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Nutrients, Volume 8, Issue 6 (June 2016)

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Open AccessArticle
Association between Body Mass Index and All-Cause Mortality in Hypertensive Adults: Results from the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT)
Nutrients 2016, 8(6), 384; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8060384 - 22 Jun 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2590
Abstract
The association between elevated body mass index (BMI) and risk of death has been reported in many studies. However, the association between BMI and all-cause mortality for hypertensive Chinese adults remains unclear. We conducted a post-hoc analysis using data from the China Stroke [...] Read more.
The association between elevated body mass index (BMI) and risk of death has been reported in many studies. However, the association between BMI and all-cause mortality for hypertensive Chinese adults remains unclear. We conducted a post-hoc analysis using data from the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT). Cox regression analysis was performed to determine the significance of the association of BMI with all-cause mortality. During a mean follow-up duration of 4.5 years, 622 deaths (3.0%) occurred among the 20,694 participants aged 45–75 years. A reversed J-shaped relationship was observed between BMI and all-cause mortality. The hazard ratios (HRs) for underweight (<18.5 kg/m2), overweight (24.0–27.9 kg/m2), and obesity (≥28.0 kg/m2) were calculated relative to normal weight (18.5–23.9 kg/m2). The summary HRs were 1.56 (95% CI, 1.11–2.18) for underweight, 0.78 (95% CI 0.64–0.95) for overweight and 0.64 (95% CI, 0.48–0.85) for obesity. In sex-age-specific analyses, participants over 60 years of age had optimal BMI in the obesity classification and the results were consistent in both males and females. Relative to normal weight, underweight was associated with significantly higher mortality. Excessive weight was not associated with increased risk of mortality. Chinese hypertensive adults had the lowest mortality in grade 1 obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolically Healthy Obesity) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Nutritional Intake and Status of Cobalamin and Folate among Non-Pregnant Women of Reproductive Age in Bhaktapur, Nepal
Nutrients 2016, 8(6), 375; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8060375 - 22 Jun 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2083
Abstract
Cobalamin and folate are especially important for women of childbearing age due to their ubiquitous role in fetal growth and development. Population-based data on cobalamin and folate status are lacking from Nepal, where diets are mostly vegetarian. The objectives of the study were [...] Read more.
Cobalamin and folate are especially important for women of childbearing age due to their ubiquitous role in fetal growth and development. Population-based data on cobalamin and folate status are lacking from Nepal, where diets are mostly vegetarian. The objectives of the study were to investigate cobalamin and folate intake and status, and to explore associations with socio-demographics, anthropometrics, anemia, and dietary habits. Following a random selection of geographical clusters, we collected blood samples from 500 non-pregnant women and 24-h dietary recalls and food frequency questionnaires from a subsample of 379 women. Twenty percent of the women did not consume any food containing cobalamin during the days recalled, and in 72% nutritional cobalamin intake was <1 μg/day. Eighty-four percent of the women had cobalamin intake lower than the estimated average requirement (EAR) (<2 μg/day). In contrast, only 12% of the women had a folate intake less than 100 μg per day, whereas 62% had intake between 100 and 320 μg. Low plasma cobalamin (<150 pmol/L) was found in 42% of the women, most of whom (88%) also had elevated levels of methylmalonic acid. Our results indicated a high prevalence of nutritional cobalamin deficiency, while folate deficiency was uncommon. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Mother and Infant Body Mass Index, Breast Milk Leptin and Their Serum Leptin Values
Nutrients 2016, 8(6), 383; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8060383 - 21 Jun 2016
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2404
Abstract
Purpose: This study investigates correlations between mother and infant Body Mass Index (BMI), their serum leptin values and breast milk leptin concentration in early infancy. Subjects and Methods: We determined serum leptin values in 58 healthy infants and leptin values in their mothers’ [...] Read more.
Purpose: This study investigates correlations between mother and infant Body Mass Index (BMI), their serum leptin values and breast milk leptin concentration in early infancy. Subjects and Methods: We determined serum leptin values in 58 healthy infants and leptin values in their mothers’ breast milk, using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Infant and maternal anthropometrics were measured. Results: Median leptin concentration was 3.9 ng/mL (interquartile range (IQR): 2.75) in infant serum, 4.27 ng/mL (IQR: 5.62) in maternal serum and 0.89 ng/mL (IQR: 1.32) in breast milk. Median maternal BMI and weight were 24 kg/m2 (IQR: 4.41) and 64 kg (IQR: 15). Median infant BMI was 15.80 kg/cm2 (IQR: 4.02), while average weight was 5.130 kg (IQR: 1.627). Infants serum leptin values positively correlated with infants’ BMI (p = 0.001; r = 0.213) and breast milk leptin (p = 0.03; r = 0.285). Maternal serum leptin values positively correlated with maternal BMI (p = 0.000, r = 0.449) and breast milk leptin ones (p = 0.026; r = 0.322). Conclusion: Breast milk leptin and maternal BMI could influence infant serum leptin values. Further studies are needed to better elucidate the role of genetics and environment on infant leptin production and risk of obesity later in life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolically Healthy Obesity) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Improving Dietary Quality on Arterial Stiffness in Subjects with Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes: A 12 Months Randomised Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2016, 8(6), 382; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8060382 - 21 Jun 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1841
Abstract
People with diabetes have accelerated arterial stiffening. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of increasing fruit, vegetable and dairy intake for 12 months on carotid femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV), augmentation index (AIx), and central blood pressure (cBP), compared [...] Read more.
