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Nutrients, Volume 8, Issue 5 (May 2016)

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Open AccessArticle
Impact of a High-Fat or High-Fiber Diet on Intestinal Microbiota and Metabolic Markers in a Pig Model
Nutrients 2016, 8(5), 317; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8050317
Received: 14 March 2016 / Revised: 3 May 2016 / Accepted: 16 May 2016 / Published: 23 May 2016
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 2734 | PDF Full-text (267 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To further elaborate interactions between nutrition, gut microbiota and host health, an animal model to simulate changes in microbial composition and activity due to dietary changes similar to those in humans is needed. Therefore, the impact of two different diets on cecal and [...] Read more.
To further elaborate interactions between nutrition, gut microbiota and host health, an animal model to simulate changes in microbial composition and activity due to dietary changes similar to those in humans is needed. Therefore, the impact of two different diets on cecal and colonic microbial gene copies and metabolic activity, organ development and biochemical parameters in blood serum was investigated using a pig model. Four pigs were either fed a low-fat/high-fiber (LF), or a high-fat/low-fiber (HF) diet for seven weeks, with both diets being isocaloric. A hypotrophic effect of the HF diet on digestive organs could be observed compared to the LF diet (p < 0.05). Higher gene copy numbers of Bacteroides (p < 0.05) and Enterobacteriaceae (p < 0.001) were present in intestinal contents of HF pigs, bifidobacteria were more abundant in LF pigs (p < 0.05). Concentrations of acetate and butyrate were higher in LF pigs (p < 0.05). Glucose was higher in HF pigs, while glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) showed higher concentrations upon feeding the LF diet (p < 0.001). However, C-reactive protein (CRP) decreased with time in LF pigs (p < 0.05). In part, these findings correspond to those in humans, and are in support of the concept of using the pig as human model. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Cardiovascular, Metabolic Effects and Dietary Composition of Ad-Libitum Paleolithic vs. Australian Guide to Healthy Eating Diets: A 4-Week Randomised Trial
Nutrients 2016, 8(5), 314; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8050314
Received: 9 March 2016 / Revised: 16 May 2016 / Accepted: 17 May 2016 / Published: 23 May 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 7305 | PDF Full-text (562 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
(1) Background: The Paleolithic diet is popular in Australia, however, limited literature surrounds the dietary pattern. Our primary aim was to compare the Paleolithic diet with the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) in terms of anthropometric, metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors, with [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The Paleolithic diet is popular in Australia, however, limited literature surrounds the dietary pattern. Our primary aim was to compare the Paleolithic diet with the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) in terms of anthropometric, metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors, with a secondary aim to examine the macro and micronutrient composition of both dietary patterns; (2) Methods: 39 healthy women (mean ± SD age 47 ± 13 years, BMI 27 ± 4 kg/m2) were randomised to either the Paleolithic (n = 22) or AGHE diet (n = 17) for four weeks. Three-day weighed food records, body composition and biochemistry data were collected pre and post intervention; (3) Results: Significantly greater weight loss occurred in the Paleolithic group (−1.99 kg, 95% CI −2.9, −1.0), p < 0.001). There were no differences in cardiovascular and metabolic markers between groups. The Paleolithic group had lower intakes of carbohydrate (−14.63% of energy (E), 95% CI −19.5, −9.7), sodium (−1055 mg/day, 95% CI −1593, −518), calcium (−292 mg/day 95% CI −486.0, −99.0) and iodine (−47.9 μg/day, 95% CI −79.2, −16.5) and higher intakes of fat (9.39% of E, 95% CI 3.7, 15.1) and β-carotene (6777 μg/day 95% CI 2144, 11410) (all p < 0.01); (4) Conclusions: The Paleolithic diet induced greater changes in body composition over the short-term intervention, however, larger studies are recommended to assess the impact of the Paleolithic vs. AGHE diets on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy populations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Chocolate and Yerba Mate Phenolic Compounds on Inflammatory and Oxidative Biomarkers in HIV/AIDS Individuals
Nutrients 2016, 8(5), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8050132
Received: 29 October 2015 / Revised: 19 February 2016 / Accepted: 23 February 2016 / Published: 23 May 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2111 | PDF Full-text (1286 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Flavonoids in cocoa and yerba mate have a beneficial role on inflammation and oxidative disorders. Their effect on HIV individuals has not been studied yet, despite the high cardiovascular risk of this population. This study investigated the role of cocoa and yerba mate [...] Read more.
Flavonoids in cocoa and yerba mate have a beneficial role on inflammation and oxidative disorders. Their effect on HIV individuals has not been studied yet, despite the high cardiovascular risk of this population. This study investigated the role of cocoa and yerba mate consumption on oxidative and inflammatory biomarkers in HIV+ individuals. A cross-over, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted in 92 individuals on antiretroviral therapy for at least six months and at viral suppression. Participants were randomized to receive either 65 g of chocolate or chocolate-placebo or 3 g of yerba mate or mate-placebo for 15 days each, alternating by a washout period of 15 days. At baseline, and at the end of each intervention regimen, data regarding anthropometry, inflammatory, oxidative and immunological parameters were collected. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, lipid profile, white blood cell profile and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were assessed. There was a difference between mean concentrations of HDL-c (ANOVA; p ≤ 0.05) among the different regimens: dark chocolate, chocolate-placebo, yerba mate and mate-placebo. When a paired Student t-test was used for comparisons between mean HDL-c at baseline and after each regimen, the mean concentration of HDL-c was higher after supplementation with dark chocolate (p = 0.008). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavonoids, Inflammation and Immune System)
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Open AccessReview
The Role of Avocados in Complementary and Transitional Feeding
Nutrients 2016, 8(5), 316; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8050316
Received: 18 February 2016 / Revised: 17 March 2016 / Accepted: 29 March 2016 / Published: 21 May 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 5135 | PDF Full-text (270 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Infant dietary patterns tend to be insufficient sources of fruits, vegetables, and fiber, as well as excessive in salt, added sugars, and overall energy. Despite the serious long-term health risks associated with suboptimal fruit and vegetable intake, a large percentage of infants and [...] Read more.
