics, biotechnology and IoT
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Advances in miniaturization of sensors, actuators, and smart systems are receiving substantial industrial attention, and a wide variety of transducers are commercially available or with high potential to impact emerging markets. Substituting existing products based on bulk materials, in fields such as automotive, environment, food, robotics, medicine, biotechnology, communications, and other technologies, with reduced size, lower cost, and higher performance, is now possible, with potential for manufacturing using advanced silicon integrated circuits technology or alternative additive techniques from the mili- to the nano-scale.

In this Special Issue, which is focused on piezoelectric transducers, a wide range of topics are covered, including the design, fabrication, characterization, packaging, and system integration or final applications of mili/micro/nano-electro-mechanical systems based transducers:

  • Materials research oriented towards piezoelectric transducers and intelligent systems
  • Processes and fabrication technologies for piezoelectric sensors and actuators
  • Modelling, design, and simulation of piezoelectric transducer devices
  • Devices and circuits for Internet of Things focused on piezoelectric transducer applications
  • Resonant and travelling wave piezoelectric sensors and actuators
  • Chemical and bio-transducers based on piezoelectric devices
  • Calibration, characterization, and testing techniques
  • Reliability and failure analysis
  • System integration, interface electronics, and power consumption
  • Applications and markets, and control and measurement systems

Prof. Jose Luis Sanchez-Rojas
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Micromachines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Piezoelectric devices
  • Sensors
  • Actuators
  • MEMS
  • NEMS
  • Smart Systems
  • Microsystems
  • Miniaturization
  • Polymers
  • Additive manufacturing

Published Papers (34 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
PIN-PMN-PT Single Crystal 1-3 Composite-based 20 MHz Ultrasound Phased Array
Micromachines 2020, 11(5), 524; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11050524 - 21 May 2020
Abstract
Based on a modified dice-and-fill technique, a PIN-PMN-PT single crystal 1-3 composite with the kerf of 12 μm and pitch of 50 μm was prepared. The as-made piezoelectric composite material behaved with high piezoelectric constant (d33 = 1500 pC/N), high electromechanical coefficient [...] Read more.
Based on a modified dice-and-fill technique, a PIN-PMN-PT single crystal 1-3 composite with the kerf of 12 μm and pitch of 50 μm was prepared. The as-made piezoelectric composite material behaved with high piezoelectric constant (d33 = 1500 pC/N), high electromechanical coefficient (kt = 0.81), and low acoustic impedance (16.2 Mrayls). Using lithography and flexible circuit method, a 48-element phased array was successfully fabricated from such a piezoelectric composite. The array element was measured to have a central frequency of 20 MHz and a fractional bandwidth of approximately 77% at −6 dB. Of particular significance was that this PIN-PMN-PT single crystal 1-3 composite-based phased array exhibits a superior insertion loss compared with PMN-PT single crystal and PZT-5H-based 20 MHz phased arrays. The focusing and steering capabilities of the obtained phased array were demonstrated theoretically and experimentally. These promising results indicate that the PIN-PMN-PT single crystal 1-3 composite-based high frequency phased array is a good candidate for ultrasound imaging applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Transducers: Materials, Devices and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Research on Asymmetric Hysteresis Modeling and Compensation of Piezoelectric Actuators with PMPI Model
Micromachines 2020, 11(4), 357; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11040357 - 30 Mar 2020
Abstract
Because of fast frequency response, high stiffness, and displacement resolution, the piezoelectric actuators (PEAs) are widely used in micro/nano driving field. However, the hysteresis nonlinearity behavior of the PEAs affects seriously the further improvement of manufacturing accuracy. In this paper, we focus on [...] Read more.
Because of fast frequency response, high stiffness, and displacement resolution, the piezoelectric actuators (PEAs) are widely used in micro/nano driving field. However, the hysteresis nonlinearity behavior of the PEAs affects seriously the further improvement of manufacturing accuracy. In this paper, we focus on the modeling of asymmetric hysteresis behavior and compensation of PEAs. First, a polynomial-modified Prandtl–Ishlinskii (PMPI) model is proposed for the asymmetric hysteresis behavior. Compared with classical Prandtl–Ishlinskii (PI) model, the PMPI model can be used to describe both symmetric and asymmetric hysteresis. Then, the congruency property of PMPI model is analyzed and verified. Next, based on the PMPI model, the inverse model (I-M) compensator is designed for hysteresis compensation. The stability of the I-M compensator is analyzed. Finally, the simulation and experiment are carried out to verify the accuracy of the PMPI model and the I-M compensator. The results implied that the PMPI model can effectively describe the asymmetric hysteresis, and the I-M compensator can well suppress the hysteresis characteristics of PEAs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Transducers: Materials, Devices and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Motion of a Legged Bidirectional Miniature Piezoelectric Robot Based on Traveling Wave Generation
Micromachines 2020, 11(3), 321; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11030321 - 20 Mar 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
This article reports on the locomotion performance of a miniature robot that features 3D-printed rigid legs driven by linear traveling waves (TWs). The robot structure was a millimeter-sized rectangular glass plate with two piezoelectric patches attached, which allowed for traveling wave generation at [...] Read more.
This article reports on the locomotion performance of a miniature robot that features 3D-printed rigid legs driven by linear traveling waves (TWs). The robot structure was a millimeter-sized rectangular glass plate with two piezoelectric patches attached, which allowed for traveling wave generation at a frequency between the resonant frequencies of two contiguous flexural modes. As a first goal, the location and size of the piezoelectric patches were calculated to maximize the structural displacement while preserving a standing wave ratio close to 1 (cancellation of wave reflections from the boundaries). The design guidelines were supported by an analytical 1D model of the structure and could be related to the second derivative of the modal shapes without the need to rely on more complex numerical simulations. Additionally, legs were bonded to the glass plate to facilitate the locomotion of the structure; these were fabricated using 3D stereolithography printing, with a range of lengths from 0.5 mm to 1.5 mm. The optimal location of the legs was deduced from the profile of the traveling wave envelope. As a result of integrating both the optimal patch length and the legs, the speed of the robot reached as high as 100 mm/s, equivalent to 5 body lengths per second (BL/s), at a voltage of 65 Vpp and a frequency of 168 kHz. The blocking force was also measured and results showed the expected increase with the mass loading. Furthermore, the robot could carry a load that was 40 times its weight, opening the potential for an autonomous version with power and circuits on board for communication, control, sensing, or other applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Transducers: Materials, Devices and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
System-Level Model and Simulation of a Frequency-Tunable Vibration Energy Harvester
Micromachines 2020, 11(1), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11010091 - 14 Jan 2020
Abstract
In this paper, we present a macroscale multiresonant vibration-based energy harvester. The device features frequency tunability through magnetostatic actuation on the resonator. The magnetic tuning scheme uses external magnets on linear stages. The system-level model demonstrates autonomous adaptation of resonance frequency to the [...] Read more.
