Special Issue "Piezoelectric Transducers: Materials, Devices and Applications"

A special issue of Micromachines (ISSN 2072-666X). This special issue belongs to the section "A:Physics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2019

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Jose Luis Sanchez-Rojas

Microsystems, Actuators, and Sensors Lab, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071, Ciudad Real, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: MEMS/NEMS; piezoelectric microsystems; integrated sensors and transducers; miniaturization of instrumentation for applications in chemistry, food technology, robotics, biotechnology and IoT

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Advances in miniaturization of sensors, actuators, and smart systems are receiving substantial industrial attention, and a wide variety of transducers are commercially available or with high potential to impact emerging markets. Substituting existing products based on bulk materials, in fields such as automotive, environment, food, robotics, medicine, biotechnology, communications, and other technologies, with reduced size, lower cost, and higher performance, is now possible, with potential for manufacturing using advanced silicon integrated circuits technology or alternative additive techniques from the mili- to the nano-scale.

In this Special Issue, which is focused on piezoelectric transducers, a wide range of topics are covered, including the design, fabrication, characterization, packaging, and system integration or final applications of mili/micro/nano-electro-mechanical systems based transducers:

  • Materials research oriented towards piezoelectric transducers and intelligent systems
  • Processes and fabrication technologies for piezoelectric sensors and actuators
  • Modelling, design, and simulation of piezoelectric transducer devices
  • Devices and circuits for Internet of Things focused on piezoelectric transducer applications
  • Resonant and travelling wave piezoelectric sensors and actuators
  • Chemical and bio-transducers based on piezoelectric devices
  • Calibration, characterization, and testing techniques
  • Reliability and failure analysis
  • System integration, interface electronics, and power consumption
  • Applications and markets, and control and measurement systems

Prof. Jose Luis Sanchez-Rojas
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Piezoelectric devices
  • Sensors
  • Actuators
  • MEMS
  • NEMS
  • Smart Systems
  • Microsystems
  • Miniaturization
  • Polymers
  • Additive manufacturing