Infant dietary patterns tend to be insufficient sources of fruits, vegetables, and fiber, as well as excessive in salt, added sugars, and overall energy. Despite the serious long-term health risks associated with suboptimal fruit and vegetable intake, a large percentage of infants and toddlers in the U.S. do not consume any fruits or vegetables on a daily basis. Since not all fruits and vegetables are nutritionally similar, guidance on the optimal selection of fruits and vegetables should emphasize those with the greatest potential for nutrition and health benefits. A challenge is that the most popularly consumed fruits for this age group (i.e., apples, pears, bananas, grapes, strawberries) do not closely fit the current general recommendations since they tend to be overly sweet and/or high in sugar. Unsaturated oil-containing fruits such as avocados are nutritionally unique among fruits in that they are lower in sugar and higher in fiber and monounsaturated fatty acids than most other fruits, and they also have the proper consistency and texture for first foods with a neutral flavor spectrum. Taken together, avocados show promise for helping to meet the dietary needs of infants and toddlers, and should be considered for inclusion in future dietary recommendations for complementary and transitional feeding. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Variation in the Oral Processing of Everyday Meals Is Associated with Fullness and Meal Size; A Potential Nudge to Reduce Energy Intake?
Nutrients 2016, 8(5), 315; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8050315
Received: 17 February 2016 / Revised: 24 March 2016 / Accepted: 1 April 2016 / Published: 21 May 2016
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 2736 | PDF Full-text (1052 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Laboratory studies have demonstrated that experimental manipulations of oral processing can have a marked effect on energy intake. Here, we explored whether variations in oral processing across a range of unmodified everyday meals could affect post-meal fullness and meal size. In Study 1, [...] Read more.
Laboratory studies have demonstrated that experimental manipulations of oral processing can have a marked effect on energy intake. Here, we explored whether variations in oral processing across a range of unmodified everyday meals could affect post-meal fullness and meal size. In Study 1, female participants (N = 12) attended the laboratory over 20 lunchtime sessions to consume a 400-kcal portion of a different commercially available pre-packaged meal. Prior to consumption, expected satiation was assessed. During each meal, oral processing was characterised using: (i) video-recordings of the mouth and (ii) real-time measures of plate weight. Hunger and fullness ratings were elicited pre- and post-consumption, and for a further three hours. Foods that were eaten slowly had higher expected satiation and delivered more satiation and satiety. Building on these findings, in Study 2 we selected two meals (identical energy density) from Study 1 that were equally liked but maximised differences in oral processing. On separate days, male and female participants (N = 24) consumed a 400-kcal portion of either the “fast” or “slow” meal followed by an ad libitum meal (either the same food or a dessert). When continuing with the same food, participants consumed less of the slow meal. Further, differences in food intake during the ad libitum meal were not compensated at a subsequent snacking opportunity an hour later. Together, these findings suggest that variations in oral processing across a range of unmodified everyday meals can affect fullness after consuming a fixed portion and can also impact meal size. Modifying food form to encourage increased oral processing (albeit to a lesser extent than in experimental manipulations) might represent a viable target for food manufacturers to help to nudge consumers to manage their weight. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food and Appetite)
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Open AccessReview
The Role of Avocados in Maternal Diets during the Periconceptional Period, Pregnancy, and Lactation
Nutrients 2016, 8(5), 313; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8050313
Received: 18 February 2016 / Revised: 9 May 2016 / Accepted: 13 May 2016 / Published: 21 May 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 5815 | PDF Full-text (778 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Maternal nutrition plays a crucial role in influencing fertility, fetal development, birth outcomes, and breast milk composition. During the critical window of time from conception through the initiation of complementary feeding, the nutrition of the mother is the nutrition of the offspring—and a [...] Read more.
Maternal nutrition plays a crucial role in influencing fertility, fetal development, birth outcomes, and breast milk composition. During the critical window of time from conception through the initiation of complementary feeding, the nutrition of the mother is the nutrition of the offspring—and a mother’s dietary choices can affect both the early health status and lifelong disease risk of the offspring. Most health expert recommendations and government-sponsored dietary guidelines agree that a healthy diet for children and adults (including those who are pregnant and/or lactating) should include an abundance of nutrient-rich foods such as fruits and vegetables. These foods should contain a variety of essential nutrients as well as other compounds that are associated with lower disease risk such as fiber and bioactives. However, the number and amounts of nutrients varies considerably among fruits and vegetables, and not all fruit and vegetable options are considered “nutrient-rich”. Avocados are unique among fruits and vegetables in that, by weight, they contain much higher amounts of the key nutrients folate and potassium, which are normally under-consumed in maternal diets. Avocados also contain higher amounts of several non-essential compounds, such as fiber, monounsaturated fats, and lipid-soluble antioxidants, which have all been linked to improvements in maternal health, birth outcomes and/or breast milk quality. The objective of this report is to review the evidence that avocados may be a unique nutrition source for pregnant and lactating women and, thus, should be considered for inclusion in future dietary recommendations for expecting and new mothers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Correlation Study of DHA Dietary Intake and Plasma, Erythrocyte and Breast Milk DHA Concentrations in Lactating Women from Coastland, Lakeland, and Inland Areas of China
Nutrients 2016, 8(5), 312; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8050312
Received: 8 March 2016 / Revised: 11 May 2016 / Accepted: 18 May 2016 / Published: 20 May 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1803 | PDF Full-text (242 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We aimed to assess the correlation between docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) dietary intake and the plasma, erythrocyte and breast milk DHA concentrations in lactating women residing in the coastland, lakeland and inland areas of China. A total of 408 healthy lactating women (42 ± [...] Read more.