In this paper, we present a macroscale multiresonant vibration-based energy harvester. The device features frequency tunability through magnetostatic actuation on the resonator. The magnetic tuning scheme uses external magnets on linear stages. The system-level model demonstrates autonomous adaptation of resonance frequency to the dominant ambient frequencies. The harvester is designed such that its two fundamental modes appear in the range of (50,100) Hz which is a typical frequency range for vibrations found in industrial applications. The dual-frequency characteristics of the proposed design together with the frequency agility result in an increased operative harvesting frequency range. In order to allow a time-efficient simulation of the model, a reduced order model has been derived from a finite element model. A tuning control algorithm based on maximum-voltage tracking has been implemented in the model. The device was characterized experimentally to deliver a power output of 500 µW at an excitation level of 0.5 g at the respected frequencies of 63.3 and 76.4 Hz. In a design optimization effort, an improved geometry has been derived. It yields more close resonance frequencies and optimized performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Transducers: Materials, Devices and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Single-Neuron Adaptive Hysteresis Compensation of Piezoelectric Actuator Based on Hebb Learning Rules
Micromachines 2020, 11(1), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11010084 - 12 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
This paper presents an adaptive hysteresis compensation approach for a piezoelectric actuator (PEA) using single-neuron adaptive control. For a given desired trajectory, the control input to the PEA is dynamically adjusted by the error between the actual and desired trajectories using Hebb learning [...] Read more.
This paper presents an adaptive hysteresis compensation approach for a piezoelectric actuator (PEA) using single-neuron adaptive control. For a given desired trajectory, the control input to the PEA is dynamically adjusted by the error between the actual and desired trajectories using Hebb learning rules. A single neuron with self-learning and self-adaptive capabilities is a non-linear processing unit, which is ideal for time-variant systems. Based on the single-neuron control, the compensation of the PEA’s hysteresis can be regarded as a process of transmitting biological neuron information. Through the error information between the actual and desired trajectories, the control input is adjusted via the weight adjustment method of neuron learning. In addition, this paper also integrates the combination of Hebb learning rules and supervised learning as teacher signals, which can quickly respond to control signals. The weights of the single-neuron controller can be constantly adjusted online to improve the control performance of the system. Experimental results show that the proposed single-neuron adaptive hysteresis compensation method can track continuous and discontinuous trajectories well. The single-neuron adaptive controller has better adaptive and self-learning performance against the rate-dependence of the PEA’s hysteresis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Transducers: Materials, Devices and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
A Piezo-Electromagnetic Coupling Multi-Directional Vibration Energy Harvester Based on Frequency Up-Conversion Technique
Micromachines 2020, 11(1), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11010080 - 11 Jan 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Harvesting vibration energy to power wearable devices has become a hot research topic, while the output power and conversion efficiency of a vibration energy harvester with a single electromechanical conversion mechanism is low and the working frequency band and load range are narrow. [...] Read more.
Harvesting vibration energy to power wearable devices has become a hot research topic, while the output power and conversion efficiency of a vibration energy harvester with a single electromechanical conversion mechanism is low and the working frequency band and load range are narrow. In this paper, a new structure of piezoelectric electromagnetic coupling up-conversion multi-directional vibration energy harvester is proposed. Four piezoelectric electromagnetic coupling cantilever beams are installed on the axis of the base along the circumferential direction. Piezoelectric plates are set on the surface of each cantilever beam to harvest energy. The permanent magnet on the beam is placed on the free end of the cantilever beam as a mass block. Four coils for collecting energy are arranged on the base under the permanent magnets on the cantilever beams. A bearing is installed on the central shaft of the base and a rotating mass block is arranged on the outer ring of the bearing. Four permanent magnets are arranged on the rotating mass block and their positions correspond to the permanent magnets on the cantilever beams. The piezoelectric cantilever is induced to vibrate at its natural frequency by the interaction between the magnet on cantilever and the magnets on the rotating mass block. It can collect the nonlinear impact vibration energy of low-frequency motion to meet the energy harvesting of human motion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Transducers: Materials, Devices and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Compensation of Hysteresis in the Piezoelectric Nanopositioning Stage under Reciprocating Linear Voltage Based on a Mark-Segmented PI Model
Micromachines 2020, 11(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11010009 - 19 Dec 2019
Abstract
The nanopositioning stage with a piezoelectric driver usually compensates for the nonlinear outer-loop hysteresis characteristic of the piezoelectric effect using the Prandtl–Ishlinskii (PI) model under a single-ring linear voltage, but cannot accurately describe the characteristics of the inner-loop hysteresis under the reciprocating linear [...] Read more.
The nanopositioning stage with a piezoelectric driver usually compensates for the nonlinear outer-loop hysteresis characteristic of the piezoelectric effect using the Prandtl–Ishlinskii (PI) model under a single-ring linear voltage, but cannot accurately describe the characteristics of the inner-loop hysteresis under the reciprocating linear voltage. In order to improve the accuracy of the nanopositioning, this study designs a nanopositioning stage with a double-parallel guiding mechanism. On the basis of the classical PI model, the study firstly identifies the hysteresis rate tangent slope mark points, then segments and finally proposes a phenomenological model—the mark-segmented Prandtl–Ishlinskii (MSPI) model. The MSPI model, which is fitted together by each segment, can further improve the fitting accuracy of the outer-loop hysteresis nonlinearity, while describing the inner-loop hysteresis nonlinearity perfectly. The experimental results of the inverse model compensation control show that the MSPI model can achieve 99.6% reciprocating linear voltage inner-loop characteristic accuracy. Compared with the classical PI model, the 81.6% accuracy of the hysteresis loop outer loop is improved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Transducers: Materials, Devices and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Design, Analysis, and Experiment on a Novel Stick-Slip Piezoelectric Actuator with a Lever Mechanism
Micromachines 2019, 10(12), 863; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10120863 - 08 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
A piezoelectric actuator using a lever mechanism is designed, fabricated, and tested with the aim of accomplishing long-travel precision linear driving based on the stick-slip principle. The proposed actuator mainly consists of a stator, an adjustment mechanism, a preload mechanism, a base, and [...] Read more.