People with diabetes have accelerated arterial stiffening. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of increasing fruit, vegetable and dairy intake for 12 months on carotid femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV), augmentation index (AIx), and central blood pressure (cBP), compared to a usual diet control, in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. In a 12 months randomised controlled trial, cfPWV, AIx and cBP were measured every 3 months. The intervention group received dietary counselling to increase consumption of fruit (+1 serving/day; 150 g/day), vegetables (+2 servings/day; 150 g/day) and dairy (+1 serving/day; 200–250 g/day) at baseline, 1, 3, 6 and 9 months. The control group continued on their usual diet. One hundred and nine participants were randomised and 92 (intervention n = 45; control n = 47) completed. At 3 months, fruit (184 g/day; p = 0.001) and dairy (83 g/day; p = 0.037) intake increased in the intervention group compared with the control group but this increase was not maintained at 12 months. After adjustment for baseline measurements there was no time by treatment effect for central systolic or diastolic BP, AIx or cfPWV. A time effect existed for AIx which modestly increased over time. Peripheral diastolic BP and central pulse pressure were improved in the intervention group compared with the control group at 12 months. In the cohort with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, improving dietary quality by increasing consumption of fruit, vegetables and dairy did not improve cBP, AIx or cfPWV, compared with a control group continuing on their usual diet, after 12 months. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Spirulina platensis Extract via the Modulation of Histone Deacetylases
Nutrients 2016, 8(6), 381; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8060381 - 21 Jun 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2409
Abstract
We previously demonstrated that the organic extract of Spirulina platensis (SPE), an edible blue-green alga, possesses potent anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we investigated if the regulation of histone deacetylases (HDACs) play a role in the anti-inflammatory effect of SPE in macrophages. Treatment [...] Read more.
We previously demonstrated that the organic extract of Spirulina platensis (SPE), an edible blue-green alga, possesses potent anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we investigated if the regulation of histone deacetylases (HDACs) play a role in the anti-inflammatory effect of SPE in macrophages. Treatment of macrophages with SPE rapidly and dose-dependently reduced HDAC2, 3, and 4 proteins which preceded decreases in their mRNA levels. Degradation of HDAC4 protein was attenuated in the presence of inhibitors of calpain proteases, lysosomal acidification, and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, respectively, but not a proteasome inhibitor. Acetylated histone H3 was increased in SPE-treated macrophages to a similar level as macrophages treated with a pan-HDAC inhibitor, with concomitant inhibition of inflammatory gene expression upon LPS stimulation. Knockdown of HDAC3 increased basal and LPS-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression, while HDAC4 knockdown increased basal expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), but attenuated LPS-induced inflammatory gene expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that SPE decreased p65 binding and H3K9/K14 acetylation at the Il-1β and tumor necrosis factor α (Tnfα) promoters. Our results suggest that SPE increased global histone H3 acetylation by facilitating HDAC protein degradation, but decreases histone H3K9/K14 acetylation and p65 binding at the promoters of Il-1β and Tnfα to exert its anti-inflammatory effect. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Amino Acid and Biogenic Amine Profile Deviations in an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test: A Comparison between Healthy and Hyperlipidaemia Individuals Based on Targeted Metabolomics
Nutrients 2016, 8(6), 379; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8060379 - 21 Jun 2016
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2219
Abstract
Hyperlipidemia (HLP) is characterized by a disturbance in lipid metabolism and is a primary risk factor for the development of insulin resistance (IR) and a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. The aim of this work was to investigate the changes [...] Read more.
Hyperlipidemia (HLP) is characterized by a disturbance in lipid metabolism and is a primary risk factor for the development of insulin resistance (IR) and a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. The aim of this work was to investigate the changes in postprandial amino acid and biogenic amine profiles provoked by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in HLP patients using targeted metabolomics. We used ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry to analyze the serum amino acid and biogenic amine profiles of 35 control and 35 HLP subjects during an OGTT. The amino acid and biogenic amine profiles from 30 HLP subjects were detected as independent samples to validate the changes in the metabolites. There were differences in the amino acid and biogenic amine profiles between the HLP individuals and the healthy controls at baseline and after the OGTT. The per cent changes of 13 metabolites from fasting to the 2 h samples during the OGTT in the HLP patients were significantly different from those of the healthy controls. The lipid parameters were associated with the changes in valine, isoleucine, creatine, creatinine, dimethylglycine, asparagine, serine, and tyrosine (all p < 0.05) during the OGTT in the HLP group. The postprandial changes in isoleucine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) during the OGTT were positively associated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; all p < 0.05) in the HLP group. Elevated oxidative stress and disordered energy metabolism during OGTTs are important characteristics of metabolic perturbations in HLP. Our findings offer new insights into the complex physiological regulation of metabolism during the OGTT in HLP. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Palm Oil as a Suitable Vegetable Oil for Vitamin A Fortification Programs
Nutrients 2016, 8(6), 378; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8060378 - 21 Jun 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2540
Abstract
Fortification programs are considered to be an effective strategy to mitigate vitamin A deficiency in populations at risk. Fortified vegetable oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids were shown to be prone to oxidation, leading to limited vitamin A stability. Thus, it was hypothesized [...] Read more.
Fortification programs are considered to be an effective strategy to mitigate vitamin A deficiency in populations at risk. Fortified vegetable oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids were shown to be prone to oxidation, leading to limited vitamin A stability. Thus, it was hypothesized that fortified oils consisting of mainly saturated fatty acids might enhance the stability of vitamin A. Mildly (peroxide value: 1.0 meq O2/kg) and highly (peroxide value: 7.5 meq O2/kg) oxidized palm oil was stored, after fortification with 60 International Units/g retinyl palmitate, in 0.5 L transparent polyethylene terephthalate bottles under cold fluorescent lighting (12 h/day) at 32 °C for 57 days. An increase of the peroxide value by 15 meq O2/kg, which was also reflected by a decrease of α-tocopherol congener by 15%–18%, was determined independent of the initial rancidity. The oxidative deterioration of the highly oxidized palm oil during storage was correlated with a significant 46% decline of the vitamin A content. However, household storage of mildly oxidized palm oil for two months did not induce any losses of vitamin A. Thus, mildly oxidized palm oil may be recommended for vitamin A fortification programs, when other sources of essential fatty acids are available. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin A Update 2016)
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Open AccessReview
Dietary Recommendations for Cyclists during Altitude Training
Nutrients 2016, 8(6), 377; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8060377 - 18 Jun 2016
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3742
Abstract
The concept of altitude or hypoxic training is a common practice in cycling. However, several strategies for training regimens have been proposed, like “live high, train high” (LH-TH), “live high, train low” (LH-TL) or “intermittent hypoxic training” (IHT). Each of them combines the [...] Read more.
