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Special Issue "Flavonoids, Inflammation and Immune System"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2016)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Margarida Castell Escuer

Secció de Fisiologia, Departament de Bioquímica i Fisiologia, Facultat de Farmàcia i Ciències de l’Alimentació, Universitat de Barcelona (UB), Av. Joan XXIII 27-31, 08028 Barcelona, Espanya
Institut de Recerca en Nutrició i Seguretat Alimentària (INSA-UB), UB, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +93 403 59 01
Interests: flavonoids; antioxidants; allergy; inflammation; immunomodulation; methylxanthines; sport
Guest Editor
Dr. Francisco J. Pérez-Cano

1. Section of Physiology, Department of Biochemistry and Physiology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Food Sciences, University of Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
2. Nutrition and Food Safety Research Institute (INSA), 08921 Santa Coloma de Gramenet, Spain
E-Mail
Phone: +34934024505
Fax: +34 934 035 901
Interests: immunonutrition; flavonoids; microbiota; oligosaccharides; probiotics; breast milk

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue of Nutrients, entitled “Flavonoids, inflammation and immune system”, welcomes the submission of manuscripts about any kind of flavonoid, either as a pure compound or included in food, tested on cells, animals, or humans in reference to inflammatory or immune response. Manuscripts can either describe original research or review scientific literature.

Prof. Dr. Margarida Castell
Prof. Dr. Francisco J. Pérez Cano
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • acquired immunity
  • acute and chronic inflammation
  • allergy
  • antibody
  • antioxidant
  • autoimmunity
  • chemokine
  • cytokine
  • flavonoids
  • innate immunity
  • intestinal inflammation
  • lymphocyte functionality
  • macrophage activity
  • mediators of inflammation

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Flavonoids, Inflammation and Immune System
Nutrients 2016, 8(10), 659; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8100659
Received: 18 October 2016 / Accepted: 19 October 2016 / Published: 21 October 2016
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (172 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Flavonoids, including around 6000 phenolic compounds, are products of the secondary metabolism of plants which can be a part of one’s diet via the consumption of many edible plants.[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavonoids, Inflammation and Immune System)

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Chocolate and Yerba Mate Phenolic Compounds on Inflammatory and Oxidative Biomarkers in HIV/AIDS Individuals
Nutrients 2016, 8(5), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8050132
Received: 29 October 2015 / Revised: 19 February 2016 / Accepted: 23 February 2016 / Published: 23 May 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1286 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Flavonoids in cocoa and yerba mate have a beneficial role on inflammation and oxidative disorders. Their effect on HIV individuals has not been studied yet, despite the high cardiovascular risk of this population. This study investigated the role of cocoa and yerba mate [...] Read more.
Flavonoids in cocoa and yerba mate have a beneficial role on inflammation and oxidative disorders. Their effect on HIV individuals has not been studied yet, despite the high cardiovascular risk of this population. This study investigated the role of cocoa and yerba mate consumption on oxidative and inflammatory biomarkers in HIV+ individuals. A cross-over, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted in 92 individuals on antiretroviral therapy for at least six months and at viral suppression. Participants were randomized to receive either 65 g of chocolate or chocolate-placebo or 3 g of yerba mate or mate-placebo for 15 days each, alternating by a washout period of 15 days. At baseline, and at the end of each intervention regimen, data regarding anthropometry, inflammatory, oxidative and immunological parameters were collected. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, lipid profile, white blood cell profile and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were assessed. There was a difference between mean concentrations of HDL-c (ANOVA; p ≤ 0.05) among the different regimens: dark chocolate, chocolate-placebo, yerba mate and mate-placebo. When a paired Student t-test was used for comparisons between mean HDL-c at baseline and after each regimen, the mean concentration of HDL-c was higher after supplementation with dark chocolate (p = 0.008). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavonoids, Inflammation and Immune System)
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Open AccessArticle
Cocoa Diet Prevents Antibody Synthesis and Modifies Lymph Node Composition and Functionality in a Rat Oral Sensitization Model
Nutrients 2016, 8(4), 242; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8040242
Received: 12 February 2016 / Revised: 25 March 2016 / Accepted: 13 April 2016 / Published: 23 April 2016
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1446 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cocoa powder, a rich source of polyphenols, has shown immunomodulatory properties in both the intestinal and systemic immune compartments of rats. The aim of the current study was to establish the effect of a cocoa diet in a rat oral sensitization model and [...] Read more.