A piezoelectric actuator using a lever mechanism is designed, fabricated, and tested with the aim of accomplishing long-travel precision linear driving based on the stick-slip principle. The proposed actuator mainly consists of a stator, an adjustment mechanism, a preload mechanism, a base, and a linear guide. The stator design, comprising a piezoelectric stack and a lever mechanism with a long hinge used to increase the displacement of the driving foot, is described. A simplified model of the stator is created. Its design parameters are determined by an analytical model and confirmed using the finite element method. In a series of experiments, a laser displacement sensor is employed to measure the displacement responses of the actuator under the application of different driving signals. The experiment results demonstrate that the velocity of the actuator rises from 0.05 mm/s to 1.8 mm/s with the frequency increasing from 30 Hz to 150 Hz and the voltage increasing from 30 V to 150 V. It is shown that the minimum step distance of the actuator is 0.875 μm. The proposed actuator features large stroke, a simple structure, fast response, and high resolution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Transducers: Materials, Devices and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Study on the Critical Wind Speed of a Resonant Cavity Piezoelectric Energy Harvester Driven by Driving Wind Pressure
Micromachines 2019, 10(12), 842; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10120842 - 01 Dec 2019
Abstract
In order to solve the problem of continuous and stable power supply for vehicle sensors, a resonant cavity piezoelectric energy harvester driven by driving wind pressure was designed. The harvester has an effective working range of wind speed. According to the energy conservation [...] Read more.
In order to solve the problem of continuous and stable power supply for vehicle sensors, a resonant cavity piezoelectric energy harvester driven by driving wind pressure was designed. The harvester has an effective working range of wind speed. According to the energy conservation law, the cut-in (initial) wind speed of the harvester was solved. The pressure distribution law of the elastic beam in the flow field was studied by the Fluent software package, and the results were loaded into a finite element model with a method of partition loading. The relationship between the wind speed and the maximum principal stress of the piezoelectric cantilever beam was analyzed, and the critical stress method was used to study the cut-out wind speed of the energy harvester. The results show that the cut-in wind speed of the piezoelectric energy harvester is 5.29 m/s, and the cut-out wind speed is 24 m/s. Finally, an experiment on the power generation performance of the energy harvester was carried out. The experimental results show that the cut-in and cut-out wind speeds of the piezoelectric energy harvester are 5 m/s and 24 m/s, respectively, and the best matching load is 60 kΩ. The average output power, generated by the harvester when the driving wind speed is 22 m/s, is 0.145 mW, and the corresponding power density is 1.2 mW/cm3. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Transducers: Materials, Devices and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Visual Servo Control System of a Piezoelectric2-Degree-of-Freedom Nano-Stepping Motor
Micromachines 2019, 10(12), 811; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10120811 - 25 Nov 2019
Abstract
A nano-stepping motor can translate or rotate when its piezoelectric element pair is electrically driven in-phase or anti-phase. It offers millimeter-level stroke, sub-micron-level stepping size, and sub-nanometer-level scanning resolution. This article proposes a visual servo system to control the nano-stepping motor, since its [...] Read more.
A nano-stepping motor can translate or rotate when its piezoelectric element pair is electrically driven in-phase or anti-phase. It offers millimeter-level stroke, sub-micron-level stepping size, and sub-nanometer-level scanning resolution. This article proposes a visual servo system to control the nano-stepping motor, since its stepping size is not consistent due to changing contact friction, using a custom built microscopic instrument and image recognition software. Three kinds of trajectories—straight lines, circles, and pentagrams—are performed successfully. The smallest straightness and roundness ever tested are 0.291 µm and 2.380 µm. Experimental results show that the proposed controller can effectively compensate for the error and precisely navigate the rotor along a desired trajectory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Transducers: Materials, Devices and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Physical Characteristics of and Transient Response from Thin Cylindrical Piezoelectric Transducers Used in a Petroleum Logging Tool
Micromachines 2019, 10(12), 804; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10120804 - 22 Nov 2019
Abstract
We report on a transient response model of thin cylindrical piezoelectric transducers used in the petroleum logging tools, parallel to a recently established transient response model of thin spherical-shell transducers. Established on a series of parallel-connected equivalent-circuits, this model provides insightful information on [...] Read more.
We report on a transient response model of thin cylindrical piezoelectric transducers used in the petroleum logging tools, parallel to a recently established transient response model of thin spherical-shell transducers. Established on a series of parallel-connected equivalent-circuits, this model provides insightful information on the physical characteristics of the thin cylindrical piezoelectric transducers, i.e., the transient response, center-frequency, and directivity of the transducer. We have developed a measurement system corresponding to the new model to provide a state-of-the-art comparison between theory and experiment. We found that the measured results were in good agreement with those of theoretical calculations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Transducers: Materials, Devices and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Simulation of an Adaptive Fluid-Membrane Piezoelectric Lens
Micromachines 2019, 10(12), 797; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10120797 - 20 Nov 2019
Abstract
In this paper, we present a finite-element simulation of an adaptive piezoelectric fluid-membrane lens for which we modelled the fluid-structure interaction and resulting membrane deformation in COMSOL Multiphysics®. Our model shows the explicit coupling of the piezoelectric physics with the fluid [...] Read more.
In this paper, we present a finite-element simulation of an adaptive piezoelectric fluid-membrane lens for which we modelled the fluid-structure interaction and resulting membrane deformation in COMSOL Multiphysics®. Our model shows the explicit coupling of the piezoelectric physics with the fluid dynamics physics to simulate the interaction between the piezoelectric and the fluid forces that contribute to the deformation of a flexible membrane in the adaptive lens. Furthermore, the simulation model is extended to describe the membrane deformation by additional fluid forces from the fluid thermal expansion. Subsequently, the simulation model is used to study the refractive power of the adaptive lens as a function of internal fluid pressure and analyze the effect of the fluid thermal expansion on the refractive power. Finally, the simulation results of the refractive power are compared to the experimental results at different actuation levels and temperatures validating the coupled COMSOL model very well. This is explicitly proven by explaining an observed positive drift of the refractive power at higher temperatures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Transducers: Materials, Devices and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Piezoelectric Transducer Stimulating Sites on the Performance of Implantable Middle Ear Hearing Devices: A Numerical Analysis
Micromachines 2019, 10(11), 782; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10110782 - 14 Nov 2019
Abstract
To overcome the inherent deficiencies of hearing aids, implantable middle ear hearing devices (IMEHDs) have emerged as a new treatment for hearing loss. However, clinical results show that the IMEHD performance varies with its transducer’s stimulating site. To numerically analyze the influence of [...] Read more.