The concept of altitude or hypoxic training is a common practice in cycling. However, several strategies for training regimens have been proposed, like “live high, train high” (LH-TH), “live high, train low” (LH-TL) or “intermittent hypoxic training” (IHT). Each of them combines the effect of acclimatization and different training protocols that require specific nutrition. An appropriate nutrition strategy and adequate hydration can help athletes achieve their fitness and performance goals in this unfriendly environment. In this review, the physiological stress of altitude exposure and training will be discussed, with specific nutrition recommendations for athletes training under such conditions. However, there is little research about the nutrition demands of athletes who train at moderate altitude. Our review considers energetic demands and body mass or body composition changes due to altitude training, including respiratory and urinary water loss under these conditions. Carbohydrate intake recommendations and hydration status are discussed in detail, while iron storage and metabolism is also considered. Last, but not least the risk of increased oxidative stress under hypoxic conditions and antioxidant supplementation suggestions are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Health and Athletic Performance) Printed Edition available
Open AccessReview
Osteoporosis: Modern Paradigms for Last Century’s Bones
Nutrients 2016, 8(6), 376; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8060376 - 17 Jun 2016
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3276
Abstract
The skeleton is a metabolically active organ undergoing continuously remodelling. With ageing and menopause the balance shifts to increased resorption, leading to a reduction in bone mineral density and disruption of bone microarchitecture. Bone mass accretion and bone metabolism are influenced by systemic [...] Read more.
The skeleton is a metabolically active organ undergoing continuously remodelling. With ageing and menopause the balance shifts to increased resorption, leading to a reduction in bone mineral density and disruption of bone microarchitecture. Bone mass accretion and bone metabolism are influenced by systemic hormones as well as genetic and lifestyle factors. The classic paradigm has described osteoporosis as being a “brittle bone” disease that occurs in post-menopausal, thin, Caucasian women with low calcium intakes and/or vitamin D insufficiency. However, a study of black women in Africa demonstrated that higher proportions of body fat did not protect bone health. Isoflavone interventions in Asian postmenopausal women have produced inconsistent bone health benefits, due in part to population heterogeneity in enteric bacterial metabolism of daidzein. A comparison of women and men in several Asian countries identified significant differences between countries in the rate of bone health decline, and a high incidence rate of osteoporosis in both sexes. These studies have revealed significant differences in genetic phenotypes, debunking long-held beliefs and leading to new paradigms in study design. Current studies are now being specifically designed to assess genotype differences between Caucasian, Asian, African, and other phenotypes, and exploring alternative methodology to measure bone architecture. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
25(OH)D Status of Elite Athletes with Spinal Cord Injury Relative to Lifestyle Factors
Nutrients 2016, 8(6), 374; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8060374 - 17 Jun 2016
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2251
Abstract
Background: Due to the potential negative impact of low Vitamin D status on performance-related factors and the higher risk of low Vitamin D status in Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) population, research is warranted to determine whether elite athletes with SCI have sufficient 25(OH)D [...] Read more.
Background: Due to the potential negative impact of low Vitamin D status on performance-related factors and the higher risk of low Vitamin D status in Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) population, research is warranted to determine whether elite athletes with SCI have sufficient 25(OH)D levels. The purposes of this study were to examine: (1) the seasonal proportion of vitamin D insufficiency among elite athletes with SCI; and (2) to determine whether lifestyle factors, SCI lesion level, and muscle performance/function are related to vitamin D status in athletes with SCI. Methods: Thirty-nine members of the Canadian Wheelchair Sports Association, and the US Olympic Committee Paralympic program from outdoor and indoor sports were recruited for this study. Dietary and lifestyle factors, and serum 25(OH)D concentrations were assessed during the autumn (October) and winter (February/March). An independent t-test was used to assess differences in 25(OH)D status among seasons, and indoor and outdoor sports in the autumn and winter, respectively. Results: Mean ± SD serum 25(OH)D concentration was 69.6 ± 19.7 nmol/L (range from 30 to 107.3 nmol/L) and 67.4 ± 25.5 nmol/L (range from 20 to 117.3 nmol/L)in the autumn and winter, respectively. In the autumn, 15.4% of participants were considered vitamin D deficient (25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L) whereas 51.3% had 25(OH)D concentrations that would be considered insufficient (<80 nmol/L). In the winter, 15.4% were deficient while 41% of all participants were considered vitamin D insufficient. Conclusion: A substantial proportion of elite athletes with SCI have insufficient (41%–51%) and deficient (15.4%) 25(OH)D status in the autumn and winter. Furthermore, a seasonal decline in vitamin D status was not observed in the current study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Health and Athletic Performance) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle
The Association between Total Protein and Vegetable Protein Intake and Low Muscle Mass among the Community-Dwelling Elderly Population in Northern Taiwan
Nutrients 2016, 8(6), 373; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8060373 - 17 Jun 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3158
Abstract
Sarcopenia, highly linked with fall, frailty, and disease burden, is an emerging problem in aging society. Higher protein intake has been suggested to maintain nitrogen balance. Our objective was to investigate whether pre-sarcopenia status was associated with lower protein intake. A total of [...] Read more.
