Special Issue "Smart Miniaturised Energy Harvesting"

A special issue of Micromachines (ISSN 2072-666X). This special issue belongs to the section "A:Physics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 March 2019)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Cristina Rusu

RISE / RISE ICT Acreo, Arvid Hedvalls Backe 4, 41133 Gothenburg, Sweden
Website | E-Mail
Interests: MEMS, Energy harvesting, Low power microsensors, Bio- and chemical sensors, Microtechnology
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Bengt Oelmann

Department of Electronics Design, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Energy harvesting, Embedded systems, Wireless sensor networks, Industrial sensors, Mechatronics, Low power electronics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The digitalization of modern industry rapidly increases the need for sensors and sensor systems. The integration of a large number of sensors is challenging to realize if batteries must be utilized (replacement, inaccessible deployment, large quantities, environmental impact). Alternatively, wired power distribution is needed, increasing weight/cost and complicating the installation due to limited space in, e.g., automotive, aeronautics, precision agriculture, and environment monitoring. Furthermore, the design of an energy harvesting system is complex in comparison with that of a battery-based system. Therefore, an energy harvesting system converting available ambient energy (e.g., kinetic, thermal) to electrical energy is one of the most promising technologies for smart self-powered sensor systems.

To achieve the full potential of self-powered systems, multidisciplinarity and intersectorial cooperation is required, as well as advances in key topics, such as modelling and simulation of harvesters, supercap, very-low power electronics and system-level architecture, practical applications requirements, testing setups similar to real applications, and economical fabrication concepts. Thus, this Special Issue seeks to present a variety of topics related to “Smart Miniaturised Energy Harevsting” with advances from academic research, as well as from industrial applications.

Prof. Dr. Cristina Rusu
Prof. Dr. Bengt Oelmann
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Micromachines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Kinetic, electromagnetic, thermal energy harvester
  • Pressure fluctuations
  • Supercapacitor
  • low-power ASIC
  • Harvester testing
  • Energy harvesting system