We aimed to assess the correlation between docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) dietary intake and the plasma, erythrocyte and breast milk DHA concentrations in lactating women residing in the coastland, lakeland and inland areas of China. A total of 408 healthy lactating women (42 ± 7 days postpartum) were recruited from four hospitals located in Weihai (coastland), Yueyang (lakeland) and Baotou (inland) city. The categories of food containing DHA, the average amount consumed per time and the frequency of consumption in the past month were assessed by a tailored DHA food frequency questionnaire, the DHA Intake Evaluation Tool (DIET). DHA dietary intake (mg/day) was calculated according to the Chinese Food Composition Table (Version 2009). In addition, fasting venous blood (5 mL) and breast milk (10 mL) were collected from lactating women. DHA concentrations in plasma, erythrocyte and breast milk were measured using capillary gas chromatography, and were reported as absolute concentration (μg/mL) and relative concentration (weight percent of total fatty acids, wt. %). Spearman correlation coefficients were used to assess the correlation between intakes of DHA and its concentrations in biological specimens. The study showed that the breast milk, plasma and erythrocyte DHA concentrations were positively correlated with DHA dietary intake; corresponding correlation coefficients were 0.36, 0.36 and 0.24 for relative concentration and 0.33, 0.32, and 0.18 for absolute concentration (p < 0.05). The median DHA dietary intake varied significantly across areas (p < 0.05), which was highest in the coastland (24.32 mg/day), followed by lakeland (13.69 mg/day), and lowest in the inland (8.84 mg/day). The overall relative and absolute DHA concentrations in breast milk were 0.36% ± 0.23% and 141.49 ± 107.41 μg/mL; the concentrations were significantly lower in inland women than those from coastland and lakeland. We conclude that DHA dietary intake is positively correlated with DHA concentrations in blood and breast milk in Chinese lactating women, suggesting that the tailored DHA food frequency questionnaire, DIET, is a valid tool for the assessment of DHA dietary intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DHA for Optimal Health) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle
The Association of Dietary l-Arginine Intake and Serum Nitric Oxide Metabolites in Adults: A Population-Based Study
Nutrients 2016, 8(5), 311; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8050311
Received: 4 April 2016 / Revised: 11 May 2016 / Accepted: 16 May 2016 / Published: 20 May 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1848 | PDF Full-text (690 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study was conducted to investigate whether regular dietary intake of l-arginine is associated with serum nitrate + nitrite (NOx). In this cross-sectional study, 2771 men and women, who had participated in the third examination of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to investigate whether regular dietary intake of l-arginine is associated with serum nitrate + nitrite (NOx). In this cross-sectional study, 2771 men and women, who had participated in the third examination of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (2006–2008), were recruited. Demographics, anthropometrics and biochemical variables were evaluated. Dietary data were collected using a validated 168-food item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and dietary intake of l-arginine was calculated. To determine any association between dietary l-arginine and serum NOx, linear regression models with adjustment for potential confounders were used. Mean age of participants (39.2% men) was 45.9 ± 15.9 years. After adjustment for all potential confounding variables, a significant positive association was observed between l-arginine intake and serum NOx concentrations in the fourth quartile of l-arginine (β = 6.63, 95% CI = 4.14, 9.12, p for trend = 0.001), an association stronger in women. Further analysis, stratified by age, body mass index and hypertension status categories, showed a greater association in middle-aged and older adults (β = 9.12, 95% CI = 3.99, 13.6 and β = 12.1, 95% CI = 6.48, 17.7, respectively). l-arginine intakes were also strongly associated with serum NOx levels in overweight and obese subjects in the upper quartile (β = 10.7, 95% CI = 5.43, 16.0 and β = 11.0, 95% CI = 4.29, 17.5); a greater association was also observed between l-arginine intakes and serum NOx in non-hypertensive (HTN) compared to HTN subjects (β = 2.65, 95% CI = 2.1–3.2 vs. β = 1.25, 95% CI = −1.64–4.15). Dietary l-arginine intakes were associated to serum NOx and this association may be affected by sex, age, body mass index, and hypertension status. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Possible Role of Flavonoids in the Prevention of Diabetic Complications
Nutrients 2016, 8(5), 310; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8050310
Received: 15 March 2016 / Revised: 11 May 2016 / Accepted: 16 May 2016 / Published: 20 May 2016
Cited by 37 | Viewed by 2521 | PDF Full-text (408 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a disease that affects many metabolic pathways. It is associated with insulin resistance, impaired insulin signaling, β-cell dysfunction, abnormal glucose levels, altered lipid metabolism, sub-clinical inflammation and increased oxidative stress. These and other unknown mechanisms lead to micro- [...] Read more.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a disease that affects many metabolic pathways. It is associated with insulin resistance, impaired insulin signaling, β-cell dysfunction, abnormal glucose levels, altered lipid metabolism, sub-clinical inflammation and increased oxidative stress. These and other unknown mechanisms lead to micro- and macro-complications, such as neuropathy, retinopathy, nephropathy and cardiovascular disease. Based on several in vitro animal models and some human studies, flavonoids appear to play a role in many of the metabolic processes involved in type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this review, we seek to highlight the most recent papers focusing on the relationship between flavonoids and main diabetic complications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Randomised, Cross-Over Study to Estimate the Influence of Food on the 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 Serum Level after Vitamin D3 Supplementation
Nutrients 2016, 8(5), 309; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8050309
Received: 29 February 2016 / Revised: 30 April 2016 / Accepted: 13 May 2016 / Published: 20 May 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1920 | PDF Full-text (735 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vitamin D3 is known to be liposoluble and its release could be a factor limiting the rate of absorption. It was presumed that the presence of fat could favor absorption of vitamin D3. However, as bioavailability is related not only [...] Read more.
Vitamin D3 is known to be liposoluble and its release could be a factor limiting the rate of absorption. It was presumed that the presence of fat could favor absorption of vitamin D3. However, as bioavailability is related not only to the active molecules but also to the formulations and excipients used, the optimization of the pharmaceutical form of vitamin D3 is also important. The objective of this study was to evaluate if there is a food effect on absorption when a high dose of vitamin D3 is completely solubilized in an oily solution. In the present cross-over study, 88 subjects were randomized and received a single dose of 50,000 IU of vitamin D3 in fasting state or with a standardized high-fat breakfast. Assessment of serum concentrations of 25 hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) was performed three, five, seven, 14, 30 and 60 days after supplementation. In fed and fast conditions, the 25(OH)D3 serum concentrations were significantly higher than the baseline value three days after administration and remained significantly higher during the first month. No significant difference between fasting vs. fed conditions was observed. It is therefore concluded that the vitamin D3 absorption from an oily solution was not influenced by the presence or absence of a meal. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluating Crossbred Red Rice Variants for Postprandial Glucometabolic Responses: A Comparison with Commercial Varieties
Nutrients 2016, 8(5), 308; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8050308
Received: 21 March 2016 / Revised: 9 May 2016 / Accepted: 10 May 2016 / Published: 20 May 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1884 | PDF Full-text (1720 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Consumption of white rice predisposes some Asian populations to increased risk of type 2 diabetes. We compared the postprandial glucometabolic responses to three newly-developed crossbred red rice variants (UKMRC9, UKMRC10, UKMRC11) against three selected commercial rice types (Thai red, Basmati white, Jasmine white) [...] Read more.