To overcome the inherent deficiencies of hearing aids, implantable middle ear hearing devices (IMEHDs) have emerged as a new treatment for hearing loss. However, clinical results show that the IMEHD performance varies with its transducer’s stimulating site. To numerically analyze the influence of the piezoelectric transducer’s stimulating sites on its hearing compensation performance, we constructed a human ear finite element model and confirmed its validity. Based on this finite element model, the displacement stimulation, which simulates the piezoelectric transducer’s stimulation, was applied to the umbo, the incus long process, the incus body, the stapes, and the round window membrane, respectively. Then, the stimulating site’s effect of the piezoelectric transducer was analyzed by comparing the corresponding displacements of the basilar membrane. Besides, the stimulating site’s sensitivity to the direction of excitation was also studied. The result of the finite element analysis shows that stimulating the incus body is least efficient for the piezoelectric transducer. Meanwhile, stimulating the round window membrane or the stapes generates a higher basilar membrane displacement than stimulating the eardrum or the incus long process. However, the performance of these two ideal sites’ stimulation is sensitive to the changes in the excitation’s direction. Thus, the round window membrane and the stapes is the ideal stimulating sites for the piezoelectric transducer regarding the driving efficiency. The direction of the excitation should be guaranteed for these ideal sites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Transducers: Materials, Devices and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
A Study on the Effects of Bottom Electrode Designs on Aluminum Nitride Contour-Mode Resonators
Micromachines 2019, 10(11), 758; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10110758 - 07 Nov 2019
Abstract
This study presents the effects of bottom electrode designs on the operation of laterally vibrating aluminum nitride (AlN) contour-mode resonators (CMRs). A total of 160 CMRs were analyzed with varying bottom electrode areas at two resonant frequencies (f0) of about [...] Read more.
This study presents the effects of bottom electrode designs on the operation of laterally vibrating aluminum nitride (AlN) contour-mode resonators (CMRs). A total of 160 CMRs were analyzed with varying bottom electrode areas at two resonant frequencies (f0) of about 230 MHz and 1.1 GHz. Specifically, we analyzed the impact of bottom electrode coverage rates on the resonator quality factor (Q) and electromechanical coupling (k2), which are important parameters for Radio Frequency (RF) and sensing applications. From our experiments, Q exhibited different trends to electrode coverage rates depending on the device resonant frequencies, while k2 increased with the coverage rate regardless of f0. Along with experimental measurements, our finite element analysis (FEA) revealed that the bottom electrode coverage rate determines the active (or vibrating) region of the resonator and, thus, directly impacts Q. Additionally, to alleviate thermoelastic damping (TED) and focus on mechanical damping effects, we analyzed the device performance at 10 K. Our findings indicated that a careful design of bottom electrodes could further improve both Q and k2 of AlN CMRs, which ultimately determines the power budget and noise level of the resonator in integrated oscillators and sensor systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Transducers: Materials, Devices and Applications)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
A Novel Capacitance-Based In-Situ Pressure Sensor for Wearable Compression Garments
Micromachines 2019, 10(11), 743; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10110743 - 31 Oct 2019
Abstract
This paper pertains to the development & evaluation of a dielectric electroactive polymer-based tactile pressure sensor and its circuitry. The evaluations conceived target the sensor’s use case as an in-situ measurement device assessing load conditions imposed by compression garments in either static form [...] Read more.
This paper pertains to the development & evaluation of a dielectric electroactive polymer-based tactile pressure sensor and its circuitry. The evaluations conceived target the sensor’s use case as an in-situ measurement device assessing load conditions imposed by compression garments in either static form or dynamic pulsations. Several testing protocols are described to evaluate and characterize the sensor’s effectiveness for static and dynamic response such as repeatability, linearity, dynamic effectiveness, hysteresis effects of the sensor under static conditions, sensitivity to measurement surface curvature and temperature and humidity effects. Compared to pneumatic sensors in similar physiological applications, this sensor presents several significant advantages including better spatial resolution, compact packaging, manufacturability for smaller footprints and overall simplicity for use in array configurations. The sampling rates and sensitivity are also less prone to variability compared to pneumatic pressure sensors. The presented sensor has a high sampling rate of 285 Hz that can further assist with the physiological applications targeted for improved cardiac performance. An average error of ± 5.0 mmHg with a frequency of 1–2 Hz over a range of 0 to 120 mmHg was achieved when tested cyclically. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Transducers: Materials, Devices and Applications)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Reliability of Protective Coatings for Flexible Piezoelectric Transducers in Aqueous Environments
Micromachines 2019, 10(11), 739; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10110739 - 31 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Electronic devices used for marine applications suffer from several issues that can compromise their performance. In particular, water absorption and permeation can lead to the corrosion of metal parts or short-circuits. The added mass due to the absorbed water affects the inertia and [...] Read more.
Electronic devices used for marine applications suffer from several issues that can compromise their performance. In particular, water absorption and permeation can lead to the corrosion of metal parts or short-circuits. The added mass due to the absorbed water affects the inertia and durability of the devices, especially for flexible and very thin micro-systems. Furthermore, the employment of such delicate devices underwater is unavoidably subjected to the adhesion of microorganisms and formation of biofilms that limit their reliability. Thus, the demand of waterproofing solutions has increased in recent years, focusing on more conformal, flexible and insulating coatings. This work introduces an evaluation of different polymeric coatings (parylene-C, poly-dimethyl siloxane (PDMS), poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA), and poly-(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)) aimed at increasing the reliability of piezoelectric flexible microdevices used for sensing water motions or for scavenging wave energy. Absorption and corrosion tests showed that Parylene-C, while susceptible to micro-cracking during prolonged oscillating cycles, exhibits the best anti-corrosive behavior. Parylene-C was then treated with oxygen plasma and UV/ozone for modifying the surface morphology in order to evaluate the biofilm formation with different surface conditions. A preliminary characterization through a laser Doppler vibrometer allowed us to detect a reduction in the biofilm mass surface density after 35 days of exposure to seawater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Transducers: Materials, Devices and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Oscillating U-Shaped Body for Underwater Piezoelectric Energy Harvester Power Optimization
Micromachines 2019, 10(11), 737; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10110737 - 30 Oct 2019
Abstract
Vibration energy harvesting (VeH) techniques by means of intentionally designed mechanisms have been used in the last decade for frequency bandwidth improvement under excitation for adequately high-vibration amplitudes. Oil, gas, and water are vital resources that are usually transported by extensive pipe networks. [...] Read more.