Sarcopenia, highly linked with fall, frailty, and disease burden, is an emerging problem in aging society. Higher protein intake has been suggested to maintain nitrogen balance. Our objective was to investigate whether pre-sarcopenia status was associated with lower protein intake. A total of 327 community-dwelling elderly people were recruited for a cross-sectional study. We adopted the multivariate nutrient density model to identify associations between low muscle mass and dietary protein intake. The general linear regression models were applied to estimate skeletal muscle mass index across the quartiles of total protein and vegetable protein density. Participants with diets in the lowest quartile of total protein density (<13.2%) were at a higher risk for low muscle mass (odds ratio (OR) 3.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.37–6.72) than those with diets in the highest quartile (≥17.2%). Similarly, participants with diets in the lowest quartile of vegetable protein density (<5.8%) were at a higher risk for low muscle mass (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.14–4.83) than those with diets in the highest quartile (≥9.4%). Furthermore, the estimated skeletal muscle mass index increased significantly across the quartiles of total protein density (p = 0.023) and vegetable protein density (p = 0.025). Increasing daily intakes of total protein and vegetable protein densities appears to confer protection against pre-sarcopenia status. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effectiveness of ω-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Based Lipid Emulsions for Treatment of Patients after Hepatectomy: A Prospective Clinical Trial
Nutrients 2016, 8(6), 357; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8060357 - 17 Jun 2016
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 1964
Abstract
Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of parenteral nutritional support with ω-3 PUFAs–based lipid emulsions in patients after liver resection. Methods: A total of 119 patients were randomly assigned to the immunonutrition (IM) group (n = 59) and control [...] Read more.
Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of parenteral nutritional support with ω-3 PUFAs–based lipid emulsions in patients after liver resection. Methods: A total of 119 patients were randomly assigned to the immunonutrition (IM) group (n = 59) and control group (n = 60). The IM group was continuously given Omegaven® 10% 100 mL/day rather than regular nutrition for five days postoperatively. Venous blood samples were obtained from all subjects before surgery and D1, D3 and D7 after surgery. Results: No significant difference was found in baseline characteristics of the two groups. On D1 after surgery, no statistically significant differences were observed in the blood sample tests between the two groups. On D3 after surgery, the levels of white blood cell count (WBC), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and total bilirubin (TBil) were dramatically decreased in the IM group (t = 3.065, p = 0.003; t = 2.149, p = 0.034; t = 5.313, p= 0.001; and t = 2.419, p = 0.017, respectively). Furthermore, on D7 after surgery, not only could a significant decrease be observed in the IM group concerning the levels of WBC, ALT and TBil (t = 3.025, p = 0.003; t = 2.094, p = 0.038; and t = 2.046, p = 0.043, respectively), but it was also seen in the level of Δprothrombintime (PT) (t = 2.450, p = 0.016). An increase in the level of prealbumin (Pre-Alb) in the IM group was observed on D7 after surgery (t = 2.237, p = 0.027). The frequency of total complications in the IM group were significantly lower than in the control group (χ2 = 4.225, p = 0.040 and χ2 = 3.174, p = 0.075). The trend favored the IM group in reducing the total infective complications rate (χ2 = 3.174, p = 0.075). A significant decrease in the duration of the hospital stay after surgery was also observed in the IM group (t = 2.012, p = 0.047).Conclusion: ω-3 PUFAs–based lipid emulsions for treatment of patients after hepatectomy are safe and effective in controlling inflammation, protecting liver function, and consequently reducing the rate of total complications and the duration of the hospital stay. Full article
Open AccessLetter
Age and Alzheimer’s Disease
Nutrients 2016, 8(6), 372; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8060372 - 16 Jun 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1861
Abstract
A recent review article published in Nutrients by Brewer [1] attracted the attention of the readers on the role of copper toxicity as major factor in Alzheimer’s disease.[...] Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Tanita SC-240 to Assess Body Composition in Pre-School Children: An Evaluation against the Three Component Model
Nutrients 2016, 8(6), 371; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8060371 - 16 Jun 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2058
Abstract
Quick, easy-to-use, and valid body composition measurement options for young children are needed. Therefore, we evaluated the ability of the bioelectrical impedance (BIA) device, Tanita SC-240, to measure fat mass (FM), fat free mass (FFM) and body fatness (BF%) in 40 healthy, Swedish [...] Read more.
Quick, easy-to-use, and valid body composition measurement options for young children are needed. Therefore, we evaluated the ability of the bioelectrical impedance (BIA) device, Tanita SC-240, to measure fat mass (FM), fat free mass (FFM) and body fatness (BF%) in 40 healthy, Swedish 5.5 years old children against the three component model (3C model). Average BF%, FM, and FFM for BIA were: 19.4% ± 3.9%, 4.1 ± 1.9 kg, and 16.4 ± 2.4 kg and were all significantly different (p < 0.001) from corresponding values for the 3C model (25.1% ± 5.5%, 5.3 ± 2.5 kg, and 15.2 ± 2.0 kg). Bland and Altman plots had wide limits of agreement for all body composition variables. Significant correlations ranging from 0.81 to 0.96 (p < 0.001) were found for BF%, FM, and FFM between BIA and the 3C model. When dividing the children into tertiles for BF%, 60% of children were classified correctly by means of BIA. In conclusion, the Tanita SC-240 underestimated BF% in comparison to the 3C model and had wide limits of agreement. Further work is needed in order to find accurate and easy-to-use methods for assessing body composition in pre-school children. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Fermented Red Ginseng Potentiates Improvement of Metabolic Dysfunction in Metabolic Syndrome Rat Models
Nutrients 2016, 8(6), 369; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8060369 - 16 Jun 2016
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2826
Abstract
Metabolic syndrome including obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension is a cluster of risk factors of cardiovascular disease. Fermentation of medicinal herbs improves their pharmacological efficacy. Red ginseng (RG), a widely used traditional herbal medicine, was reported with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activity. Aim in the [...] Read more.