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Fan-Out Wafer and Panel Level Packaging as Packaging Platform for Heterogeneous Integration
Micromachines 2019, 10(5), 342; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10050342 (registering DOI)
Received: 22 March 2019 / Revised: 12 May 2019 / Accepted: 21 May 2019 / Published: 23 May 2019
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Abstract
Fan-out wafer level packaging (FOWLP) is one of the latest packaging trends in microelectronics. Besides technology developments towards heterogeneous integration, including multiple die packaging, passive component integration in packages and redistribution layers or package-on-package approaches, larger substrate formats are also targeted. Manufacturing is [...] Read more.
Fan-out wafer level packaging (FOWLP) is one of the latest packaging trends in microelectronics. Besides technology developments towards heterogeneous integration, including multiple die packaging, passive component integration in packages and redistribution layers or package-on-package approaches, larger substrate formats are also targeted. Manufacturing is currently done on a wafer level of up to 12”/300 mm and 330 mm respectively. For a higher productivity and, consequently, lower costs, larger form factors are introduced. Instead of following the wafer level roadmaps to 450 mm, panel level packaging (PLP) might be the next big step. Both technology approaches offer a lot of opportunities as high miniaturization and are well suited for heterogeneous integration. Hence, FOWLP and PLP are well suited for the packaging of a highly miniaturized energy harvester system consisting of a piezo-based harvester, a power management unit and a supercapacitor for energy storage. In this study, the FOWLP and PLP approaches have been chosen for an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) package development with integrated SMD (surface mount device) capacitors. The process developments and the successful overall proof of concept for the packaging approach have been done on a 200 mm wafer size. In a second step, the technology was scaled up to a 457 × 305 mm2 panel size using the same materials, equipment and process flow, demonstrating the low cost and large area capabilities of the approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Miniaturised Energy Harvesting)
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Open AccessArticle
Electromechanical Modeling of a Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvesting Microdevice Based on Multilayer Resonator for Air Conditioning Vents at Office Buildings
Micromachines 2019, 10(3), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10030211
Received: 19 February 2019 / Revised: 11 March 2019 / Accepted: 18 March 2019 / Published: 26 March 2019
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Abstract
Piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting (pVEH) microdevices can convert the mechanical vibrations to electrical voltages. In the future, these microdevices can provide an alternative to replace the electrochemical batteries, which cause contamination due to their toxic materials. We present the electromechanical modeling of a [...] Read more.
Piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting (pVEH) microdevices can convert the mechanical vibrations to electrical voltages. In the future, these microdevices can provide an alternative to replace the electrochemical batteries, which cause contamination due to their toxic materials. We present the electromechanical modeling of a pVEH microdevice with a novel resonant structure for air conditioning vents at office buildings. This electromechanical modeling includes different multilayers and cross-sections of the microdevice resonator as well as the air damping. This microdevice uses a flexible substrate and it does not include toxics materials. The microdevice has a resonant structure formed by multilayer beams and U-shape proof mass of UV-resin (730 μm thickness). The multilayer beams contain flexible substrates (160 μm thickness) of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), two aluminum electrodes (100 nm thickness), and a ZnO layer (2 μm thickness). An analytical model is developed to predict the first bending resonant frequency and deflections of the microdevice. This model considers the Rayleigh and Macaulay methods, and the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. In addition, the electromechanical behavior of the microdevice is determined through the finite element method (FEM) models. In these FEM models, the output power of the microdevice is obtained using different sinusoidal accelerations. The microdevice has a resonant frequency of 60.3 Hz, a maximum deflection of 2.485 mm considering an acceleration of 1.5 m/s2, an output voltage of 2.854 V and generated power of 37.45 μW with a load resistance of 217.5 kΩ. An array of pVEH microdevices connected in series could be used to convert the displacements of air conditioning vents at office buildings into voltages for electronic devices and sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Miniaturised Energy Harvesting)
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Open AccessArticle
Modeling and Analysis of Upright Piezoelectric Energy Harvester under Aerodynamic Vortex-induced Vibration
Micromachines 2018, 9(12), 667; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9120667
Received: 28 November 2018 / Revised: 11 December 2018 / Accepted: 14 December 2018 / Published: 17 December 2018
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Abstract
This paper presents an upright piezoelectric energy harvester (UPEH) with cylinder extension along its longitudinal direction. The UPEH can generate energy from low-speed wind by bending deformation produced by vortex-induced vibrations (VIVs). The UPEH has the advantages of less working space and ease [...] Read more.
This paper presents an upright piezoelectric energy harvester (UPEH) with cylinder extension along its longitudinal direction. The UPEH can generate energy from low-speed wind by bending deformation produced by vortex-induced vibrations (VIVs). The UPEH has the advantages of less working space and ease of setting up an array over conventional vortex-induced vibration harvesters. The nonlinear distributed modeling method is established based on Euler–Bernoulli beam theory and aerodynamic vortex-induced force of the cylinder is obtained by the van der Pol wake oscillator theory. The fluid–solid–electricity governing coupled equations are derived using Lagrange’s equation and solved through Galerkin discretization. The effect of cylinder gravity on the dynamic characteristics of the UPEH is also considered using the energy method. The influences of substrate dimension, piezoelectric dimension, the mass of cylinder extension, and electrical load resistance on the output performance of harvester are studied using the theoretical model. Experiments were carried out and the results were in good agreement with the numerical results. The results showed that a UPEH configuration achieves the maximum power of 635.04 μW at optimum resistance of 250 kΩ when tested at a wind speed of 4.20 m/s. The theoretical results show that the UPEH can get better energy harvesting output performance with a lighter tip mass of cylinder, and thicker and shorter substrate in its synchronization working region. This work will provide the theoretical guidance for studying the array of multiple upright energy harvesters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Miniaturised Energy Harvesting)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview
Recent Developments of Acoustic Energy Harvesting: A Review
Micromachines 2019, 10(1), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10010048
Received: 14 December 2018 / Revised: 3 January 2019 / Accepted: 7 January 2019 / Published: 11 January 2019
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (8918 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Acoustic energy is a type of environmental energy source that can be scavenged and converted into electrical energy for small-scale power applications. In general, incident sound power density is low and structural design for acoustic energy harvesting (AEH) is crucial. This review article [...] Read more.
Acoustic energy is a type of environmental energy source that can be scavenged and converted into electrical energy for small-scale power applications. In general, incident sound power density is low and structural design for acoustic energy harvesting (AEH) is crucial. This review article summarizes the mechanisms of AEH, which include the Helmholtz resonator approach, the quarter-wavelength resonator approach, and the acoustic metamaterial approach. The details of recently proposed AEH devices and mechanisms are carefully reviewed and compared. Because acoustic metamaterials have the advantages of compactness, effectiveness, and flexibility, it is suggested that the emerging metamaterial-based AEH technique is highly suitable for further development. It is demonstrated that the AEH technique will become an essential part of the environmental energy-harvesting research field. As a multidisciplinary research topic, the major challenge is to integrate AEH devices into engineering structures and make composite structures smarter to achieve large-scale AEH. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Miniaturised Energy Harvesting)
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