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Nutrients, Volume 16, Issue 11 (June-1 2024) – 254 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Understanding the relationship between the intake of sugars and diet quality can inform public health recommendations. This systematic review examined the recent literature on associations between quantified intakes of dietary sugars and various measures of diet quality. Only cross-sectional studies were available and provided a very low level of evidence, thereby suggesting that the highest intakes of added and free sugars may be associated with lower diet quality based on generally poorer dietary index scores and lower intakes of fiber, vitamin D, calcium, and potassium. Current dietary guidelines recommend lower intakes of added and free sugars. To better understand the evidence base, prospective studies are needed to minimize confounding and to investigate whether these relationships are causal. View this paper
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14 pages, 1278 KiB  
Article
Postprandial Antioxidative Response to Ingestion of Formulated Date- and Fruit-Based Nutritional Bars by Healthy Individuals
by Manahel A. Alolyan, Hani A. Alfheeaid, Ahmad H. Alhowail, Majed M. Alamri, Modhi S. Alghasham, Nada A. Alzunaidy and Hassan Barakat
Nutrients 2024, 16(11), 1794; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16111794 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 726
Abstract
Nutritional bars (NBs) are gaining popularity among healthy and athletic individuals, but postprandial antioxidative response has not been investigated. Therefore, the current study examined the postprandial alterations in total phenolic content (TPC), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), malondialdehyde (MDA), and Superoxide dismutase (SOD) in [...] Read more.
Nutritional bars (NBs) are gaining popularity among healthy and athletic individuals, but postprandial antioxidative response has not been investigated. Therefore, the current study examined the postprandial alterations in total phenolic content (TPC), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), malondialdehyde (MDA), and Superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the plasma of healthy individuals after the ingestion of 140 g (510 Kcal) from formulated date-based bars (DBBs) or fruit-based bars (FBBs). Firstly, the free and bound phenolic contents (PCs) were determined to be 10.15 and 12.98 and 6.19 and 3.57 mg GAE g−1, respectively. FBBs were significantly higher in free PC than DBBs, while DBBs were considerably higher in bound PC than FBBs. Secondly, twenty participants with age, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), fat mass, and fat-free mass averages of 21.4 years, 170.0 cm, 66.3 kg, 22.9 kg m2, 14.5, and 29.2 kg, respectively, were subjected to metabolic experiments (ISRCTN19386758). Ingestion of 140 g of FBB or DBB resulted in 288.50 or 302.14 µg TPC mL−1 blood, respectively. Postprandial TPC content increased with time progression and peaked after 120 min. T-AOC contents averaged 22.63 and 23.61 U mL−1 before ingestion of FBBs or DBBs, respectively. The T-AOC content increased significantly 120 and 180 min after ingestion of DBBs, while no significant change was noted after consuming FBBs. A significant decrease in MDA content was observed 180 min after consuming DBBs, while no significant change was noted after consuming FBBs. SOD concentrations ranged from 193.99 to 201.07 U L−1 in FBBs and DBBs, respectively. No considerable response was noted up to 3 h after ingestion of FBBs. On the contrary, a significant response was found 120 min after consuming DBBs. Pearson’s correlation coefficient indicated a highly significant positive correlation coefficient (p < 0.01) between T-AOC and either MDA or SOD, as well as between MDA and SOD. The principal component analysis demonstrated a strong and positive relationship between SOD and TPC at 60 and 120 min after DBB ingestion. In conclusion, the relative changes in postprandial responses in T-AOC and MDA did not significantly (p > 0.05) differ between DBBs and FBBs, except for TPC (p = 0.04, paired t-test) and SOD (p = 0.003, paired t-test). Further studies with an extended experimental time are needed to confirm the current findings. Full article
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16 pages, 2755 KiB  
Article
Association of Pro-Inflammatory Diet, Smoking, and Alcohol Consumption with Bladder Cancer: Evidence from Case–Control and NHANES Studies from 1999 to 2020
by Chunying Teng, Weihong Lu, Jiawen Che, Yanhong Wu, Danqun Meng and Yujuan Shan
Nutrients 2024, 16(11), 1793; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16111793 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 421
Abstract
Background and purpose: Diet might be a modifiable factor in preventing cancer by modulating inflammation. This study aims to explore the association between the dietary inflammatory index (DII) score and the risk of bladder cancer (BC). Methods: A total of 112 BC patients [...] Read more.