Consumption of white rice predisposes some Asian populations to increased risk of type 2 diabetes. We compared the postprandial glucometabolic responses to three newly-developed crossbred red rice variants (UKMRC9, UKMRC10, UKMRC11) against three selected commercial rice types (Thai red, Basmati white, Jasmine white) using 50-g carbohydrate equivalents provided to 12 normoglycaemic adults in a crossover design. Venous blood was drawn fasted and postprandially for three hours. Glycaemic (GI) and insulin (II) indices, incremental areas-under-the-curves for glucose and insulin (IAUCins), indices of insulin sensitivity and secretion, lactate and peptide hormones (motilin, neuropeptide-Y, orexin-A) were analyzed. The lowest to highest trends for GI and II were similar i.e., UKMRC9 < Basmati < Thai red < UKMRC10 < UKMRC11 < Jasmine. Postprandial insulinaemia and IAUCins of only UKMRC9 were significantly the lowest compared to Jasmine. Crude protein and fiber content correlated negatively with the GI values of the test rice. Although peptide hormones were not associated with GI and II characteristics of test rice, early and late phases of prandial neuropeptide-Y changes were negatively correlated with postprandial insulinaemia. This study indicated that only UKMRC9 among the new rice crossbreeds could serve as an alternative cereal option to improve diet quality of Asians with its lowest glycaemic and insulinaemic burden. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Epigallocatechin Gallate Nanodelivery Systems for Cancer Therapy
Nutrients 2016, 8(5), 307; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8050307
Received: 23 March 2016 / Revised: 10 May 2016 / Accepted: 12 May 2016 / Published: 20 May 2016
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 2713 | PDF Full-text (1068 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality all over the world. Conventional treatments, such as chemotherapy, are generally expensive, highly toxic and lack efficiency. Cancer chemoprevention using phytochemicals is emerging as a promising approach for the treatment of early [...] Read more.
Cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality all over the world. Conventional treatments, such as chemotherapy, are generally expensive, highly toxic and lack efficiency. Cancer chemoprevention using phytochemicals is emerging as a promising approach for the treatment of early carcinogenic processes. (−)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the major bioactive constituent in green tea with numerous health benefits including anti-cancer activity, which has been intensively studied. Besides its potential for chemoprevention, EGCG has also been shown to synergize with common anti-cancer agents, which makes it a suitable adjuvant in chemotherapy. However, limitations in terms of stability and bioavailability have hampered its application in clinical settings. Nanotechnology may have an important role in improving the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics of EGCG. Indeed, several studies have already reported the use of nanoparticles as delivery vehicles of EGCG for cancer therapy. The aim of this article is to discuss the EGCG molecule and its associated health benefits, particularly its anti-cancer activity and provide an overview of the studies that have employed nanotechnology strategies to enhance EGCG’s properties and potentiate its anti-tumoral activity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Short-Term Preoperative Calorie and Protein Restriction Is Feasible in Healthy Kidney Donors and Morbidly Obese Patients Scheduled for Surgery
Nutrients 2016, 8(5), 306; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8050306
Received: 13 March 2016 / Revised: 17 April 2016 / Accepted: 10 May 2016 / Published: 20 May 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1604 | PDF Full-text (1697 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Introduction. Surgery-induced oxidative stress increases the risk of perioperative complications and delay in postoperative recovery. In mice, short-term preoperative dietary and protein restriction protect against oxidative stress. We investigated the feasibility of a calorie- and protein-restricted diet in two patient populations. Methods. In [...] Read more.
Introduction. Surgery-induced oxidative stress increases the risk of perioperative complications and delay in postoperative recovery. In mice, short-term preoperative dietary and protein restriction protect against oxidative stress. We investigated the feasibility of a calorie- and protein-restricted diet in two patient populations. Methods. In this pilot study, 30 live kidney donors and 38 morbidly obese patients awaiting surgery were randomized into three groups: a restricted diet group, who received a synthetic liquid diet with 30% fewer calories and 80% less protein for five consecutive days; a group who received a synthetic diet containing the daily energy requirements (DER); and a control group. Feasibility was assessed using self-reported discomfort, body weight changes, and metabolic parameters in blood samples. Results. Twenty patients (71%) complied with the restricted and 13 (65%) with the DER-diet. In total, 68% of the patients reported minor discomfort that resolved after normal eating resumed. The mean weight loss on the restricted diet was significantly greater (2.4 kg) than in the control group (0 kg, p = 0.002), but not in the DER-diet (1.5 kg). The restricted diet significantly reduced levels of serum urea and plasma prealbumin (PAB) and retinol binding protein (RBP). Conclusions. A short-term preoperative calorie- and protein-restricted diet is feasible in kidney donors and morbidly obese patients. Compliance is high and can be objectively measured via changes in urea, PAB, and RBP levels. These results demonstrate that this diet can be used to study the effects of dietary restriction on surgery-induced oxidative stress in a clinical setting. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Does Maternal Vitamin D Deficiency Increase the Risk of Preterm Birth: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies
Nutrients 2016, 8(5), 301; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8050301
Received: 18 January 2016 / Revised: 28 April 2016 / Accepted: 11 May 2016 / Published: 20 May 2016
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 3488 | PDF Full-text (1218 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
There are disagreements among researchers about the association between vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy and preterm birth (PTB). Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis of observational studies to evaluate this association. We performed a systematic literature search of PubMed, MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library [...] Read more.
There are disagreements among researchers about the association between vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy and preterm birth (PTB). Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis of observational studies to evaluate this association. We performed a systematic literature search of PubMed, MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library through August 2015 with the following keywords: “vitamin D” or “cholecalciferol” or “25-hydroxyvitamin D” or “25(OH)D” in combination with “premature birth” or “preterm birth” or “PTB” or “preterm delivery” or “PTD” or “prematurity”. Our meta-analysis of 10 studies included 10,098 participants and found that pregnant women with vitamin D deficiency (maternal serum 25 (OH) D levels < 20 ng/mL) experienced a significantly increased risk of PTB (odds ratio (OR) = 1.29, 95% confidence intervals(CI): 1.16, 1.45) with low heterogeneity (I2 = 25%, p = 0.21). Sensitivity analysis showed that exclusion of any single study did not materially alter the overall combined effect. In the subgroup analyses, we found that heterogeneity was obvious in prospective cohort studies (I2 = 60%, p = 0.06). In conclusion, pregnant women with vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy have an increasing risk of PTB. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Apigenin Ameliorates Dyslipidemia, Hepatic Steatosis and Insulin Resistance by Modulating Metabolic and Transcriptional Profiles in the Liver of High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice
Nutrients 2016, 8(5), 305; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8050305
Received: 27 April 2016 / Revised: 10 May 2016 / Accepted: 13 May 2016 / Published: 19 May 2016
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3664 | PDF Full-text (2356 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Several in vitro and in vivo studies have reported the anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-obesity effects of the flavonoid apigenin. However, the long-term supplementary effects of low-dose apigenin on obesity are unclear. Therefore, we investigated the protective effects of apigenin against obesity and related [...] Read more.
