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Predictors of Vitamin D-Containing Supplement Use in the Australian Population and Associations between Dose and Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations

1
School of Public Health, Curtin University, Bentley 6102, Australia
2
Telethon Kids Institute, The University of Western Australia, Subiaco 6008, Australia
3
Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition (IPAN), School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong 3125, Australia
4
National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Research School of Population Health, The Australian National University, Canberra 0200, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2016, 8(6), 356; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8060356
Received: 10 March 2016 / Revised: 29 April 2016 / Accepted: 30 May 2016 / Published: 8 June 2016
Despite concerns about vitamin D deficiency in the Australian population, little is known about the prevalence and predictors of vitamin D-containing supplement use. We described the use of vitamin D-containing supplements, and investigated associations between supplemental vitamin D intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations, using a single 24-h dietary recall from the 2011–2013 Australian Health Survey (n = 12,153; ages ≥ 2 years). Multiple regression models were used to investigate predictors of vitamin D-containing supplement use in adults, and associations between dose and serum 25(OH)D concentrations/vitamin D sufficiency (≥50 nmol/L), adjusting for potential confounders. The prevalence of vitamin D-containing supplement use was 10%, 6% and 19% in children, adolescents and adults, respectively. Predictors of vitamin D-containing supplement use in adults included being female, advancing age, higher educational attainment, higher socio-economic status, not smoking, and greater physical activity. After adjusting for potential confounders, a 40 IU (1 µg) increase in vitamin D intake from supplements was associated with an increase of 0.41 nmol/L in serum 25(OH)D concentrations (95% CI 0.35, 0.47; p < 0.001). However, the prevalence of vitamin D-containing supplement use was generally low in the Australian population, particularly for single vitamin D supplements, with most supplement users obtaining only low levels of vitamin D from other supplement types. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; supplements; 25-hydroxyvitamin D vitamin D; supplements; 25-hydroxyvitamin D
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MDPI and ACS Style

Black, L.J.; Jacoby, P.; Nowson, C.A.; Daly, R.M.; Lucas, R.M. Predictors of Vitamin D-Containing Supplement Use in the Australian Population and Associations between Dose and Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations. Nutrients 2016, 8, 356. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8060356

AMA Style

Black LJ, Jacoby P, Nowson CA, Daly RM, Lucas RM. Predictors of Vitamin D-Containing Supplement Use in the Australian Population and Associations between Dose and Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations. Nutrients. 2016; 8(6):356. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8060356

Chicago/Turabian Style

Black, Lucinda J., Peter Jacoby, Caryl A. Nowson, Robin M. Daly, and Robyn M. Lucas. 2016. "Predictors of Vitamin D-Containing Supplement Use in the Australian Population and Associations between Dose and Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations" Nutrients 8, no. 6: 356. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8060356

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