Vibration energy harvesting (VeH) techniques by means of intentionally designed mechanisms have been used in the last decade for frequency bandwidth improvement under excitation for adequately high-vibration amplitudes. Oil, gas, and water are vital resources that are usually transported by extensive pipe networks. Therefore, wireless self-powered sensors are a sustainable choice to monitor in-pipe system applications. The mechanism, which is intended for water pipes with diameters of 2–5 inches, contains a piezoelectric beam assembled to the oscillating body. A novel U-shaped geometry of an underwater energy harvester has been designed and implemented. Then, the results have been compared with the traditional circular cylinder shape. At first, a numerical study has been carried at Reynolds numbers Re = 3000, 6000, 9000, and 12,000 in order to capture as much as kinetic energy from the water flow. Consequently, unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier–Stokes (URANS)-based simulations are carried out to investigate the dynamic forces under different conditions. In addition, an Adaptive Differential Evolution (JADE) multivariable optimization algorithm has been implemented for the optimal design of the harvester and the maximization of the power extracted from it. The results show that the U-shaped geometry can extract more power from the kinetic energy of the fluid than the traditional circular cylinder harvester under the same conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Transducers: Materials, Devices and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Research on the Cascade-Connected Transducer with Multi-Segment Used in the Acoustic Telemetry System while Drilling
Micromachines 2019, 10(10), 712; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10100712 - 21 Oct 2019
Abstract
The electroacoustic transducer with the performances of low frequency, small size, and high power is desired in the application of the acoustic telemetry system while drilling. In order to fulfill the severe requirements, a novel cascade-connected transducer with multi-segment is developed. The essential [...] Read more.
The electroacoustic transducer with the performances of low frequency, small size, and high power is desired in the application of the acoustic telemetry system while drilling. In order to fulfill the severe requirements, a novel cascade-connected transducer with multi-segment is developed. The essential framework of such a transducer is to add the cross-beams in the multi-segment cascade-connected arrangement, based on the fundamental configuration of the longitudinal transducer. The flexural vibrations of cross-beams help the transducer to present the appropriate coupling between longitudinal and flexural vibrations, which provide many benefits in keeping the advantages of the longitudinal transducer and lowering the resonance frequency. It is the finite element method to be used for simulating the mode shapes of the cascade-connected transducer, especially the behavior of the cross-beams, and some performances of transducer are also predicted. Several prototypes of cascade-connected transducers with different segments are manufactured. Their related tests show a good agreement with the finite element simulations and analyses. Their characteristics of low frequency, small size, light weight, and high power are attractive for the transmitting or receiving application in the acoustic telemetry system while drilling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Transducers: Materials, Devices and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
A Frequency Up-Converted Hybrid Energy Harvester Using Transverse Impact-Driven Piezoelectric Bimorph for Human-Limb Motion
Micromachines 2019, 10(10), 701; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10100701 - 15 Oct 2019
Abstract
Energy harvesting from human-body-induced motion is mostly challenging due to the low-frequency, high-amplitude nature of the motion, which makes the use of conventional cantilevered spring-mass oscillators unrealizable. Frequency up-conversion by mechanical impact is an effective way to overcome the challenge. However, direct impact [...] Read more.
Energy harvesting from human-body-induced motion is mostly challenging due to the low-frequency, high-amplitude nature of the motion, which makes the use of conventional cantilevered spring-mass oscillators unrealizable. Frequency up-conversion by mechanical impact is an effective way to overcome the challenge. However, direct impact on the transducer element (especially, piezoelectric) increases the risk of damaging it and raises questions on the reliability of the energy harvester. In order to overcome this shortcoming, we proposed a transverse mechanical impact driven frequency up-converted hybrid energy harvester for human-limb motion. It utilizes the integration of both piezoelectric and electromagnetic transducers in a given size that allows more energy to be harvested from a single mechanical motion, which, in turn, further improves the power density. While excited by human-limb motion, a freely-movable non-magnetic sphere exerts transverse impact by periodically sliding over a seismic mass attached to a double-clamped piezoelectric bimorph beam. This allows the beam to vibrate at its resonant frequency and generates power by means of the piezoelectric effect. A magnet attached to the beam also takes part in generating power by inducing voltage in a coil adjacent to it. A mathematical model has been developed and experimentally corroborated. At a periodic limb-motion of 5.2 Hz, maximum 93 µW and 61 µW average powers (overall 8 µW·cm−3 average power density) were generated by the piezoelectric and the electromagnetic transducers, respectively. Moreover, the prototype successfully demonstrated the application of low-power electronics via suitable AC-DC converters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Transducers: Materials, Devices and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a Class-C Power Amplifier with Diode Expander Architecture for Point-of-Care Ultrasound Systems
Micromachines 2019, 10(10), 697; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10100697 - 14 Oct 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Point-of-care ultrasound systems are widely used in ambulances and emergency rooms. However, the excessive heat generated from ultrasound transmitters has an impact on the implementation of piezoelectric transducer elements and on battery consumption, thereby affecting the system’s sensitivity and resolution. Non-linear power amplifiers, [...] Read more.
Point-of-care ultrasound systems are widely used in ambulances and emergency rooms. However, the excessive heat generated from ultrasound transmitters has an impact on the implementation of piezoelectric transducer elements and on battery consumption, thereby affecting the system’s sensitivity and resolution. Non-linear power amplifiers, such as class-C amplifiers, could substitute linear power amplifiers, such as class-A amplifiers, which are currently used in point-of-care ultrasound systems. However, class-C power amplifiers generate less output power, resulting in a reduction of system sensitivity. To overcome this issue, we propose a new diode expander architecture dedicated to power amplifiers to reduce the effects of sinusoidal pulses toward the power supply. Thus, the proposed architecture could increase the input pulse amplitudes applied to the main transistors in the power amplifiers, hence increasing the output voltage of such amplifiers. To verify the proposed concept, pulse-echo responses from an ultrasonic transducer were tested with the developed class-C power amplifier using a resistor divider and the designed diode expander architecture. The peak-to-peak amplitude of the echo signals of the ultrasonic transducers when using a class-C power amplifier with a diode expander architecture (2.98 Vp–p) was higher than that for the class-C power amplifier with a resistor divider architecture (2.51 Vp–p). Therefore, the proposed class-C power amplifier with diode expander architecture is a potential candidate for improving the sensitivity performance of piezoelectric transducers for point-of-care ultrasound systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Transducers: Materials, Devices and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
A Modified Duhem Model for Rate-Dependent Hysteresis Behaviors
Micromachines 2019, 10(10), 680; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10100680 - 09 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Hysteresis behaviors are inherent characteristics of piezoelectric ceramic actuators. The classical Duhem model (CDM) as a popular hysteresis model has been widely used, but cannot precisely describe rate-dependent hysteresis behaviors at high-frequency and high-amplitude excitations. To describe such behaviors more precisely, this paper [...] Read more.