Several in vitro and in vivo studies have reported the anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-obesity effects of the flavonoid apigenin. However, the long-term supplementary effects of low-dose apigenin on obesity are unclear. Therefore, we investigated the protective effects of apigenin against obesity and related metabolic disturbances by exploring the metabolic and transcriptional responses in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. C57BL/6J mice were fed an HFD or apigenin (0.005%, w/w)-supplemented HFD for 16 weeks. In HFD-fed mice, apigenin lowered plasma levels of free fatty acid, total cholesterol, apolipoprotein B and hepatic dysfunction markers and ameliorated hepatic steatosis and hepatomegaly, without altering food intake and adiposity. These effects were partly attributed to upregulated expression of genes regulating fatty acid oxidation, tricarboxylic acid cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, electron transport chain and cholesterol homeostasis, downregulated expression of lipolytic and lipogenic genes and decreased activities of enzymes responsible for triglyceride and cholesterol ester synthesis in the liver. Moreover, apigenin lowered plasma levels of pro-inflammatory mediators and fasting blood glucose. The anti-hyperglycemic effect of apigenin appeared to be related to decreased insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia and hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes activities. Thus, apigenin can ameliorate HFD-induced comorbidities via metabolic and transcriptional modulations in the liver. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Gestational and Lactational Age on the Human Milk Metabolome
Nutrients 2016, 8(5), 304; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8050304
Received: 1 April 2016 / Revised: 28 April 2016 / Accepted: 16 May 2016 / Published: 19 May 2016
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3818 | PDF Full-text (1519 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Human milk is the ideal nutrition source for healthy infants during the first six months of life and a detailed characterisation of the composition of milk from mothers that deliver prematurely (<37 weeks gestation), and of how human milk changes during lactation, would [...] Read more.
Human milk is the ideal nutrition source for healthy infants during the first six months of life and a detailed characterisation of the composition of milk from mothers that deliver prematurely (<37 weeks gestation), and of how human milk changes during lactation, would benefit our understanding of the nutritional requirements of premature infants. Individual milk samples from mothers delivering prematurely and at term were collected. The human milk metabolome, established by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, was influenced by gestational and lactation age. Metabolite profiling identified that levels of valine, leucine, betaine, and creatinine were increased in colostrum from term mothers compared with mature milk, while those of glutamate, caprylate, and caprate were increased in mature term milk compared with colostrum. Levels of oligosaccharides, citrate, and creatinine were increased in pre-term colostrum, while those of caprylate, caprate, valine, leucine, glutamate, and pantothenate increased with time postpartum. There were differences between pre-term and full-term milk in the levels of carnitine, caprylate, caprate, pantothenate, urea, lactose, oligosaccharides, citrate, phosphocholine, choline, and formate. These findings suggest that the metabolome of pre-term milk changes within 5–7 weeks postpartum to resemble that of term milk, independent of time of gestation at pre-mature delivery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients in Infancy) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Patterns in Pregnancy in New Zealand—Influence of Maternal Socio-Demographic, Health and Lifestyle Factors
Nutrients 2016, 8(5), 300; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8050300
Received: 23 March 2016 / Revised: 21 April 2016 / Accepted: 10 May 2016 / Published: 19 May 2016
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Abstract
Exploration of dietary pattern associations within a multi-ethnic society context has been limited. We aimed to describe dietary patterns of 5664 pregnant women from the Growing Up in New Zealand study, and investigate associations between these patterns and maternal socio-demographic, place of birth, [...] Read more.
Exploration of dietary pattern associations within a multi-ethnic society context has been limited. We aimed to describe dietary patterns of 5664 pregnant women from the Growing Up in New Zealand study, and investigate associations between these patterns and maternal socio-demographic, place of birth, health and lifestyle factors. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire prior to the birth of their child. Principal components analysis was used to extract dietary patterns and multivariable analyses used to determine associations. Four dietary components were extracted. Higher scores on, ‘Junk’ and ‘Traditional/White bread’, were associated with decreasing age, lower educational levels, being of Pacific or Māori ethnicity and smoking. Higher scores on, ‘Health conscious’ and ‘Fusion/Protein’, were associated with increasing age, better self-rated health, lower pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and not smoking. Higher scores on ‘Junk’ and ‘Health conscious’ were associated with being born in New Zealand (NZ), whereas higher scores on ‘Fusion/Protein’ was associated with being born outside NZ and being of non-European ethnicity, particularly Asian. High scores on the ‘Health conscious’ dietary pattern showed the highest odds of adherence to the pregnancy dietary guidelines. In this cohort of pregnant women different dietary patterns were associated with migration, ethnicity, socio-demographic characteristics, health behaviors and adherence to dietary guidelines. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Asiatic Acid Prevents the Deleterious Effects of Valproic Acid on Cognition and Hippocampal Cell Proliferation and Survival
Nutrients 2016, 8(5), 303; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8050303
Received: 25 March 2016 / Revised: 3 May 2016 / Accepted: 11 May 2016 / Published: 18 May 2016
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Abstract
Valproic acid (VPA) is commonly prescribed as an anticonvulsant and mood stabilizer used in the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder. A recent study has demonstrated that VPA reduces histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity, an action which is believed to contribute to the effects [...] Read more.
Valproic acid (VPA) is commonly prescribed as an anticonvulsant and mood stabilizer used in the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder. A recent study has demonstrated that VPA reduces histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity, an action which is believed to contribute to the effects of VPA on neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation which may explain the cognitive impairments produced in rodents and patients. Asiatic acid is a triterpenoid derived from the medicinal plant Centella asiatica. Our previous study has shown that Asiatic acid improves working spatial memory and increases cell proliferation in the sub granular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. In the present study we investigate the effects of Asiatic acid in preventing the memory and cellular effects of VPA. Male Spraque-Dawley rats were orally administered Asiatic acid (30 mg/kg/day) for 28 days, while VPA-treated animals received injections of VPA (300 mg/kg) twice a day from Day 15 to Day 28 for 14 days. Spatial memory was determined using the novel object location (NOL) test and hippocampal cell proliferation and survival was quantified by immuostaining for Ki-67 and Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), respectively. The results showed that VPA-treated animals were unable to discriminate between objects in familiar and novel locations. Moreover, VPA significantly reduced numbers of Ki-67 and BrdU positive cells. These results indicate that VPA treatment caused impairments of spatial working memory, cell proliferation and survival in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). However, these abnormalities were restored to control levels by co-treatment with Asiatic acid. These data demonstrate that Asiatic acid could prevent the spatial memory and neurogenesis impairments caused by VPA. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Hormonal and Thirst Modulated Maintenance of Fluid Balance in Young Women with Different Levels of Habitual Fluid Consumption
Nutrients 2016, 8(5), 302; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8050302
Received: 22 February 2016 / Revised: 21 April 2016 / Accepted: 11 May 2016 / Published: 18 May 2016
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Abstract
Background: Surprisingly little is known about the physiological and perceptual differences of women who consume different volumes of water each day. The purposes of this investigation were to (a) analyze blood osmolality, arginine vasopressin (AVP), and aldosterone; (b) assess the responses of physiological, [...] Read more.