Cocoa powder, a rich source of polyphenols, has shown immunomodulatory properties in both the intestinal and systemic immune compartments of rats. The aim of the current study was to establish the effect of a cocoa diet in a rat oral sensitization model and also to gain insight into the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) activities induced by this diet. To achieve this, three-week-old Lewis rats were fed either a standard diet or a diet with 10% cocoa and were orally sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) and with cholera toxin as a mucosal adjuvant. Specific antibodies were quantified, and lymphocyte composition, gene expression, and cytokine release were established in MLN. The development of anti-OVA antibodies was almost totally prevented in cocoa-fed rats. In addition, this diet increased the proportion of TCRγδ+ and CD103+CD8+ cells and decreased the proportion of CD62L+CD4+ and CD62L+CD8+ cells in MLN, whereas it upregulated the gene expression of OX40L, CD11c, and IL-1β and downregulated the gene expression of IL-17α. In conclusion, the cocoa diet induced tolerance in an oral sensitization model accompanied by changes in MLN that could contribute to this effect, suggesting its potential implication in the prevention of food allergies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavonoids, Inflammation and Immune System)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Phenol-Enriched Olive Oils on Human Intestinal Immune Function
Nutrients 2016, 8(4), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8040213
Received: 25 February 2016 / Revised: 1 April 2016 / Accepted: 5 April 2016 / Published: 11 April 2016
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (678 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Olive oil (OO) phenolic compounds (PC) are able to influence gut microbial populations and metabolic output. Our aim was to investigate whether these compounds and changes affect the mucosal immune system. In a randomized, controlled, double blind cross-over human trial, for three weeks, [...] Read more.
Olive oil (OO) phenolic compounds (PC) are able to influence gut microbial populations and metabolic output. Our aim was to investigate whether these compounds and changes affect the mucosal immune system. In a randomized, controlled, double blind cross-over human trial, for three weeks, preceded by two-week washout periods, 10 hypercholesterolemic participants ingested 25 mL/day of three raw virgin OO differing in their PC concentration and origin: (1) an OO containing 80 mg PC/kg (VOO); (2) a PC-enriched OO containing 500 mg PC/kg from OO (FVOO); and (3) a PC-enriched OO containing a mixture of 500 mg PC/kg from OO and thyme (1:1, FVOOT). Intestinal immunity (fecal immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgA-coated bacteria) and inflammation markers (C-reactive protein (CRP) and fecal interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and calprotectin) was analyzed. The ingestion of high amounts of OO PC, as contained in FVOO, tended to increase the proportions of IgA-coated bacteria and increased plasma levels of CRP. However, lower amounts of OO PC (VOO) and the combination of two PC sources (FVOOT) did not show significant effects on the variables investigated. Results indicate a potential stimulation of the immune system with very high doses of OO PC, which should be further investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavonoids, Inflammation and Immune System)
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Open AccessArticle
Tomato Sauce Enriched with Olive Oil Exerts Greater Effects on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors than Raw Tomato and Tomato Sauce: A Randomized Trial
Nutrients 2016, 8(3), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8030170
Received: 15 December 2015 / Revised: 4 March 2016 / Accepted: 10 March 2016 / Published: 16 March 2016
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (252 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Epidemiological studies have observed a negative association between tomato intake and the incidence of cardiovascular disease. As tomato sauces are usually cooked with the addition of oil, some studies have pointed out that both processes may increase the bioavailability of the bioactive compounds. [...] Read more.