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
A Shear-Mode Piezoelectric Heterostructure for Electric Current Sensing in Electric Power Grids
Micromachines 2019, 10(6), 421; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10060421
Received: 1 June 2019 / Revised: 18 June 2019 / Accepted: 21 June 2019 / Published: 23 June 2019
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Abstract
This paper presents a shear-mode piezoelectric current sensing device for two-wire power cords in electric power grids. The piezoelectric heterostructure consists of a cymbal structure and a permalloy plate. The cymbal structure is constructed from a permanent magnet, a brass cap, and shear-mode [...] Read more.
This paper presents a shear-mode piezoelectric current sensing device for two-wire power cords in electric power grids. The piezoelectric heterostructure consists of a cymbal structure and a permalloy plate. The cymbal structure is constructed from a permanent magnet, a brass cap, and shear-mode piezoelectric materials. The permalloy plate concentrates the magnetic field generated by the two-wire power cord on the magnet. Under the force amplification effect of the cymbal structure, the response of the device is improved. A prototype has been fabricated to conduct the experiments. The experimental average sensitivity of the device is 12.74 mV/A in the current range of 1–10 A with a separating distance of d = 0 mm, and the resolution reaches 0.04 A. The accuracy is calculated to be ±0.0177 mV at 1.5 A according to the experimental voltage distribution. The current-to-voltage results demonstrate that the proposed heterostructure can also be used as a magnetoelectric device without bias. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Transducers: Materials, Devices and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Generation of Linear Traveling Waves in Piezoelectric Plates in Air and Liquid
Micromachines 2019, 10(5), 283; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10050283
Received: 5 April 2019 / Revised: 24 April 2019 / Accepted: 25 April 2019 / Published: 27 April 2019
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Abstract
A micro- to milli-sized linear traveling wave (TW) actuator fabricated with microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology is demonstrated. The device is a silicon cantilever actuated by piezoelectric aluminum nitride. Specifically designed top electrodes allow the generation of TWs at different frequencies, in air and [...] Read more.
A micro- to milli-sized linear traveling wave (TW) actuator fabricated with microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology is demonstrated. The device is a silicon cantilever actuated by piezoelectric aluminum nitride. Specifically designed top electrodes allow the generation of TWs at different frequencies, in air and liquid, by combining two neighboring resonant modes. This approach was supported by analytical calculations, and different TWs were measured on the same plate by laser Doppler vibrometry. Numerical simulations were also carried out and compared with the measurements in air, validating the wave features. A standing wave ratio as low as 1.45 was achieved in air, with a phase velocity of 652 m/s and a peak horizontal velocity on the device surface of 124 μm/s for a driving signal of 1 V at 921.9 kHz. The results show the potential of this kind of actuator for locomotion applications in contact with surfaces or under immersion in liquid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Transducers: Materials, Devices and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
3-D Design and Simulation of a Piezoelectric Micropump
Micromachines 2019, 10(4), 259; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10040259
Received: 14 February 2019 / Revised: 5 April 2019 / Accepted: 11 April 2019 / Published: 18 April 2019
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Abstract
The objective of this paper is to carefully study the performances of a new piezoelectric micropump that could be used, e.g., for drug delivery or micro-cooling systems. The proposed micropump is characterized by silicon diaphragms, with a piezoelectric actuation at a 60 V [...] Read more.
The objective of this paper is to carefully study the performances of a new piezoelectric micropump that could be used, e.g., for drug delivery or micro-cooling systems. The proposed micropump is characterized by silicon diaphragms, with a piezoelectric actuation at a 60 V input voltage, and by two passive valves for flow input and output. By means of a 3-D Finite Element (FE) model, the fluid dynamic response during different stages of the working cycle is investigated, together with the fluid–structure interaction. The maximum predicted outflow is 1.62 μL min 1 , obtained at 10 Hz working frequency. The computational model enables the optimization of geometrical features, with the goal to improve the pumping efficiency: The outflow is increased until 2.5 μL min 1 . Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Transducers: Materials, Devices and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Robust Model-Free Adaptive Iterative Learning Control for Vibration Suppression Based on Evidential Reasoning
Micromachines 2019, 10(3), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10030196
Received: 11 February 2019 / Revised: 10 March 2019 / Accepted: 13 March 2019 / Published: 19 March 2019
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Abstract
Through combining P-type iterative learning (IL) control, model-free adaptive (MFA) control and sliding mode (SM) control, a robust model-free adaptive iterative learning (MFA-IL) control approach is presented for the active vibration control of piezoelectric smart structures. Considering the uncertainty of the interaction among [...] Read more.
Through combining P-type iterative learning (IL) control, model-free adaptive (MFA) control and sliding mode (SM) control, a robust model-free adaptive iterative learning (MFA-IL) control approach is presented for the active vibration control of piezoelectric smart structures. Considering the uncertainty of the interaction among actuators in the learning control process, MFA control is adopted to adaptively adjust the learning gain of the P-type IL control in order to improve the convergence speed of feedback gain. In order to enhance the robustness of the system and achieve fast response for error tracking, the SM control is integrated with the MFA control to design the appropriate learning gain. Real-time feedback gains which are extracted from controllers construct the basic probability functions (BPFs). The evidence theory is adopted to the design and experimental investigations on a piezoelectric smart cantilever plate are performed to validate the proposed control algorithm. The results demonstrate that the robust MFA-IL control presents a faster learning speed, higher robustness and better control performance in vibration suppression when compared with the P-type IL control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Transducers: Materials, Devices and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Nonlinear Hysteresis Modeling of Piezoelectric Actuators Using a Generalized Bouc–Wen Model
Micromachines 2019, 10(3), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10030183
Received: 14 February 2019 / Revised: 4 March 2019 / Accepted: 8 March 2019 / Published: 12 March 2019
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Abstract