Background: Surprisingly little is known about the physiological and perceptual differences of women who consume different volumes of water each day. The purposes of this investigation were to (a) analyze blood osmolality, arginine vasopressin (AVP), and aldosterone; (b) assess the responses of physiological, thirst, and hydration indices; and (c) compare the responses of individuals with high and low total water intake (TWI; HIGH and LOW, respectively) when consuming similar volumes of water each day and when their habitual total water intake was modified. Methods: In a single-blind controlled experiment, we measured the 24 h total water intake (TWI; water + beverages + food moisture) of 120 young women. Those who consumed the highest (HIGH, 3.2 ± 0.6 L·day−1, mean ± SD) and the lowest (LOW, 1.6 ± 0.5 L·day−1) mean habitual TWI were identified and compared. Outcome variables were measured during two ad libitum baseline days, a four-day intervention of either decreased TWI (HIGH) or increased TWI (LOW), and one ad libitum recovery day. Results: During the four-day intervention, HIGH and LOW experienced differences in thirst (p = 0.002); also, a statistically significant change of AVP occurred (main effect of TWI and day, p < 0.001), with no effect (TWI or day) on aldosterone and serum osmolality. Urine osmolality and volume distinguished HIGH from LOW (p = 0.002) when they consumed similar 24 h TWI. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Adequate Iodine Status in New Zealand School Children Post-Fortification of Bread with Iodised Salt
Nutrients 2016, 8(5), 298; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8050298
Received: 14 April 2016 / Revised: 9 May 2016 / Accepted: 11 May 2016 / Published: 16 May 2016
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Abstract
Iodine deficiency re-emerged in New Zealand in the 1990s, prompting the mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt from 2009. This study aimed to determine the iodine status of New Zealand children when the fortification of bread was well established. A cross-sectional survey [...] Read more.
Iodine deficiency re-emerged in New Zealand in the 1990s, prompting the mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt from 2009. This study aimed to determine the iodine status of New Zealand children when the fortification of bread was well established. A cross-sectional survey of children aged 8–10 years was conducted in the cities of Auckland and Christchurch, New Zealand, from March to May 2015. Children provided a spot urine sample for the determination of urinary iodine concentration (UIC), a fingerpick blood sample for Thyroglobulin (Tg) concentration, and completed a questionnaire ascertaining socio-demographic information that also included an iodine-specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ was used to estimate iodine intake from all main food sources including bread and iodised salt. The median UIC for all children (n = 415) was 116 μg/L (females 106 μg/L, males 131 μg/L) indicative of adequate iodine status according to the World Health Organisation (WHO, i.e., median UIC of 100–199 μg/L). The median Tg concentration was 8.7 μg/L, which was <10 μg/L confirming adequate iodine status. There was a significant difference in UIC by sex (p = 0.001) and ethnicity (p = 0.006). The mean iodine intake from the food-only model was 65 μg/day. Bread contributed 51% of total iodine intake in the food-only model, providing a mean iodine intake of 35 μg/day. The mean iodine intake from the food-plus-iodised salt model was 101 μg/day. In conclusion, the results of this study confirm that the iodine status in New Zealand school children is now adequate. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Persistent Inequalities in Child Undernutrition in Cambodia from 2000 until Today
Nutrients 2016, 8(5), 297; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8050297
Received: 7 January 2016 / Revised: 27 April 2016 / Accepted: 9 May 2016 / Published: 16 May 2016
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Abstract
The study assessed the trends of nutritional status of children under age five in Cambodia over four DHS surveys from 2000 to 2014 and the contribution of socioeconomic and demographic factors to its changes. Undernutrition was a public health problem in all surveys. [...] Read more.
The study assessed the trends of nutritional status of children under age five in Cambodia over four DHS surveys from 2000 to 2014 and the contribution of socioeconomic and demographic factors to its changes. Undernutrition was a public health problem in all surveys. Despite consistent improvement over the years, stunting still affected 32.5% of children in 2014. Wasting prevalence did not improve since 2005 and affected 9.6% of children under five in 2014. Low wealth and mother education; and rural residence contributed to undernutrition. In 2014; wealth status was the main socioeconomic factor associated with undernutrition and the nutritional status of children was strongly related to that of their mothers. Anemia prevalence was high and after a decrease between 2000 and 2005 remained at 45%. The prevalence of overweight was less than 10% and did not change over the years despite an increasing trend in the richest households of urban areas. Persistent inequalities in child undernutrition call for action, giving priority to the most vulnerable households to ensure availability and access to nutrient-rich foods for women and children through nutrition-sensitive and nutrition-specific programs. The recent increase of overweight in the richest populations must also be considered in Cambodian health policies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and National Strategies to Impact Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Diet Quality and Adequacy of Nutrients in Preschool Children: Should Rice Fortified with Micronutrients Be Included in School Meals?
Nutrients 2016, 8(5), 296; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8050296
Received: 30 March 2016 / Revised: 2 May 2016 / Accepted: 9 May 2016 / Published: 14 May 2016
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Abstract
Feeding is indicative of the nutritional status of children, however micronutrient deficiency is common in this age group. We evaluated the impact of inclusion of rice (Ultra Rice® (UR®)) fortified with iron, zinc, thiamin and folic acid on laboratory measurements [...] Read more.
Feeding is indicative of the nutritional status of children, however micronutrient deficiency is common in this age group. We evaluated the impact of inclusion of rice (Ultra Rice® (UR®)) fortified with iron, zinc, thiamin and folic acid on laboratory measurements and the nutrient intake of children. Ninety-nine preschoolers (2–6 years; 42.6% male) from two preschools participated, one of which received UR® added to polished rice as part of school meals (test preschool) and the other received only polished rice (control preschool). Biochemical evaluations were performed before and after four months of intervention. Feeding was assessed by direct weighing of food, complemented by 24-h recalls, and the diet was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) adapted to the Brazilian reality. The fortified rice improved the levels of zinc (p < 0.001), thiamine (p < 0.001), folic acid (p = 0.003), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (p < 0.001) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (p < 0.001). The inadequacy percentages of thiamine, folic acid and iron were lower among preschoolers from the test preschool. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of using UR® on laboratory measurements of children. The inadequate intake of thiamine, folic acid and iron was also reduced, making the fortified rice an interesting strategy in school feeding programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fortification to Combat Micronutrient Deficiencies)
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Open AccessReview
Protein Intake and Muscle Health in Old Age: From Biological Plausibility to Clinical Evidence
Nutrients 2016, 8(5), 295; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8050295
Received: 9 March 2016 / Revised: 5 May 2016 / Accepted: 7 May 2016 / Published: 14 May 2016
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Abstract
The provision of sufficient amounts of dietary proteins is central to muscle health as it ensures the supply of essential amino acids and stimulates protein synthesis. Older persons, in particular, are at high risk of insufficient protein ingestion. Furthermore, the current recommended dietary [...] Read more.