Epidemiological studies have observed a negative association between tomato intake and the incidence of cardiovascular disease. As tomato sauces are usually cooked with the addition of oil, some studies have pointed out that both processes may increase the bioavailability of the bioactive compounds. However, the effect of consumption of raw tomatoes and tomato sauces on inflammation biomarkers and adhesion molecules related to atherosclerosis remains unknown. The aim of this study was to test the postprandial effects of a single dose of raw tomatoes (RT), tomato sauce (TS) and tomato sauce with refined olive oil (TSOO) on cardiovascular disease risk factors. We performed an open, prospective, randomized, cross-over, controlled feeding trial in 40 healthy subjects who randomly received: 7.0 g of RT/kg of body weight (BW), 3.5 g of TS/kg BW, 3.5 g of TSOO/Kg BW and 0.25 g of sugar solved in water/kg BW on a single occasion on four different days. Biochemical parameters and cellular and circulating inflammatory biomarkers were assessed at baseline and 6 h after each intervention. The results indicate that, compared to control intervention, a single tomato intake in any form decreased plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides and several cellular and plasma inflammatory biomarkers, and increased plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL) cholesterol and interleukine (IL) 10 concentrations. However, the changes of plasma IL-6 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) from T-lymphocytes and CD36 from monocytes were significantly greater after TSOO than after RT and TS interventions. We concluded that tomato intake has beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors, especially cooked and enriched with oil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavonoids, Inflammation and Immune System)
Open AccessArticle
Phlorizin Supplementation Attenuates Obesity, Inflammation, and Hyperglycemia in Diet-Induced Obese Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet
Nutrients 2016, 8(2), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8020092
Received: 23 December 2015 / Revised: 27 January 2016 / Accepted: 28 January 2016 / Published: 16 February 2016
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (1206 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Obesity, along with its related complications, is a serious health problem worldwide. Many studies reported the anti-diabetic effect of phlorizin, while little is known about its anti-obesity effect. We investigated the beneficial effects of phlorizin on obesity and its complications, including diabetes and [...] Read more.
Obesity, along with its related complications, is a serious health problem worldwide. Many studies reported the anti-diabetic effect of phlorizin, while little is known about its anti-obesity effect. We investigated the beneficial effects of phlorizin on obesity and its complications, including diabetes and inflammation in obese animal. Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into three groups and fed their respective experimental diets for 16 weeks: a normal diet (ND, 5% fat, w/w), high-fat diet (HFD, 20% fat, w/w), or HFD supplemented with phlorizin (PH, 0.02%, w/w). The findings revealed that the PH group had significantly decreased visceral and total white adipose tissue (WAT) weights, and adipocyte size compared to the HFD. Plasma and hepatic lipids profiles also improved in the PH group. The decreased levels of hepatic lipids in PH were associated with decreased activities of enzymes involved in hepatic lipogenesis, cholesterol synthesis and esterification. The PH also suppressed plasma pro-inflammatory adipokines levels such as leptin, adipsin, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interferon-γ, and interleukin-6, and prevented HFD-induced collagen accumulation in the liver and WAT. Furthermore, the PH supplementation also decreased plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance levels. In conclusion, phlorizin is beneficial for preventing diet-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis, as well as insulin resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavonoids, Inflammation and Immune System)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Cudrania tricuspidata and Kaempferol in Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Inflammation and Hepatic Insulin Resistance in HepG2 Cells
Nutrients 2016, 8(1), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8010060
Received: 28 November 2015 / Revised: 11 January 2016 / Accepted: 13 January 2016 / Published: 21 January 2016
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (2671 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, we quantitated kaempferol in water extract from Cudrania tricuspidata leaves (CTL) and investigated its effects on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in HepG2 cells. The concentration of kaempferol in the CTL was 5.07 ± 0.08 mg/g. The [...] Read more.