Hysteresis behaviors exist in piezoelectric ceramics actuators (PCAs), which degrade the positioning accuracy badly. The classical Bouc–Wen (CB–W) model is mainly used for describing rate-independent hysteresis behaviors. However, it cannot characterize the rate-dependent hysteresis precisely. In this paper, a generalized Bouc–Wen (GB–W) model [...] Read more.
Hysteresis behaviors exist in piezoelectric ceramics actuators (PCAs), which degrade the positioning accuracy badly. The classical Bouc–Wen (CB–W) model is mainly used for describing rate-independent hysteresis behaviors. However, it cannot characterize the rate-dependent hysteresis precisely. In this paper, a generalized Bouc–Wen (GB–W) model with relaxation functions is developed for both rate-independent and rate-dependent hysteresis behaviors of piezoelectric actuators. Meanwhile, the nonlinear least squares method through MATLAB/Simulink is adopted to identify the parameters of hysteresis models. To demonstrate the validity of the developed model, a number of experiments based on a 1-DOF compliant mechanism were conducted to characterize hysteresis behaviors. Comparisons of experiments and simulations show that the developed model can describe rate-dependent and rate-independent hysteresis more accurately than the classical Bouc–Wen model. The results demonstrate that the developed model is effective and useful. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Transducers: Materials, Devices and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
A Piezoelectric Resonance Pump Based on a Flexible Support
Micromachines 2019, 10(3), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10030169
Received: 12 February 2019 / Revised: 24 February 2019 / Accepted: 25 February 2019 / Published: 28 February 2019
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Abstract
Small volume changes are important factors that restrict the improvement of the performance of a piezoelectric diaphragm pump. In order to increase the volume change of the pump chamber, a square piezoelectric vibrator with a flexible support is proposed in this paper and [...] Read more.
Small volume changes are important factors that restrict the improvement of the performance of a piezoelectric diaphragm pump. In order to increase the volume change of the pump chamber, a square piezoelectric vibrator with a flexible support is proposed in this paper and used as the driving unit of the pump. The pump chamber diaphragm was separated from the driving unit, and the resonance principle was used to amplify the amplitude of the pump diaphragm. After analyzing the working principle of the piezoelectric resonance pump and establishing the motion differential equation of the vibration system, prototypes with different structural parameters were made and tested. The results show that the piezoelectric resonance pump resonated at 236 Hz when pumping air. When the peak-to-peak voltage of the driving power was 220 V, the amplitude of the diaphragm reached a maximum value of 0.43933 mm, and the volume change of the pump was correspondingly improved. When the pump chamber height was 0.25 mm, the output flow rate of pumping water reached a maximum value of 213.5 mL/min. When the chamber height was 0.15 mm, the output pressure reached a maximum value of 85.2 kPa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Transducers: Materials, Devices and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Single Cylinder-Type Piezoelectric Actuator with Two Active Kinematic Pairs
Micromachines 2018, 9(11), 597; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9110597
Received: 27 September 2018 / Revised: 23 October 2018 / Accepted: 2 November 2018 / Published: 15 November 2018
PDF Full-text (2682 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
There is an ever-increasing demand for small-size, low-cost, and high-precision positioning systems. Therefore, investigation in this field is performed to search for various solutions that can meet technical requirements of precise multi-degree-of-freedom (DOF) positioning systems. This paper presents a new design of a [...] Read more.
There is an ever-increasing demand for small-size, low-cost, and high-precision positioning systems. Therefore, investigation in this field is performed to search for various solutions that can meet technical requirements of precise multi-degree-of-freedom (DOF) positioning systems. This paper presents a new design of a piezoelectric cylindrical actuator with two active kinematic pairs. This means that a single actuator is used to create vibrations that are transformed into the rotation of the sphere located on the top of the cylinder and at the same time ensure movement of the piezoelectric cylinder on the plane. Numerical and experimental investigations of the piezoelectric cylinder have been performed. A mathematical model of contacting force control was developed to solve the problem of positioning of the rotor when it needs to be rotated or moved according to a specific motion trajectory. The numerical simulation included harmonic response analysis of the actuator to analyze the trajectories of the contact points motion. A prototype actuator has been manufactured and tested. Obtained results confirmed that such a device is suitable for both positioning and movement of the actuator in the plane. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Transducers: Materials, Devices and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Parametric Analysis and Optimization of Radially Layered Cylindrical Piezoceramic/Epoxy Composite Transducers
Micromachines 2018, 9(11), 585; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9110585
Received: 8 October 2018 / Revised: 28 October 2018 / Accepted: 6 November 2018 / Published: 9 November 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3618 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Radially layered cylindrical piezoceramic/epoxy composite transducers have been designed by integrating the excellent performance of piezoelectric/polymer composites and the radial radiation ability of cylindrical configurations, which are promising in developing novel ultrasonic and underwater sound techniques. Our previous study has explored the effects [...] Read more.
Radially layered cylindrical piezoceramic/epoxy composite transducers have been designed by integrating the excellent performance of piezoelectric/polymer composites and the radial radiation ability of cylindrical configurations, which are promising in developing novel ultrasonic and underwater sound techniques. Our previous study has explored the effects of the external resistance on the electromechanical characteristics of the transducer, and obtained some valuable findings. To clearly understand the electromechanical characteristics of the transducer and to guide the device design, in this paper, parametric analysis was performed to reveal the effects of multiple key factors on the electromechanical characteristics. These factors include material parameters of epoxy layers, piezoceramic material types, and locations of piezoceramic rings. In order to better analyze the influence of these factors, a modified theoretical model, in which every layer has different geometric and material parameters, was developed based on the model given in the previous work. Furthermore, the reliability of the model was validated by the ANSYS simulation results and the experimental results. The present investigation provides some helpful guidelines to design and optimize the radially layered cylindrical piezoceramic/epoxy composite transducers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Transducers: Materials, Devices and Applications)
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