Metabolic syndrome including obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension is a cluster of risk factors of cardiovascular disease. Fermentation of medicinal herbs improves their pharmacological efficacy. Red ginseng (RG), a widely used traditional herbal medicine, was reported with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activity. Aim in the present study was to investigate that the effects of fermented red ginseng (FRG) on a high-fructose (HF) diet induced metabolic disorders, and those effects were compared to RG and losartan. Animals were divided into four groups: a control group fed a regular diet and tap water, and fructose groups that were fed a 60% high-fructose (HF) diet with/without RG 250 mg/kg/day or FRG 250 mg/kg/day for eight weeks, respectively. Treatment with FRG significantly suppressed the increments of body weight, liver weight, epididymal fat weight and adipocyte size. Moreover, FRG significantly prevented the development of metabolic disturbances such as hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Staining with Oil-red-o demonstrated a marked increase of hepatic accumulation of triglycerides, and this increase was prevented by FRG. FRG ameliorated endothelial dysfunction by downregulation of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and adhesion molecules in the aorta. In addition, FRG induced markedly upregulation of Insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and glucose transporter type 4 (Glut4) in the muscle. These results indicate that FRG ameliorates obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension and fatty liver in HF diet rats. More favorable pharmacological effects on HF diet induced metabolic disorders were observed with FRG, compared to an equal dose of RG. These results showed that the pharmacological activity of RG was enhanced by fermentation. Taken together, fermentated red ginseng might be a beneficial therapeutic approach for metabolic syndrome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Metabolic Dysfunction) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
Caloric Restriction as a Strategy to Improve Vascular Dysfunction in Metabolic Disorders
Nutrients 2016, 8(6), 370; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8060370 - 15 Jun 2016
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2698
Abstract
Caloric restriction (CR) has proved to be the most effective and reproducible dietary intervention to increase healthy lifespan and aging. A reduction in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in obese subjects can be already achieved by a moderate and sustainable weight loss. Since pharmacological [...] Read more.
Caloric restriction (CR) has proved to be the most effective and reproducible dietary intervention to increase healthy lifespan and aging. A reduction in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in obese subjects can be already achieved by a moderate and sustainable weight loss. Since pharmacological approaches for body weight reduction have, at present, a poor long-term efficacy, CR is of great interest in the prevention and/or reduction of CVD associated with obesity. Other dietary strategies changing specific macronutrients, such as altering carbohydrates, protein content or diet glycemic index have been also shown to decrease the progression of CVD in obese patients. In this review, we will focus on the positive effects and possible mechanisms of action of these strategies on vascular dysfunction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Metabolic Dysfunction) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Maternal Obesity and Gestational Weight Gain on Maternal and Foetal Lipid Profile
Nutrients 2016, 8(6), 368; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8060368 - 15 Jun 2016
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2457
Abstract
Fatty acids (FAs) are fundamental for a foetus’s growth, serving as an energy source, structural constituents of cellular membranes and precursors of bioactive molecules, as well as being essential for cell signalling. Long-chain polyunsaturated FAs (LC-PUFAs) are pivotal in brain and visual development. [...] Read more.
Fatty acids (FAs) are fundamental for a foetus’s growth, serving as an energy source, structural constituents of cellular membranes and precursors of bioactive molecules, as well as being essential for cell signalling. Long-chain polyunsaturated FAs (LC-PUFAs) are pivotal in brain and visual development. It is of interest to investigate whether and how specific pregnancy conditions, which alter fatty acid metabolism (excessive pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) or gestational weight gain (GWG)), affect lipid supply to the foetus. For this purpose, we evaluated the erythrocyte FAs of mothers and offspring (cord-blood) at birth, in relation to pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG. A total of 435 mothers and their offspring (237 males, 51%) were included in the study. Distribution of linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA), and their metabolites, arachidonic acid, dihomogamma linoleic (DGLA) and ecosapentanoic acid, was significantly different in maternal and foetal erythrocytes. Pre-pregnancy BMI was significantly associated with maternal percentage of MUFAs (Coeff: −0.112; p = 0.021), LA (Coeff: −0.033; p = 0.044) and DHA (Coeff. = 0.055; p = 0.0016); inadequate GWG with DPA (Coeff: 0.637; p = 0.001); excessive GWG with docosaexahenoic acid (DHA) (Coeff. = −0.714; p = 0.004). Moreover, pre-pregnancy BMI was associated with foetus percentage of PUFAs (Coeff: −0.172; p = 0.009), omega 6 (Coeff: −0.098; p = 0.015) and DHA (Coeff: −0.0285; p = 0.036), even after adjusting for maternal lipids. Our findings show that maternal GWG affects maternal but not foetal lipid profile, differently from pre-pregnancy BMI, which influences both. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Piceatannol and Other Wine Stilbenes: A Pool of Inhibitors against α-Synuclein Aggregation and Cytotoxicity
Nutrients 2016, 8(6), 367; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8060367 - 15 Jun 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2321
Abstract
The aggregation of α-synuclein is one on the key pathogenic events in Parkinson’s disease. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory capacities of stilbenes against α-synuclein aggregation and toxicity. Thioflavin T fluorescence, transmission electronic microscopy, and SDS-PAGE analysis were performed to investigate [...] Read more.
The aggregation of α-synuclein is one on the key pathogenic events in Parkinson’s disease. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory capacities of stilbenes against α-synuclein aggregation and toxicity. Thioflavin T fluorescence, transmission electronic microscopy, and SDS-PAGE analysis were performed to investigate the inhibitory effects of three stilbenes against α-synuclein aggregation: piceatannol, ampelopsin A, and isohopeaphenol. Lipid vesicle permeabilization assays were performed to screen stilbenes for protection against membrane damage induced by aggregated α-synuclein. The viability of PC12 cells was examined using an MTT assay to assess the preventive effects of stilbenes against α-synuclein-induced toxicity. Piceatannol inhibited the formation of α synuclein fibrils and was able to destabilize preformed filaments. It seems to induce the formation of small soluble complexes protecting membranes against α-synuclein-induced damage. Finally, piceatannol protected cells against α-synuclein-induced toxicity. The oligomers tested (ampelopsin A and hopeaphenol) were less active. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from Resveratrol Regional Meeting 2015)
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Open AccessArticle
Vitamin D Status and Quality of Life in Healthy Male High-Tech Employees
Nutrients 2016, 8(6), 366; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8060366 - 15 Jun 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1974
Abstract
While low vitamin D status has been shown to be associated with decreased quality of life in unhealthy populations and women, only limited data are available regarding healthy adult men. Our aim was to evaluate the associations between health-related quality of life (QoL) [...] Read more.