In this study, we quantitated kaempferol in water extract from Cudrania tricuspidata leaves (CTL) and investigated its effects on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in HepG2 cells. The concentration of kaempferol in the CTL was 5.07 ± 0.08 mg/g. The HepG2 cells were treated with 300 µg/mL of CTL, 500 µg/mL of CTL, 1.5 µg/mL of kaempferol or 2.5 µg/mL of kaempferol, followed immediately by stimulation with 100 nM of thapsigargin for ER stress induction for 24 h. There was a marked increase in the activation of the ER stress and inflammation response in the thapsigargin-stimulated control group. The CTL treatment interrupted the ER stress response and ER stress-induced inflammation. Kaempferol partially inhibited the ER stress response and inflammation. There was a significant increase in serine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and the expression of C/EBPα and gluconeogenic genes in the thapsigargin-stimulated control group compared to the normal control. Both CTL and kaempferol suppressed serine phosphorylation of IRS-1, and the treatments did not interrupt the C/EBPα/gluconeogenic gene pathway. These results suggest that kaempferol might be the active compound of CTL and that it might protect against ER stress-induced inflammation and hyperglycemia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavonoids, Inflammation and Immune System)
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Open AccessArticle
Consumption of Polyphenol-Rich Zingiber Zerumbet Rhizome Extracts Protects against the Breakdown of the Blood-Retinal Barrier and Retinal Inflammation Induced by Diabetes
Nutrients 2015, 7(9), 7821-7841; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7095369
Received: 9 July 2015 / Revised: 3 September 2015 / Accepted: 8 September 2015 / Published: 15 September 2015
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (4213 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present study investigates the amelioration of diabetic retinopathy (DR) by Zingiber zerumbet rhizome ethanol extracts (ZZRext) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ-diabetic rats). ZZRext contains high phenolic and flavonoid contents. STZ-diabetic rats were treated orally with ZZRext (200, 300 mg/kg per day) for [...] Read more.
The present study investigates the amelioration of diabetic retinopathy (DR) by Zingiber zerumbet rhizome ethanol extracts (ZZRext) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ-diabetic rats). ZZRext contains high phenolic and flavonoid contents. STZ-diabetic rats were treated orally with ZZRext (200, 300 mg/kg per day) for three months. Blood-retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown and increased vascular permeability were found in diabetic rats, with downregulation of occludin, and claudin-5. ZZRext treatment effectively preserved the expression of occludin, and claudin-5, leading to less BRB breakdown and less vascular permeability. Retinal histopathological observation showed that the disarrangement and reduction in thickness of retinal layers were reversed in ZZRext-treated diabetic rats. Retinal gene expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, vascular endothelial growth factor, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 were all decreased in ZZRext-treated diabetic rats. Moreover, ZZRext treatment not only inhibited the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation, but also downregulated the protein expression of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in diabetic retina. In conclusion, the results suggest that the retinal protective effects of ZZRext occur through improved retinal structural change and inhibiting retinal inflammation. The antiretinopathy property of ZZRext might be related to the downregulation of p38 MAPK and NF-κB signal transduction induced by diabetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavonoids, Inflammation and Immune System)
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Open AccessArticle
Quercetin Decreases Claudin-2 Expression Mediated by Up-Regulation of microRNA miR-16 in Lung Adenocarcinoma A549 Cells
Nutrients 2015, 7(6), 4578-4592; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7064578
Received: 14 April 2015 / Revised: 26 May 2015 / Accepted: 1 June 2015 / Published: 8 June 2015
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (489 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Claudin-2 is highly expressed in human lung adenocarcinoma tissues and cells. Knockdown of claudin-2 decreases cell proliferation and migration. Claudin-2 may be a novel target for lung adenocarcinoma. However, there are no physiologically active substances of foods which decrease claudin-2 expression. We here [...] Read more.
Claudin-2 is highly expressed in human lung adenocarcinoma tissues and cells. Knockdown of claudin-2 decreases cell proliferation and migration. Claudin-2 may be a novel target for lung adenocarcinoma. However, there are no physiologically active substances of foods which decrease claudin-2 expression. We here found that quercetin, a flavonoid present in fruits and vegetables, time- and concentration-dependently decreases claudin-2 expression in lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. In the present study, we examined what regulatory mechanism is involved in the decrease in claudin-2 expression by quercetin. Claudin-2 expression was decreased by LY-294002, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) inhibitor, and U0126, a MEK inhibitor. These drugs inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2, which are downstream targets of PI3-K and MEK, respectively. In contrast, quercetin did not inhibit the phosphorylation. Both LY-294002 and U0126 inhibited promoter activity of claudin-2, but quercetin did not. The stability of claudin-2 mRNA was decreased by quercetin. Quercetin increased the expression of microRNA miR-16. An inhibitor of miR-16 rescued quercetin-induced decrease in the claudin-2 expression. These results suggest that quercetin decreases claudin-2 expression mediated by up-regulation of miR-16 expression and instability of claudin-2 mRNA in lung adenocarcinoma cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavonoids, Inflammation and Immune System)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Isoflavones: Anti-Inflammatory Benefit and Possible Caveats
Nutrients 2016, 8(6), 361; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8060361
Received: 26 February 2016 / Revised: 19 May 2016 / Accepted: 2 June 2016 / Published: 10 June 2016
Cited by 39 | PDF Full-text (983 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Inflammation, a biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, is also known to be involved in a host of diseases, such as obesity, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and even cancer. Isoflavones are a class of flavonoids that exhibit antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory [...] Read more.