The provision of sufficient amounts of dietary proteins is central to muscle health as it ensures the supply of essential amino acids and stimulates protein synthesis. Older persons, in particular, are at high risk of insufficient protein ingestion. Furthermore, the current recommended dietary allowance for protein (0.8 g/kg/day) might be inadequate for maintaining muscle health in older adults, probably as a consequence of “anabolic resistance” in aged muscle. Older individuals therefore need to ingest a greater quantity of protein to maintain muscle function. The quality of protein ingested is also essential to promoting muscle health. Given the role of leucine as the master dietary regulator of muscle protein turnover, the ingestion of protein sources enriched with this essential amino acid, or its metabolite β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate, is thought to offer the greatest benefit in terms of preservation of muscle mass and function in old age. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Protein, Exercise and Muscle Health in an Ageing Population)
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Open AccessArticle
Correlation between Nutrition and Symptoms: Nutritional Survey of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Chongqing, China
Nutrients 2016, 8(5), 294; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8050294
Received: 3 February 2016 / Revised: 3 May 2016 / Accepted: 4 May 2016 / Published: 14 May 2016
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Abstract
Restricted diets and inadequate nutrient intake of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been reported. This study examined the nutritional statuses of children with ASD and the relationships between their behaviors and nutritional intake. A total of 154 children with ASD (age [...] Read more.
Restricted diets and inadequate nutrient intake of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been reported. This study examined the nutritional statuses of children with ASD and the relationships between their behaviors and nutritional intake. A total of 154 children with ASD (age = 5.21 ± 1.83 years) and 73 typically-developing (TD) children (age = 4.83 ± 0.84 years) from Chongqing, China, were enrolled. The severity of ASD was evaluated using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). The serum ferritin, folate, vitamin B12, 25(OH) vitamin D, and vitamin A concentrations in the children with ASD were determined. All participants underwent anthropometric examinations, dietary assessments, and questionnaire assessments about their feeding behaviors, and gastrointestinal symptoms. The ZHA, ZWA, and ZBMIA were found to be significantly lower in the children with ASD compared with those without ASD. In addition, the percentages of children exhibiting severe picky eating and severe resistance to new foods, as well as those with a reported general impression of severe eating problems and constipation, were higher among the children with ASD. These children consumed significantly fewer macronutrients compared with the children without ASD. In addition, the children with ASD had the highest rate of vitamin A deficiency, followed by iron deficiency. After adjusting for sex, the vitamin A concentration was found to be negatively correlated with the CARS score (rs = −0.222, p = 0.021). No correlation between the ferritin, folate, vitamin D, or vitamin B12 concentration and the CARS score was found. These results suggest that reduced macronutrient intakes, severe feeding behavior issues, constipation, and vitamin A deficiency are quite common among children with ASD. Further, a low serum vitamin A level may be a risk factor for symptoms of ASD. However, the underlying mechanism should be further studied. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Economic Burden of Malnutrition in Pregnant Women and Children under 5 Years of Age in Cambodia
Nutrients 2016, 8(5), 292; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8050292
Received: 24 November 2015 / Revised: 27 April 2016 / Accepted: 10 May 2016 / Published: 14 May 2016
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Abstract
Malnutrition is locked in a vicious cycle of increased mortality, poor health, impaired cognitive development, slow physical growth, reduced learning capacity, inferior performance, and ultimately lower adult work performance and productivity. The consensus of global scientific evidence indicates that lowering the rates of [...] Read more.
Malnutrition is locked in a vicious cycle of increased mortality, poor health, impaired cognitive development, slow physical growth, reduced learning capacity, inferior performance, and ultimately lower adult work performance and productivity. The consensus of global scientific evidence indicates that lowering the rates of malnutrition will be an indispensable component of any successful program to raise the quality of human capital and resources. This study used a “consequence model” to apply the coefficient risk-deficit on economic losses, established in the global scientific literature, to Cambodian health, demographic, and economic data to develop a national estimate of the value of economic losses due to malnutrition. The impact of the indicators of malnutrition analyzed represent a burden to the national economy of Cambodia estimated at 266 million USD annually (1.7% of GDP). Stunting is reducing the Cambodian economic output by more than 120 million USD, and iodine deficiency disorders alone by 57 million USD. This economic burden is too high in view of Cambodia’s efforts to drive economic development. The government should rapidly expand a range of low-cost effective nutrition interventions to break the current cycle of increased mortality, poor health and ultimately lower work performance, productivity, and earnings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and National Strategies to Impact Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Infant Feeding Practices in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort: The GUSTO Study
Nutrients 2016, 8(5), 293; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8050293
Received: 9 March 2016 / Revised: 9 May 2016 / Accepted: 9 May 2016 / Published: 13 May 2016
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Abstract
The optimal introduction of complementary foods provides infants with nutritionally balanced diets and establishes healthy eating habits. The documentation of infant feeding practices in multi-ethnic Asian populations is limited. In a Singapore cohort study (GUSTO), 842 mother-infant dyads were interviewed regarding their feeding [...] Read more.
The optimal introduction of complementary foods provides infants with nutritionally balanced diets and establishes healthy eating habits. The documentation of infant feeding practices in multi-ethnic Asian populations is limited. In a Singapore cohort study (GUSTO), 842 mother-infant dyads were interviewed regarding their feeding practices when the infants were aged 9 and 12 months. In the first year, 20.5% of infants were given dietary supplements, while 5.7% took probiotics and 15.7% homeopathic preparations. At age 9 months, 45.8% of infants had seasonings added to their foods, increasing to 56.3% at 12 months. At age 12 months, 32.7% of infants were given blended food, although 92.3% had begun some form of self-feeding. Additionally, 87.4% of infants were fed milk via a bottle, while a third of them had food items added into their bottles. At both time points, more than a third of infants were provided sweetened drinks via the bottle. Infants of Indian ethnicity were more likely to be given dietary supplements, have oil and seasonings added to their foods and consumed sweetened drinks from the bottle (p < 0.001). These findings provide a better understanding of variations in infant feeding practices, so that healthcare professionals can offer more targeted and culturally-appropriate advice. Full article
Open AccessReview
Role of Vitamin D in Cognitive Function in Chronic Kidney Disease
Nutrients 2016, 8(5), 291; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8050291
Received: 30 March 2016 / Revised: 23 April 2016 / Accepted: 4 May 2016 / Published: 13 May 2016
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Abstract
Both vitamin D deficiency and cognitive impairment are common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Vitamin D exerts neuroprotective and regulatory roles in the central nervous system. Hypovitaminosis D has been associated with muscle weakness and bone loss, cardiovascular diseases (hypertension, diabetes [...] Read more.