Hysteresis behaviors are inherent characteristics of piezoelectric ceramic actuators. The classical Duhem model (CDM) as a popular hysteresis model has been widely used, but cannot precisely describe rate-dependent hysteresis behaviors at high-frequency and high-amplitude excitations. To describe such behaviors more precisely, this paper presents a modified Duhem model (MDM) by introducing trigonometric functions based on the analysis of the existing experimental data. The MDM parameters are also identified by using the nonlinear least squares method. Six groups of experiments with different frequencies or amplitudes are conducted to evaluate the MDM performance. The research results demonstrate that the MDM can more precisely characterize the rate-dependent hysteresis behaviors comparing with the CDM at high-frequency and high-amplitude excitations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Transducers: Materials, Devices and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
A Low-Frequency MEMS Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting System Based on Frequency Up-Conversion Mechanism
Micromachines 2019, 10(10), 639; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10100639 - 24 Sep 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
This paper proposes an impact-based micro piezoelectric energy harvesting system (PEHS) working with the frequency up-conversion mechanism. The PEHS consists of a high-frequency straight piezoelectric cantilever (SPC), a low-frequency S-shaped stainless-steel cantilever (SSC), and supporting frames. During the vibration, the frequency up-conversion behavior [...] Read more.
This paper proposes an impact-based micro piezoelectric energy harvesting system (PEHS) working with the frequency up-conversion mechanism. The PEHS consists of a high-frequency straight piezoelectric cantilever (SPC), a low-frequency S-shaped stainless-steel cantilever (SSC), and supporting frames. During the vibration, the frequency up-conversion behavior is realized through the impact between the bottom low-frequency cantilever and the top high-frequency cantilever. The SPC used in the system is fabricated using a new micro electromechanical system (MEMS) fabrication process for a piezoelectric thick film on silicon substrate. The output performances of the single SPC and the PEHS under different excitation accelerations are tested. In the experiment, the normalized power density of the PEHS is 0.216 μW·g−1·Hz−1·cm−3 at 0.3 g acceleration, which is 34 times higher than that of the SPC at the same acceleration level of 0.3 g. The PEHS can improve the output power under the low frequency and low acceleration scenario. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Transducers: Materials, Devices and Applications)
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Open AccessCommunication
Piezoelectric Impedance-Based Non-Destructive Testing Method for Possible Identification of Composite Debonding Depth
Micromachines 2019, 10(9), 621; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10090621 - 17 Sep 2019
Abstract
Detecting the depth and size of debonding in composite structures is essential for assessing structural safety as it can weaken the structure possibly leading to a failure. As composite materials are used in various fields up to date including aircrafts and bridges, inspections [...] Read more.
Detecting the depth and size of debonding in composite structures is essential for assessing structural safety as it can weaken the structure possibly leading to a failure. As composite materials are used in various fields up to date including aircrafts and bridges, inspections are carried out to maintain structural integrity. Although many inspection methods exist for detection damage of composites, most of the techniques require trained experts or a large equipment that can be time consuming. In this study, the possibility of using the piezoelectric material-based non-destructive method known as the electromechanical impedance (EMI) technique is used to identify the depth of debonding damage of glass epoxy laminates. Laminates with various thicknesses were prepared and tested to seek for the possibility of using the EMI technique for identifying the depth of debonding. Results show promising outcome for bringing the EMI technique a step closer for commercialization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Transducers: Materials, Devices and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
A Resonant Z-Axis Aluminum Nitride Thin-Film Piezoelectric MEMS Accelerometer
Micromachines 2019, 10(9), 589; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10090589 - 06 Sep 2019
Abstract
In this paper, we report a novel aluminum nitride (AlN) thin-film piezoelectric resonant accelerometer. Different from the ordinary MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical systems) resonant accelerometers, the entire structure of the accelerometer, including the mass and the springs, is excited to resonate in-plane, and the resonance [...] Read more.
In this paper, we report a novel aluminum nitride (AlN) thin-film piezoelectric resonant accelerometer. Different from the ordinary MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical systems) resonant accelerometers, the entire structure of the accelerometer, including the mass and the springs, is excited to resonate in-plane, and the resonance frequency is sensitive to the out-plane acceleration. The structure is centrosymmetrical with serpentine electrodes laid on supporting beams for driving and sensing. The stiffness of the supporting beams changes when an out-plane inertial force is applied on the structure. Therefore, the resonance frequency of the accelerometer will also change under the inertial force. The working principle is analyzed and the properties are simulated in the paper. The proposed AlN accelerometer is fabricated by the MEMS technology, and the structure is released by an ICP isotropic etching. The resonance frequency is 24.66 kHz at a static state. The quality factor is 1868. The relative sensitivity of this accelerometer, defined as the shift in the resonance frequency per gravity unit (1 g = 9.8 m/s2) is 346 ppm/g. The linearity of the accelerometer is 0.9988. The temperature coefficient of frequency (TCF) of this accelerometer is −2.628 Hz/°C (i.e., −106 ppm/°C), tested from −40 °C to 85 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Transducers: Materials, Devices and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Analysis and Strength Estimation of Fresh Concrete Based on Ultrasonic Wave Propagation and Maturity Using Smart Temperature and PZT Sensors
Micromachines 2019, 10(9), 559; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10090559 - 23 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Recently, the early-age strength prediction for RC (reinforced concrete) structures has been an important topic in the construction industry, relating to project-time reduction and structural safety. To address this, numerous destructive and NDTs (non-destructive tests) are applied to monitor the early-age strength development [...] Read more.