While low vitamin D status has been shown to be associated with decreased quality of life in unhealthy populations and women, only limited data are available regarding healthy adult men. Our aim was to evaluate the associations between health-related quality of life (QoL) and vitamin D status in adult men. High-tech employees aged 25–65 year were recruited from an occupational periodic examination clinic at Rambam Health Campus. QoL was assessed using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Health-related quality of life questionnaire (HRQOL-4). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and Body Mass Index (BMI) were measured; further information was collected about physical activity, education, sun exposure, sick-days, and musculoskeletal pain severity (visual analog scale). Three hundred and fifty-eight men were enrolled in the study; mean serum 25(OH)D level was 22.1 ± 7.9 ng/mL (range 4.6–54.5 ng/mL). In a multivariate logistic regression model, 25(OH)D was a significant independent determinant of self-rated health; Odds Ratio (OR) for self-rated health was 0.91 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.85–0.97, p = 0.004), adjusted for age, BMI, pain severity, physical activity, and sun exposure. Every 1 ng/mL increase of 25(OH)D was associated with 9% reduction in the odds of reporting self-rated health as fair or poor. Poisson regression model demonstrated an association between physically unhealthy days and 25(OH)D levels (rate ratio 0.95, p < 0.001). In conclusion, serum levels of 25(OH)D were associated with self-rated health and with physically unhealthy days of HRQOL in healthy high-tech male workers. Future intervention studies are required to test the impact of vitamin D supplementation on QoL. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Dietary Pattern Trajectories from 6 to 12 Months of Age in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort
Nutrients 2016, 8(6), 365; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8060365 - 15 Jun 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2683
Abstract
Little is known about the dietary patterns of Asian infants in the first year of life, nor of their associations with maternal socio-demographic factors. Based on the Growing Up in Singapore towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) mother-offspring cohort, cross-sectional dietary patterns were derived by [...] Read more.
Little is known about the dietary patterns of Asian infants in the first year of life, nor of their associations with maternal socio-demographic factors. Based on the Growing Up in Singapore towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) mother-offspring cohort, cross-sectional dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis using 24-h recalls and food diaries of infants at 6-, 9- and 12-months of age. Dietary pattern trajectories were modeled by mapping similar dietary patterns across each age using multilevel mixed models. Associations with maternal socio-demographic variables, collected through questionnaires during pregnancy, were assessed using general linear models. In n = 486 infants, four dietary pattern trajectories were established from 6- to 12-months. Predominantly breastmilk: mainly breastmilk and less formula milk, Guidelines: rice porridge, vegetables, fruits and low-fat fish and meat, Easy-to-prepare foods: infant cereals, juices, cakes and biscuits and Noodles (in soup) and seafood: noodle and common accompaniments. In adjusted models, higher maternal education attainment was correlated with higher start scores on Predominantly breastmilk, but lowest education attainment increased its adherence over time. Older mothers had higher start scores on Easy-to-prepare foods, but younger mothers had increased adherence over time. Chinese mothers had higher start scores on Predominantly breastmilk but greater adherence to Guidelines over time, while Indian mothers had higher start scores on Easy-to-prepare foods but greater adherence to Predominantly breastmilk with time (p < 0.05 for all). Changes in trajectories over time were small. Hence, dietary patterns established during weaning are strongly influenced by maternal socio-demographic factors and remain stable over the first year of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients in Infancy) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessFeature PaperCommentary
Effects of Dietary l-Arginine on Nitric Oxide Bioavailability in Obese Normotensive and Obese Hypertensive Subjects
Nutrients 2016, 8(6), 364; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8060364 - 14 Jun 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2234
Abstract
Obesity related hypertension is a major risk factor for resistant hypertension. We do not completely understand the mechanism(s) underlying the development of obesity related hypertension which hinders the development of novel treatment strategies for this condition. Data from experimental studies and small clinical [...] Read more.
Obesity related hypertension is a major risk factor for resistant hypertension. We do not completely understand the mechanism(s) underlying the development of obesity related hypertension which hinders the development of novel treatment strategies for this condition. Data from experimental studies and small clinical trials indicate that transport of l-arginine, the substrate for nitric oxide (NO), and subsequent NO production are reduced in obesity induced hypertension. Reduced NO bioavailability can induce hypertension via multiple mechanisms. Mirmiran et al. recently analyzed data from a large population study and found that the association between dietary l-arginine and serum nitrate and nitrite was weakened in obese hypertensive subjects compared to obese normotensives. These data suggest that l-arginine dependent NO production is impaired in the former group compared to the latter which may represent a novel mechanism contributing to hypertension in the setting of obesity. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Nutrition and Cardiovascular Disease: Finding the Perfect Recipe for Cardiovascular Health
Nutrients 2016, 8(6), 363; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8060363 - 14 Jun 2016
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 5234
Abstract
The increasing burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) despite the progress in management entails the need of more effective preventive and curative strategies. As dietary-associated risk is the most important behavioral factor influencing global health, it appears the best target in the challenge against [...] Read more.