Inflammation, a biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, is also known to be involved in a host of diseases, such as obesity, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and even cancer. Isoflavones are a class of flavonoids that exhibit antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory properties. Increasing evidence has highlighted the potential for isoflavones to prevent the chronic diseases in which inflammation plays a key role, though the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Recently, some studies have raised concerns about isoflavones induced negative effects like carcinogenesis, thymic involution, and immunosuppression. Therefore, this review aims to summarize the anti-inflammatory effects of isoflavones, unravel the underlying mechanisms, and present the potential health risks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavonoids, Inflammation and Immune System)
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Open AccessReview
Impact of Cocoa Consumption on Inflammation Processes—A Critical Review of Randomized Controlled Trials
Nutrients 2016, 8(6), 321; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8060321
Received: 27 February 2016 / Revised: 9 May 2016 / Accepted: 20 May 2016 / Published: 26 May 2016
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (657 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Cocoa flavanols have strong anti-inflammatory properties in vitro. If these also occur in vivo, cocoa consumption may contribute to the prevention or treatment of diseases mediated by chronic inflammation. This critical review judged the evidence for such effects occurring after [...] Read more.
Background: Cocoa flavanols have strong anti-inflammatory properties in vitro. If these also occur in vivo, cocoa consumption may contribute to the prevention or treatment of diseases mediated by chronic inflammation. This critical review judged the evidence for such effects occurring after cocoa consumption. Methods: A literature search in Medline was performed for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that investigated the effects of cocoa consumption on inflammatory biomarkers. Results: Thirty-three RCTs were included, along with 9 bolus and 24 regular consumption studies. Acute cocoa consumption decreased adhesion molecules and 4-series leukotrienes in serum, nuclear factor κB activation in leukocytes, and the expression of CD62P and CD11b on monocytes and neutrophils. In healthy subjects and in patients with cardiovascular diseases, most regular consumption trials did not find any changes except for a decreased number of endothelial microparticles, but several cellular and humoral inflammation markers decreased in patients suffering from type 2 diabetes and impaired fasting glucose. Conclusions: Little evidence exists that consumption of cocoa-rich food may reduce inflammation, probably by lowering the activation of monocytes and neutrophils. The efficacy seems to depend on the extent of the basal inflammatory burden. Further well-designed RCTs with inflammation as the primary outcome are needed, focusing on specific markers of leukocyte activation and considering endothelial microparticles as marker of vascular inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavonoids, Inflammation and Immune System)
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Open AccessReview
Effect of Cocoa and Its Flavonoids on Biomarkers of Inflammation: Studies of Cell Culture, Animals and Humans
Nutrients 2016, 8(4), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8040212
Received: 24 February 2016 / Revised: 30 March 2016 / Accepted: 6 April 2016 / Published: 9 April 2016
Cited by 30 | PDF Full-text (376 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chronic inflammation has been identified as a necessary step to mediate atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease and as a relevant stage in the onset and progression of several types of cancer. Considerable attention has recently been focused on the identification of dietary bioactive compounds [...] Read more.