Recently, the early-age strength prediction for RC (reinforced concrete) structures has been an important topic in the construction industry, relating to project-time reduction and structural safety. To address this, numerous destructive and NDTs (non-destructive tests) are applied to monitor the early-age strength development of concrete. This study elaborates on the NDT techniques of ultrasonic wave propagation and concrete maturity for the estimation of compressive strength development. The results of these comparative estimation approaches comprise the concrete maturity method, penetration resistance test, and an ultrasonic wave analysis. There is variation of the phase transition in the concrete paste with the changing of boundary limitations of the material in accordance with curing time, so with the formation of phase-transition changes, changes in the velocities of ultrasonic waves occur. As the process of hydration takes place, the maturity method produces a maturity index using the time-feature reflection on the strength-development process of the concrete. Embedded smart temperature sensors (SmartRock) and PZT (piezoelectric) sensors were used for the data acquisition of hydration temperature history and wave propagation. This study suggests a novel relationship between wave propagation, penetration tests, and hydration temperature, and creates a method that relies on the responses of resonant frequency changes with the change of boundary conditions caused by the strength-gain of the concrete specimen. Calculating the changes of these features provides a pattern for estimating concrete strength. The results for the specimens were validated by comparing the strength results with the penetration resistance test by a universal testing machine (UTM). An algorithm used to relate the concrete maturity and ultrasonic wave propagation to the concrete compressive strength. This study leads to a method of acquiring data for forecasting in-situ early-age strength of concrete, used for secure construction of concrete structures, that is fast, cost effective, and comprehensive for SHM (structural health monitoring). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Transducers: Materials, Devices and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Anisotropic Vibration Tactile Model and Human Factor Analysis for a Piezoelectric Tactile Feedback Device
Micromachines 2019, 10(7), 448; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10070448 - 03 Jul 2019
Abstract
Tactile feedback technology has important development prospects in interactive technology. In order to enrich the tactile sense of haptic devices under simple control, a piezoelectric haptic feedback device is proposed. The piezoelectric tactile feedback device can realize tactile changes in different excitation voltage [...] Read more.
Tactile feedback technology has important development prospects in interactive technology. In order to enrich the tactile sense of haptic devices under simple control, a piezoelectric haptic feedback device is proposed. The piezoelectric tactile feedback device can realize tactile changes in different excitation voltage amplitudes, different excitation frequencies, and different directions through the ciliary body structure. The principle of the anisotropic vibration of the ciliary body structure was analyzed here, and a tactile model was established. The equivalent friction coefficient under full-coverage and local-coverage of the skin of the touch beam was deduced and solved. The effect of system parameters on the friction coefficient was analyzed. The results showed that in the full-coverage, the tactile effect is mainly affected by the proportion of the same directional ciliary bodies and the excitation frequency. The larger the proportion of the same direction ciliary body is, the smaller the coefficient of friction is. The larger the excitation frequency is, the greater the coefficient of friction is. In the local-coverage, the tactile effect is mainly affected by the touch position and voltage amplitude. When changing the touch pressure, it has a certain effect on the change of touch, but it is relatively weak. The experiment on the sliding friction of a cantilever touch beam and the experiment of human factor were conducted. The experimental results of the sliding friction experiment are basically consistent with the theoretical calculations. In the human factor experiment, the effects of haptic regulation are mainly affected by voltage or structure of the ciliary bodies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Transducers: Materials, Devices and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
A Shear-Mode Piezoelectric Heterostructure for Electric Current Sensing in Electric Power Grids
Micromachines 2019, 10(6), 421; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10060421 - 23 Jun 2019
Abstract
This paper presents a shear-mode piezoelectric current sensing device for two-wire power cords in electric power grids. The piezoelectric heterostructure consists of a cymbal structure and a permalloy plate. The cymbal structure is constructed from a permanent magnet, a brass cap, and shear-mode [...] Read more.
This paper presents a shear-mode piezoelectric current sensing device for two-wire power cords in electric power grids. The piezoelectric heterostructure consists of a cymbal structure and a permalloy plate. The cymbal structure is constructed from a permanent magnet, a brass cap, and shear-mode piezoelectric materials. The permalloy plate concentrates the magnetic field generated by the two-wire power cord on the magnet. Under the force amplification effect of the cymbal structure, the response of the device is improved. A prototype has been fabricated to conduct the experiments. The experimental average sensitivity of the device is 12.74 mV/A in the current range of 1–10 A with a separating distance of d = 0 mm, and the resolution reaches 0.04 A. The accuracy is calculated to be ±0.0177 mV at 1.5 A according to the experimental voltage distribution. The current-to-voltage results demonstrate that the proposed heterostructure can also be used as a magnetoelectric device without bias. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Transducers: Materials, Devices and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Generation of Linear Traveling Waves in Piezoelectric Plates in Air and Liquid
Micromachines 2019, 10(5), 283; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10050283 - 27 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
A micro- to milli-sized linear traveling wave (TW) actuator fabricated with microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology is demonstrated. The device is a silicon cantilever actuated by piezoelectric aluminum nitride. Specifically designed top electrodes allow the generation of TWs at different frequencies, in air and [...] Read more.
A micro- to milli-sized linear traveling wave (TW) actuator fabricated with microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology is demonstrated. The device is a silicon cantilever actuated by piezoelectric aluminum nitride. Specifically designed top electrodes allow the generation of TWs at different frequencies, in air and liquid, by combining two neighboring resonant modes. This approach was supported by analytical calculations, and different TWs were measured on the same plate by laser Doppler vibrometry. Numerical simulations were also carried out and compared with the measurements in air, validating the wave features. A standing wave ratio as low as 1.45 was achieved in air, with a phase velocity of 652 m/s and a peak horizontal velocity on the device surface of 124 μm/s for a driving signal of 1 V at 921.9 kHz. The results show the potential of this kind of actuator for locomotion applications in contact with surfaces or under immersion in liquid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Transducers: Materials, Devices and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
3-D Design and Simulation of a Piezoelectric Micropump
Micromachines 2019, 10(4), 259; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10040259 - 18 Apr 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
The objective of this paper is to carefully study the performances of a new piezoelectric micropump that could be used, e.g., for drug delivery or micro-cooling systems. The proposed micropump is characterized by silicon diaphragms, with a piezoelectric actuation at a 60 V [...] Read more.
The objective of this paper is to carefully study the performances of a new piezoelectric micropump that could be used, e.g., for drug delivery or micro-cooling systems. The proposed micropump is characterized by silicon diaphragms, with a piezoelectric actuation at a 60 V input voltage, and by two passive valves for flow input and output. By means of a 3-D Finite Element (FE) model, the fluid dynamic response during different stages of the working cycle is investigated, together with the fluid–structure interaction. The maximum predicted outflow is 1.62 μL min 1 , obtained at 10 Hz working frequency. The computational model enables the optimization of geometrical features, with the goal to improve the pumping efficiency: The outflow is increased until 2.5 μL min 1 . Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Transducers: Materials, Devices and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Robust Model-Free Adaptive Iterative Learning Control for Vibration Suppression Based on Evidential Reasoning
Micromachines 2019, 10(3), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10030196 - 19 Mar 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Through combining P-type iterative learning (IL) control, model-free adaptive (MFA) control and sliding mode (SM) control, a robust model-free adaptive iterative learning (MFA-IL) control approach is presented for the active vibration control of piezoelectric smart structures. Considering the uncertainty of the interaction among [...] Read more.