Background and purpose: Diet might be a modifiable factor in preventing cancer by modulating inflammation. This study aims to explore the association between the dietary inflammatory index (DII) score and the risk of bladder cancer (BC). Methods: A total of 112 BC patients and 292 control subjects were enrolled in a case–control trial. Additionally, we tracked a total of 109 BC patients and 319 controls, whose propensity scores were obtained from the Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) database spanning from 1999 to 2020. The baseline index and dietary intake data were assessed using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). DII scores were calculated based on the dietary intake of 20 nutrients obtained from participants and categorized into four groups. The association between the inflammatory potential of the diet and BC risk was investigated using multivariate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: High DII scores were associated with a pro-inflammatory diet and a higher risk of BC, with higher DII scores positively associated with a higher risk of BC (quartiles 4 vs. 1, ORs 4.89, 95% CIs 2.09–11.25 p < 0.001). Specifically, this might promote BC development by inducing oxidative stress and affecting DNA repair mechanisms. This result was consistent with the NHANES findings (quartiles 4 vs. 1, ORs 2.69, 95% CIs 1.25–5.77, p = 0.006) and further supported the association of pro-inflammatory diet and lifestyle factors with the risk of BC. Conclusions: Diets with the highest pro-inflammatory potential were associated with an increased risk of BC. By adjusting lifestyle factors, individuals might effectively lower their DII, thereby reducing the risk of developing BC. The results are consistent with the NHANES cohort. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplement and Inflammation-Related Diseases)
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16 pages, 4938 KiB  
Article
Effect of Xanthohumol, a Bioactive Natural Compound from Hops, on Adenosine Pathway in Rat C6 Glioma and Human SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cell Lines
by Adrián Tejero, David Agustín León-Navarro and Mairena Martín
Nutrients 2024, 16(11), 1792; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16111792 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 306
Abstract
Xanthohumol (Xn) is an antioxidant flavonoid mainly extracted from hops (Humulus lupulus), one of the main ingredients of beer. As with other bioactive compounds, their therapeutic potential against different diseases has been tested, one of which is Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Adenosine [...] Read more.
Xanthohumol (Xn) is an antioxidant flavonoid mainly extracted from hops (Humulus lupulus), one of the main ingredients of beer. As with other bioactive compounds, their therapeutic potential against different diseases has been tested, one of which is Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Adenosine is a neuromodulatory nucleoside that acts through four different G protein-coupled receptors: A1 and A3, which inhibit the adenylyl cyclases (AC) pathway, and A2A and A2B, which stimulate this activity, causing either a decrease or an increase, respectively, in the release of excitatory neurotransmitters such as glutamate. This adenosinergic pathway, which is altered in AD, could be involved in the excitotoxicity process. Therefore, the aim of this work is to describe the effect of Xn on the adenosinergic pathway using cell lines. For this purpose, two different cellular models, rat glioma C6 and human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y, were exposed to a non-cytotoxic 10 µM Xn concentration. Adenosine A1 and A2A, receptor levels, and activities related to the adenosine pathway, such as adenylate cyclase, protein kinase A, and 5′-nucleotidase, were analyzed. The adenosine A1 receptor was significantly increased after Xn exposure, while no changes in A2A receptor membrane levels or AC activity were reported. Regarding 5′-nucleotidases, modulation of their activity by Xn was noted since CD73, the extracellular membrane attached to 5′-nucleotidase, was significantly decreased in the C6 cell line. In conclusion, here we describe a novel pathway in which the bioactive flavonoid Xn could have potentially beneficial effects on AD as it increases membrane A1 receptors while modulating enzymes related to the adenosine pathway in cell cultures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemicals and Human Health)
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13 pages, 1138 KiB  
Article
Mediterranean Diet Adherence, Physical Activity, and Advanced Glycation End Products in Complex PTSD: A Comprehensive Examination of Lifestyle and Cardiovascular Risk in War Veterans
by Zivana Puljiz, Marko Kumric, Tonka Borovina Marasovic, Tonci Mastelic, Mihaela Rakusic, Goran Pavela, Andelko Beg, Trpimir Glavina, Marin Mornar, Daniela Supe Domic, Marino Vilovic, Jurica Zucko, Tina Ticinovic Kurir and Josko Bozic
Nutrients 2024, 16(11), 1791; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16111791 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 323
Abstract
As accumulated evidence suggests that individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) encounter earlier and more frequent occurrences of cardiovascular diseases, the aim of this study was to ascertain the differences in lifestyle and cardiovascular risk between PTSD and complex PTSD patients. We enrolled [...] Read more.