Chronic inflammation has been identified as a necessary step to mediate atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease and as a relevant stage in the onset and progression of several types of cancer. Considerable attention has recently been focused on the identification of dietary bioactive compounds with anti-inflammatory activities as an alternative natural source for prevention of inflammation-associated diseases. The remarkable capacity of cocoa flavanols as antioxidants, as well as to modulate signaling pathways involved in cellular processes, such as inflammation, metabolism and proliferation, has encouraged research on this type of polyphenols as useful bioactive compounds for nutritional prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Data from numerous studies suggest that cocoa and cocoa-derived flavanols can effectively modify the inflammatory process, and thus potentially provide a benefit to individuals with elevated risk factors for atherosclerosis/cardiovascular pathology and cancer. The present overview will focus on the most recent findings about the effects of cocoa, its main constituents and cocoa derivatives on selected biomarkers of the inflammatory process in cell culture, animal models and human cohorts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavonoids, Inflammation and Immune System)
Open AccessReview
Flavonoids in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Review
Nutrients 2016, 8(4), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8040211
Received: 1 March 2016 / Revised: 19 March 2016 / Accepted: 30 March 2016 / Published: 9 April 2016
Cited by 56 | PDF Full-text (3209 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by chronic inflammation of the intestine that compromises the patients’ life quality and requires sustained pharmacological and surgical treatments. Since their etiology is not completely understood, non-fully-efficient drugs have been developed and those that have shown effectiveness [...] Read more.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by chronic inflammation of the intestine that compromises the patients’ life quality and requires sustained pharmacological and surgical treatments. Since their etiology is not completely understood, non-fully-efficient drugs have been developed and those that have shown effectiveness are not devoid of quite important adverse effects that impair their long-term use. In this regard, a growing body of evidence confirms the health benefits of flavonoids. Flavonoids are compounds with low molecular weight that are widely distributed throughout the vegetable kingdom, including in edible plants. They may be of great utility in conditions of acute or chronic intestinal inflammation through different mechanisms including protection against oxidative stress, and preservation of epithelial barrier function and immunomodulatory properties in the gut. In this review we have revised the main flavonoid classes that have been assessed in different experimental models of colitis as well as the proposed mechanisms that support their beneficial effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavonoids, Inflammation and Immune System)
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Open AccessReview
Quercetin, Inflammation and Immunity
Nutrients 2016, 8(3), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8030167
Received: 25 January 2016 / Revised: 24 February 2016 / Accepted: 9 March 2016 / Published: 15 March 2016
Cited by 100 | PDF Full-text (666 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In vitro and some animal models have shown that quercetin, a polyphenol derived from plants, has a wide range of biological actions including anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and antiviral activities; as well as attenuating lipid peroxidation, platelet aggregation and capillary permeability. This review focuses on [...] Read more.
In vitro and some animal models have shown that quercetin, a polyphenol derived from plants, has a wide range of biological actions including anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and antiviral activities; as well as attenuating lipid peroxidation, platelet aggregation and capillary permeability. This review focuses on the physicochemical properties, dietary sources, absorption, bioavailability and metabolism of quercetin, especially main effects of quercetin on inflammation and immune function. According to the results obtained both in vitro and in vivo, good perspectives have been opened for quercetin. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to better characterize the mechanisms of action underlying the beneficial effects of quercetin on inflammation and immunity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavonoids, Inflammation and Immune System)
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Open AccessReview
Myricetin: A Dietary Molecule with Diverse Biological Activities
Nutrients 2016, 8(2), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8020090
Received: 9 November 2015 / Revised: 16 December 2015 / Accepted: 23 December 2015 / Published: 16 February 2016
Cited by 55 | PDF Full-text (757 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Myricetin is a common plant-derived flavonoid and is well recognised for its nutraceuticals value. It is one of the key ingredients of various foods and beverages. The compound exhibits a wide range of activities that include strong anti-oxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory activities. [...] Read more.
Myricetin is a common plant-derived flavonoid and is well recognised for its nutraceuticals value. It is one of the key ingredients of various foods and beverages. The compound exhibits a wide range of activities that include strong anti-oxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory activities. It displays several activities that are related to the central nervous system and numerous studies have suggested that the compound may be beneficial to protect against diseases such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s. The use of myricetin as a preserving agent to extend the shelf life of foods containing oils and fats is attributed to the compound’s ability to protect lipids against oxidation. A detailed search of existing literature revealed that there is currently no comprehensive review available on this important molecule. Hence, the present work includes the history, synthesis, pharmaceutical applications and toxicity studies of myricetin. This report also highlights structure-activity relationships and mechanisms of action for various biological activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavonoids, Inflammation and Immune System)
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