Through combining P-type iterative learning (IL) control, model-free adaptive (MFA) control and sliding mode (SM) control, a robust model-free adaptive iterative learning (MFA-IL) control approach is presented for the active vibration control of piezoelectric smart structures. Considering the uncertainty of the interaction among actuators in the learning control process, MFA control is adopted to adaptively adjust the learning gain of the P-type IL control in order to improve the convergence speed of feedback gain. In order to enhance the robustness of the system and achieve fast response for error tracking, the SM control is integrated with the MFA control to design the appropriate learning gain. Real-time feedback gains which are extracted from controllers construct the basic probability functions (BPFs). The evidence theory is adopted to the design and experimental investigations on a piezoelectric smart cantilever plate are performed to validate the proposed control algorithm. The results demonstrate that the robust MFA-IL control presents a faster learning speed, higher robustness and better control performance in vibration suppression when compared with the P-type IL control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Transducers: Materials, Devices and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Nonlinear Hysteresis Modeling of Piezoelectric Actuators Using a Generalized Bouc–Wen Model
Micromachines 2019, 10(3), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10030183 - 12 Mar 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Hysteresis behaviors exist in piezoelectric ceramics actuators (PCAs), which degrade the positioning accuracy badly. The classical Bouc–Wen (CB–W) model is mainly used for describing rate-independent hysteresis behaviors. However, it cannot characterize the rate-dependent hysteresis precisely. In this paper, a generalized Bouc–Wen (GB–W) model [...] Read more.
Hysteresis behaviors exist in piezoelectric ceramics actuators (PCAs), which degrade the positioning accuracy badly. The classical Bouc–Wen (CB–W) model is mainly used for describing rate-independent hysteresis behaviors. However, it cannot characterize the rate-dependent hysteresis precisely. In this paper, a generalized Bouc–Wen (GB–W) model with relaxation functions is developed for both rate-independent and rate-dependent hysteresis behaviors of piezoelectric actuators. Meanwhile, the nonlinear least squares method through MATLAB/Simulink is adopted to identify the parameters of hysteresis models. To demonstrate the validity of the developed model, a number of experiments based on a 1-DOF compliant mechanism were conducted to characterize hysteresis behaviors. Comparisons of experiments and simulations show that the developed model can describe rate-dependent and rate-independent hysteresis more accurately than the classical Bouc–Wen model. The results demonstrate that the developed model is effective and useful. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Transducers: Materials, Devices and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
A Piezoelectric Resonance Pump Based on a Flexible Support
Micromachines 2019, 10(3), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10030169 - 28 Feb 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Small volume changes are important factors that restrict the improvement of the performance of a piezoelectric diaphragm pump. In order to increase the volume change of the pump chamber, a square piezoelectric vibrator with a flexible support is proposed in this paper and [...] Read more.
Small volume changes are important factors that restrict the improvement of the performance of a piezoelectric diaphragm pump. In order to increase the volume change of the pump chamber, a square piezoelectric vibrator with a flexible support is proposed in this paper and used as the driving unit of the pump. The pump chamber diaphragm was separated from the driving unit, and the resonance principle was used to amplify the amplitude of the pump diaphragm. After analyzing the working principle of the piezoelectric resonance pump and establishing the motion differential equation of the vibration system, prototypes with different structural parameters were made and tested. The results show that the piezoelectric resonance pump resonated at 236 Hz when pumping air. When the peak-to-peak voltage of the driving power was 220 V, the amplitude of the diaphragm reached a maximum value of 0.43933 mm, and the volume change of the pump was correspondingly improved. When the pump chamber height was 0.25 mm, the output flow rate of pumping water reached a maximum value of 213.5 mL/min. When the chamber height was 0.15 mm, the output pressure reached a maximum value of 85.2 kPa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Transducers: Materials, Devices and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Single Cylinder-Type Piezoelectric Actuator with Two Active Kinematic Pairs
Micromachines 2018, 9(11), 597; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9110597 - 15 Nov 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
There is an ever-increasing demand for small-size, low-cost, and high-precision positioning systems. Therefore, investigation in this field is performed to search for various solutions that can meet technical requirements of precise multi-degree-of-freedom (DOF) positioning systems. This paper presents a new design of a [...] Read more.
There is an ever-increasing demand for small-size, low-cost, and high-precision positioning systems. Therefore, investigation in this field is performed to search for various solutions that can meet technical requirements of precise multi-degree-of-freedom (DOF) positioning systems. This paper presents a new design of a piezoelectric cylindrical actuator with two active kinematic pairs. This means that a single actuator is used to create vibrations that are transformed into the rotation of the sphere located on the top of the cylinder and at the same time ensure movement of the piezoelectric cylinder on the plane. Numerical and experimental investigations of the piezoelectric cylinder have been performed. A mathematical model of contacting force control was developed to solve the problem of positioning of the rotor when it needs to be rotated or moved according to a specific motion trajectory. The numerical simulation included harmonic response analysis of the actuator to analyze the trajectories of the contact points motion. A prototype actuator has been manufactured and tested. Obtained results confirmed that such a device is suitable for both positioning and movement of the actuator in the plane. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Transducers: Materials, Devices and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Parametric Analysis and Optimization of Radially Layered Cylindrical Piezoceramic/Epoxy Composite Transducers
Micromachines 2018, 9(11), 585; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9110585 - 09 Nov 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Radially layered cylindrical piezoceramic/epoxy composite transducers have been designed by integrating the excellent performance of piezoelectric/polymer composites and the radial radiation ability of cylindrical configurations, which are promising in developing novel ultrasonic and underwater sound techniques. Our previous study has explored the effects [...] Read more.
Radially layered cylindrical piezoceramic/epoxy composite transducers have been designed by integrating the excellent performance of piezoelectric/polymer composites and the radial radiation ability of cylindrical configurations, which are promising in developing novel ultrasonic and underwater sound techniques. Our previous study has explored the effects of the external resistance on the electromechanical characteristics of the transducer, and obtained some valuable findings. To clearly understand the electromechanical characteristics of the transducer and to guide the device design, in this paper, parametric analysis was performed to reveal the effects of multiple key factors on the electromechanical characteristics. These factors include material parameters of epoxy layers, piezoceramic material types, and locations of piezoceramic rings. In order to better analyze the influence of these factors, a modified theoretical model, in which every layer has different geometric and material parameters, was developed based on the model given in the previous work. Furthermore, the reliability of the model was validated by the ANSYS simulation results and the experimental results. The present investigation provides some helpful guidelines to design and optimize the radially layered cylindrical piezoceramic/epoxy composite transducers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Transducers: Materials, Devices and Applications)
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