Both vitamin D deficiency and cognitive impairment are common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Vitamin D exerts neuroprotective and regulatory roles in the central nervous system. Hypovitaminosis D has been associated with muscle weakness and bone loss, cardiovascular diseases (hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia), inflammation, oxidative stress, immune suppression and neurocognitive impairment. The combination of hypovitaminosis D and CKD can be even more debilitating, as cognitive impairment can develop and progress through vitamin D-associated and CKD-dependent/independent processes, leading to significant morbidity and mortality. Although an increasingly recognized comorbidity in CKD, cognitive impairment remains underdiagnosed and often undermanaged. Given the association of cognitive decline and hypovitaminosis D and their deleterious effects in CKD patients, determination of vitamin D status and when appropriate, supplementation, in conjunction with neuropsychological screening, should be considered integral to the clinical care of the CKD population. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Intake of the Urban Black Population of Cape Town: The Cardiovascular Risk in Black South Africans (CRIBSA) Study
Nutrients 2016, 8(5), 285; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8050285
Received: 2 March 2016 / Revised: 29 April 2016 / Accepted: 9 May 2016 / Published: 13 May 2016
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Abstract
Introduction: To determine dietary intake of 19 to 64 years old urban Africans in Cape Town in 2009 and examine the changes between 1990 and 2009. Methods: A representative cross-sectional sample (n = 544), stratified by gender and age was randomly selected [...] Read more.
Introduction: To determine dietary intake of 19 to 64 years old urban Africans in Cape Town in 2009 and examine the changes between 1990 and 2009. Methods: A representative cross-sectional sample (n = 544), stratified by gender and age was randomly selected in 2009 from the same areas sampled in 1990. Socio-demographic data and a 24-h dietary recall were obtained by trained field workers. The associations of dietary data with an asset index and degree of urbanization were assessed. Results: Fat intakes were higher in 19–44-year-old men (32% energy (E)) and women (33.4%E) in 2009 compared with 1990 (men: 25.9%E, women: 27.0%E) while carbohydrate intakes were lower in 2009 (men 53.2%E, women: 55.5%E) than in 1990 (men: 61.3%E; women: 62%E) while sugar intake increased significantly (p < 0.01) in women. There were significant positive correlations between urbanization and total fat (p = 0.016), saturated fat (p = 0.001), monounsaturated fat (p = 0.002) and fat as a %E intake (p = 0.046). Urbanization was inversely associated with intake of carbohydrate %E (p < 0.001). Overall micronutrient intakes improved significantly compared with 1990. It should also be noted that energy and macronutrient intakes were all significant in a linear regression model using mean adequacy ratio (MAR) as a measure of dietary quality in 2009, as was duration of urbanization. Discussion: The higher fat and lower carbohydrate %E intakes in this population demonstrate a transition to a more urbanized diet over last two decades. These dietary changes reflect the nutrition transitions that typically occur as a longer time is spent in urban centers. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Hawthorn Fruit Extract Elevates Expression of Nrf2/HO-1 and Improves Lipid Profiles in Ovariectomized Rats
Nutrients 2016, 8(5), 283; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8050283
Received: 12 February 2016 / Revised: 3 May 2016 / Accepted: 5 May 2016 / Published: 13 May 2016
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Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge) extract on the lipid profiles and antioxidant properties in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. After ovariectomy, the rats were randomly divided into four groups: the non-OVX control (Sham), the [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge) extract on the lipid profiles and antioxidant properties in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. After ovariectomy, the rats were randomly divided into four groups: the non-OVX control (Sham), the OVX-control (OVX), the OVX + 100 mg/kg b.w. of hawthorn extract (OL), and the OVX + 200 mg/kg b.w. of hawthorn extract (OH). The final body weights of the OVX group were significantly increased, but the increment was significantly decreased in hawthorn groups (p < 0.05). The serum total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels were significantly elevated in the OVX group, whereas the hawthorn groups showed a significant decrease in these levels (p < 0.05). The hepatic triglyceride (TG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly reduced in the hawthorn groups compared with the OVX group (p < 0.05). The mRNA expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor (Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were significantly decreased in the OVX group, whereas the hawthorn groups exhibited a significant increase in expression (p < 0.05). The protein expressions of Nrf2, HO-1, and GPx were lower in the OVX group than the Sham group (p < 0.05). The oral administration of hawthorn extract reversed the suppression of protein levels. These results suggest that hawthorn extract could have protective effects in OVX rats by improving lipid profiles, decreasing oxidative stress, and improving the antioxidant defense system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Cambodian Women: A Common Deficiency in a Sunny Country
Nutrients 2016, 8(5), 290; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8050290
Received: 15 December 2015 / Revised: 8 April 2016 / Accepted: 21 April 2016 / Published: 12 May 2016
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Abstract
Recent studies have shown that in spite of being generally close to the equator; vitamin D deficiency is common in South East Asian countries. In order to quantify micronutrient status for women and children in Cambodia; a nationally-representative survey was conducted in 2014 [...] Read more.
Recent studies have shown that in spite of being generally close to the equator; vitamin D deficiency is common in South East Asian countries. In order to quantify micronutrient status for women and children in Cambodia; a nationally-representative survey was conducted in 2014 linked to the Cambodian Demographic Health Survey. The countrywide median of 25(OH)D was, respectively, 64.9 and 91.1 nmol/L for mothers and children. Based on The Endocrine Society cutoffs (>50<75 nmol/L = insufficiency; ≤50 nmol/L = deficiency); 64.6% of mothers and 34.8% of their children had plasma vitamin D concentrations indicating insufficiency or deficiency. For deficiency alone, 29% of the mothers were found to be vitamin D deficient, but only 13.4% of children. Children who live in urban areas had a 43% higher rate of vitamin D insufficiency versus those who live in rural areas (OR; 1.434; 95% CI: 1.007; 2.041). However, such differences were not observed in their mothers. The high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is likely in part due to lifestyle choices, including sun avoidance, increasingly predominant indoor work, and covered transport. These survey findings support the need for a broader national Cambodian study incorporating testing of adult men, adolescents and the elderly, and encompassing other parameters such as skeletal health. However, the data presented in this study already show significant deficiencies which need to be addressed and we discuss the benefit of establishing nationally-mandated food fortification programs to enhance the intake of vitamin D. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and National Strategies to Impact Health)
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