As accumulated evidence suggests that individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) encounter earlier and more frequent occurrences of cardiovascular diseases, the aim of this study was to ascertain the differences in lifestyle and cardiovascular risk between PTSD and complex PTSD patients. We enrolled 137 male war veterans with PTSD (89 had complex PTSD). The diagnosis was established based on 11th revision of International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11), and cardiovascular risk was estimated by the measurement of advanced glycation end products. Adherence to Mediterranean diet (MD) was lower in the complex PTSD group (2.2% vs. 12.5%, p = 0.015). Accordingly, patients with complex PTSD had lower healthy lifestyle scores in comparison to PTSD counterparts (50.6 ± 9.7 vs. 59.6 ± 10.1, p < 0.001), and a positive association was noted between MD adherence and a healthy lifestyle (r = 0.183, p = 0.022). On the other hand, differences were not noted in terms of physical activity (p = 0.424), fat % (p = 0.571) or cardiovascular risk (p = 0.573). Although complex PTSD patients exhibit worse adherence to MD and lower healthy lifestyle scores, these differences do not seem to impact physical activity, body composition, or estimated cardiovascular risk. More research is needed to clarify if this lack of association accurately reflects the state of the PTSD population or results from insufficient statistical power. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Epidemiology)
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24 pages, 7251 KiB  
Article
A Prebiotic Diet Containing Galactooligosaccharides and Polydextrose Produces Dynamic and Reproducible Changes in the Gut Microbial Ecosystem in Male Rats
by Robert S. Thompson, Samuel J. Bowers, Fernando Vargas, Shelby Hopkins, Tel Kelley, Antonio Gonzalez, Christopher A. Lowry, Pieter C. Dorrestein, Martha Hotz Vitaterna, Fred W. Turek, Rob Knight, Kenneth P. Wright, Jr. and Monika Fleshner
Nutrients 2024, 16(11), 1790; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16111790 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 454
Abstract
Despite substantial evidence supporting the efficacy of prebiotics for promoting host health and stress resilience, few experiments present evidence documenting the dynamic changes in microbial ecology and fecal microbially modified metabolites over time. Furthermore, the literature reports a lack of reproducible effects of [...] Read more.
Despite substantial evidence supporting the efficacy of prebiotics for promoting host health and stress resilience, few experiments present evidence documenting the dynamic changes in microbial ecology and fecal microbially modified metabolites over time. Furthermore, the literature reports a lack of reproducible effects of prebiotics on specific bacteria and bacterial-modified metabolites. The current experiments examined whether consumption of diets enriched in prebiotics (galactooligosaccharides (GOS) and polydextrose (PDX)), compared to a control diet, would consistently impact the gut microbiome and microbially modified bile acids over time and between two research sites. Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed control or prebiotic diets for several weeks, and their gut microbiomes and metabolomes were examined using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and untargeted LC–MS/MS analysis. Dietary prebiotics altered the beta diversity, relative abundance of bacterial genera, and microbially modified bile acids over time. PICRUSt2 analyses identified four inferred functional metabolic pathways modified by the prebiotic diet. Correlational network analyses between inferred metabolic pathways and microbially modified bile acids revealed deoxycholic acid as a potential network hub. All these reported effects were consistent between the two research sites, supporting the conclusion that dietary prebiotics robustly changed the gut microbial ecosystem. Consistent with our previous work demonstrating that GOS/PDX reduces the negative impacts of stressor exposure, we propose that ingesting a diet enriched in prebiotics facilitates the development of a health-promoting gut microbial ecosystem. Full article
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15 pages, 5095 KiB  
Review
What Can the Gut Microbiota of Animals Teach Us about the Relationship between Nutrition and Burden of Lifestyle Diseases?
