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Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Spirulina platensis Extract via the Modulation of Histone Deacetylases

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA
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Nutrients 2016, 8(6), 381; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8060381
Received: 11 April 2016 / Revised: 14 June 2016 / Accepted: 14 June 2016 / Published: 21 June 2016
We previously demonstrated that the organic extract of Spirulina platensis (SPE), an edible blue-green alga, possesses potent anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we investigated if the regulation of histone deacetylases (HDACs) play a role in the anti-inflammatory effect of SPE in macrophages. Treatment of macrophages with SPE rapidly and dose-dependently reduced HDAC2, 3, and 4 proteins which preceded decreases in their mRNA levels. Degradation of HDAC4 protein was attenuated in the presence of inhibitors of calpain proteases, lysosomal acidification, and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, respectively, but not a proteasome inhibitor. Acetylated histone H3 was increased in SPE-treated macrophages to a similar level as macrophages treated with a pan-HDAC inhibitor, with concomitant inhibition of inflammatory gene expression upon LPS stimulation. Knockdown of HDAC3 increased basal and LPS-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression, while HDAC4 knockdown increased basal expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), but attenuated LPS-induced inflammatory gene expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that SPE decreased p65 binding and H3K9/K14 acetylation at the Il-1β and tumor necrosis factor α (Tnfα) promoters. Our results suggest that SPE increased global histone H3 acetylation by facilitating HDAC protein degradation, but decreases histone H3K9/K14 acetylation and p65 binding at the promoters of Il-1β and Tnfα to exert its anti-inflammatory effect. View Full-Text
Keywords: Spirulina platensis; histone deacetylases; anti-inflammatory; inflammation; epigenetics Spirulina platensis; histone deacetylases; anti-inflammatory; inflammation; epigenetics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pham, T.X.; Park, Y.-K.; Lee, J.-Y. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Spirulina platensis Extract via the Modulation of Histone Deacetylases. Nutrients 2016, 8, 381. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8060381

AMA Style

Pham TX, Park Y-K, Lee J-Y. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Spirulina platensis Extract via the Modulation of Histone Deacetylases. Nutrients. 2016; 8(6):381. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8060381

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pham, Tho X., Young-Ki Park, and Ji-Young Lee. 2016. "Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Spirulina platensis Extract via the Modulation of Histone Deacetylases" Nutrients 8, no. 6: 381. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8060381

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