The increasing burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) despite the progress in management entails the need of more effective preventive and curative strategies. As dietary-associated risk is the most important behavioral factor influencing global health, it appears the best target in the challenge against CVD. Although for many years, since the formulation of the cholesterol hypothesis, a nutrient-based approach was attempted for CVD prevention and treatment, in recent years a dietary-based approach resulted more effective in reducing cardiovascular risk worldwide. After the publication of randomized trials on the remarkable effects of the Mediterranean diet and the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet on CVD, new efforts were put on research about the effects of complex dietary interventions on CVD. The purpose of this paper is to review the evidence on dietary interventions in the prevention and disease modification of CVD, focusing on coronary artery disease and heart failure, the main disease responsible for the enormous toll taken by CVD worldwide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Metabolic Dysfunction) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel in Vivo Model for Assessing the Impact of Geophagic Earth on Iron Status
Nutrients 2016, 8(6), 362; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8060362 - 13 Jun 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1867
Abstract
The causes and consequences of geophagy, the craving and consumption of earth, remain enigmatic, despite its recognition as a behavior with public health implications. Iron deficiency has been proposed as both a cause and consequence of geophagy, but methodological limitations have precluded a [...] Read more.
The causes and consequences of geophagy, the craving and consumption of earth, remain enigmatic, despite its recognition as a behavior with public health implications. Iron deficiency has been proposed as both a cause and consequence of geophagy, but methodological limitations have precluded a decisive investigation into this relationship. Here we present a novel in vivo model for assessing the impact of geophagic earth on iron status: Gallus gallus (broiler chicken). For four weeks, animals were gavaged daily with varying dosages of geophagic material or pure clay mineral. Differences in haemoglobin (Hb) across treatment groups were assessed weekly and differences in liver ferritin, liver iron, and gene expression of the iron transporters divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), duodenal cytochrome B (DcytB) and ferroportin were assessed at the end of the study. Minimal impact on iron status indicators was observed in all non-control groups, suggesting dosing of geophagic materials may need refining in future studies. However, this model shows clear advantages over prior methods used both in vitro and in humans, and represents an important step in explaining the public health impact of geophagy on iron status. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Antiproliferative Activity of Triterpene Glycoside Nutrient from Monk Fruit in Colorectal Cancer and Throat Cancer
Nutrients 2016, 8(6), 360; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8060360 - 13 Jun 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2945
Abstract
Colorectal cancer and throat cancer are the world’s most prevalent neoplastic diseases, and a serious threat to human health. Plant triterpene glycosides have demonstrated antitumor activity. In this study, we investigated potential anticancer effects of mogroside IVe, a triterpenoid glycoside from monk fruit, [...] Read more.
Colorectal cancer and throat cancer are the world’s most prevalent neoplastic diseases, and a serious threat to human health. Plant triterpene glycosides have demonstrated antitumor activity. In this study, we investigated potential anticancer effects of mogroside IVe, a triterpenoid glycoside from monk fruit, using in vitro and in vivo models of colorectal and laryngeal cancer. The effects of mogroside IVe on the proliferation of colorectal cancer HT29 cells and throat cancer Hep-2 cells were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and the expression levels of p53, phosphorylated ERK1/2, and MMP-9 were analyzed by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The results indicated that mogroside IVe inhibited, in a dose-dependent manner, the proliferation of HT29 and Hep-2 cells in culture and in xenografted mice, which was accompanied by the upregulation of tumor suppressor p53, and downregulation of matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)1/2. This study revealed the suppressive activity of mogroside IVe towards colorectal and throat cancers and identified the underlying mechanisms, suggesting that mogroside IVe may be potentially used as a biologically-active phytochemical supplement for treating colorectal and throat cancers. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Retinoic Acid as a Modulator of T Cell Immunity
Nutrients 2016, 8(6), 349; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8060349 - 13 Jun 2016
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 3659
Abstract
Vitamin A, a generic designation for an array of organic molecules that includes retinal, retinol and retinoic acid, is an essential nutrient needed in a wide array of aspects including the proper functioning of the visual system, maintenance of cell function and differentiation, [...] Read more.
Vitamin A, a generic designation for an array of organic molecules that includes retinal, retinol and retinoic acid, is an essential nutrient needed in a wide array of aspects including the proper functioning of the visual system, maintenance of cell function and differentiation, epithelial surface integrity, erythrocyte production, reproduction, and normal immune function. Vitamin A deficiency is one of the most common micronutrient deficiencies worldwide and is associated with defects in adaptive immunity. Reports from epidemiological studies, clinical trials and experimental studies have clearly demonstrated that vitamin A plays a central role in immunity and that its deficiency is the cause of broad immune alterations including decreased humoral and cellular responses, inadequate immune regulation, weak response to vaccines and poor lymphoid organ development. In this review, we will examine the role of vitamin A in immunity and focus on several aspects of T cell biology such as T helper cell differentiation, function and homing, as well as lymphoid organ development. Further, we will provide an overview of the effects of vitamin A deficiency in the adaptive immune responses and how retinoic acid, through its effect on T cells can fine-tune the balance between tolerance and immunity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin A Update 2016)
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Open AccessReview
Isoflavones: Anti-Inflammatory Benefit and Possible Caveats
Nutrients 2016, 8(6), 361; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8060361 - 10 Jun 2016
Cited by 51 | Viewed by 3203
Abstract
Inflammation, a biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, is also known to be involved in a host of diseases, such as obesity, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and even cancer. Isoflavones are a class of flavonoids that exhibit antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory [...] Read more.
Inflammation, a biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, is also known to be involved in a host of diseases, such as obesity, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and even cancer. Isoflavones are a class of flavonoids that exhibit antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory properties. Increasing evidence has highlighted the potential for isoflavones to prevent the chronic diseases in which inflammation plays a key role, though the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Recently, some studies have raised concerns about isoflavones induced negative effects like carcinogenesis, thymic involution, and immunosuppression. Therefore, this review aims to summarize the anti-inflammatory effects of isoflavones, unravel the underlying mechanisms, and present the potential health risks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavonoids, Inflammation and Immune System)
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Open AccessProject Report
Comparison of INTAKE24 (an Online 24-h Dietary Recall Tool) with Interviewer-Led 24-h Recall in 11–24 Year-Old
Nutrients 2016, 8(6), 358; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8060358 - 09 Jun 2016
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3497
Abstract
Online dietary assessment tools offer a convenient, low cost alternative to traditional dietary assessment methods such as weighed records and face-to-face interviewer-led 24-h recalls. INTAKE24 is an online multiple pass 24-h recall tool developed for use with 11–24 year-old. The aim of the [...] Read more.
Online dietary assessment tools offer a convenient, low cost alternative to traditional dietary assessment methods such as weighed records and face-to-face interviewer-led 24-h recalls. INTAKE24 is an online multiple pass 24-h recall tool developed for use with 11–24 year-old. The aim of the study was to undertake a comparison of INTAKE24 (the test method) with interviewer-led multiple pass 24-h recalls (the comparison method) in 180 people aged 11–24 years. Each participant completed both an INTAKE24 24-h recall and an interviewer-led 24-h recall on the same day on four occasions over a one-month period. The daily energy and nutrient intakes reported in INTAKE24 were compared to those reported in the interviewer-led recall. Mean intakes reported using INTAKE24 were similar to the intakes reported in the interviewer-led recall for energy and macronutrients. INTAKE24 was found to underestimate energy intake by 1% on average compared to the interviewer-led recall with the limits of agreement ranging from minus 49% to plus 93%. Mean intakes of all macronutrients and micronutrients (except non-milk extrinsic sugars) were within 4% of the interviewer-led recall. Dietary assessment that utilises technology may offer a viable alternative and be more engaging than paper based methods, particularly for children and young adults. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Challenges in Analyzing the Biological Effects of Resveratrol
Nutrients 2016, 8(6), 353; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8060353 - 09 Jun 2016
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 3222
Abstract
The suggested health effects (e.g., disease prevention) of dietary bioactive compounds such as resveratrol are challenging to prove in comparison to man-made drugs developed for therapeutic purposes. Dietary bioactive compounds have multiple cellular targets and therefore have a variety of biological effects. Extrapolating [...] Read more.
The suggested health effects (e.g., disease prevention) of dietary bioactive compounds such as resveratrol are challenging to prove in comparison to man-made drugs developed for therapeutic purposes. Dietary bioactive compounds have multiple cellular targets and therefore have a variety of biological effects. Extrapolating the biological effects of dietary compounds from in vitro and in vivo animal experiments to humans may lead to over- or under-estimation of the effect and role of these compounds. The present paper will discuss a few of these challenges and suggest directions for future research. Questions we address include: (1) Is the combinatorial effect of resveratrol and other compounds real? (2) What are the real and relevant doses of resveratrol after administration? and (3) Is it possible to estimate the preventive effect of resveratrol by clinical trials using standard experimental designs? The examples concerning resveratrol taken from the scientific literature are mainly from 2010 and later. The challenges pointed out in this review are similar to most naturally occurring bioactive compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from Resveratrol Regional Meeting 2015)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Protein Consumption and the Elderly: What Is the Optimal Level of Intake?
Nutrients 2016, 8(6), 359; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8060359 - 08 Jun 2016
Cited by 46 | Viewed by 4521
Abstract
Maintaining independence, quality of life, and health is crucial for elderly adults. One of the major threats to living independently is the loss of muscle mass, strength, and function that progressively occurs with aging, known as sarcopenia. Several studies have identified protein (especially [...] Read more.
Maintaining independence, quality of life, and health is crucial for elderly adults. One of the major threats to living independently is the loss of muscle mass, strength, and function that progressively occurs with aging, known as sarcopenia. Several studies have identified protein (especially the essential amino acids) as a key nutrient for muscle health in elderly adults. Elderly adults are less responsive to the anabolic stimulus of low doses of amino acid intake compared to younger individuals. However, this lack of responsiveness in elderly adults can be overcome with higher levels of protein (or essential amino acid) consumption. The requirement for a larger dose of protein to generate responses in elderly adults similar to the responses in younger adults provides the support for a beneficial effect of increased protein in older populations. The purpose of this review is to present the current evidence related to dietary protein intake and muscle health in elderly adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Protein, Exercise and Muscle Health in an Ageing Population)
Open AccessArticle
Predictors of Vitamin D-Containing Supplement Use in the Australian Population and Associations between Dose and Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations
Nutrients 2016, 8(6), 356; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8060356 - 08 Jun 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2084
Abstract
Despite concerns about vitamin D deficiency in the Australian population, little is known about the prevalence and predictors of vitamin D-containing supplement use. We described the use of vitamin D-containing supplements, and investigated associations between supplemental vitamin D intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [...] Read more.
Despite concerns about vitamin D deficiency in the Australian population, little is known about the prevalence and predictors of vitamin D-containing supplement use. We described the use of vitamin D-containing supplements, and investigated associations between supplemental vitamin D intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations, using a single 24-h dietary recall from the 2011–2013 Australian Health Survey (n = 12,153; ages ≥ 2 years). Multiple regression models were used to investigate predictors of vitamin D-containing supplement use in adults, and associations between dose and serum 25(OH)D concentrations/vitamin D sufficiency (≥50 nmol/L), adjusting for potential confounders. The prevalence of vitamin D-containing supplement use was 10%, 6% and 19% in children, adolescents and adults, respectively. Predictors of vitamin D-containing supplement use in adults included being female, advancing age, higher educational attainment, higher socio-economic status, not smoking, and greater physical activity. After adjusting for potential confounders, a 40 IU (1 µg) increase in vitamin D intake from supplements was associated with an increase of 0.41 nmol/L in serum 25(OH)D concentrations (95% CI 0.35, 0.47; p < 0.001). However, the prevalence of vitamin D-containing supplement use was generally low in the Australian population, particularly for single vitamin D supplements, with most supplement users obtaining only low levels of vitamin D from other supplement types. Full article
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