by Denise Mafra, Natália A. Borges, Beatriz G. Baptista, Layla F. Martins, Gillian Borland, Paul G. Shiels and Peter Stenvinkel
Nutrients 2024, 16(11), 1789; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16111789 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 500
Abstract
The gut microbiota performs several crucial roles in a holobiont with its host, including immune regulation, nutrient absorption, synthesis, and defense against external pathogens, significantly influencing host physiology. Disruption of the gut microbiota has been linked to various chronic conditions, including cardiovascular, kidney, [...] Read more.
The gut microbiota performs several crucial roles in a holobiont with its host, including immune regulation, nutrient absorption, synthesis, and defense against external pathogens, significantly influencing host physiology. Disruption of the gut microbiota has been linked to various chronic conditions, including cardiovascular, kidney, liver, respiratory, and intestinal diseases. Studying how animals adapt their gut microbiota across their life course at different life stages and under the dynamics of extreme environmental conditions can provide valuable insights from the natural world into how the microbiota modulates host biology, with a view to translating these into treatments or preventative measures for human diseases. By modulating the gut microbiota, opportunities to address many complications associated with chronic diseases appear. Such a biomimetic approach holds promise for exploring new strategies in healthcare and disease management. Full article
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11 pages, 432 KiB  
Communication
Blood Iodine as a Potential Marker of the Risk of Cancer in BRCA1 Carriers
by Adam Kiljańczyk, Milena Matuszczak, Wojciech Marciniak, Róża Derkacz, Klaudia Stempa, Piotr Baszuk, Marta Bryśkiewicz, Cezary Cybulski, Tadeusz Dębniak, Jacek Gronwald, Tomasz Huzarski, Marcin R. Lener, Anna Jakubowska, Angela Cheriyan, Marek Szwiec, Małgorzata Stawicka-Niełacna, Dariusz Godlewski, Artur Prusaczyk, Andrzej Jasiewicz, Tomasz Kluz, Joanna Tomiczek-Szwiec, Ewa Kilar-Kobierzycka, Monika Siołek, Rafał Wiśniowski, Renata Posmyk, Joanna Jarkiewicz-Tretyn, Ping Sun, Rodney J. Scott, Steven A. Narod and Jan Lubińskiadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Nutrients 2024, 16(11), 1788; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16111788 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 408
Abstract
Breast cancer and ovarian cancer pose a significant risk for BRCA1 carriers, with limited risk-reduction strategies. While improved screening helps in the early detection of breast cancer, preventive measures remain elusive. Emerging evidence suggests a potential link between iodine levels and modulation of [...] Read more.
Breast cancer and ovarian cancer pose a significant risk for BRCA1 carriers, with limited risk-reduction strategies. While improved screening helps in the early detection of breast cancer, preventive measures remain elusive. Emerging evidence suggests a potential link between iodine levels and modulation of cancer risk, but comprehensive studies are scarce. We conducted a prospective study among 989 BRCA1 carriers to assess the association between blood iodine levels and breast and ovarian cancer risk. Using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, we measured blood iodine levels and observed a negative association with breast cancer risk, with a significantly lower risk observed in quartile 4 (iodine > 38.0 µg/L) compared with quartile 1 (iodine < 30 µg/L) (HR = 0.49; 95%CI: 0.27–0.87; p = 0.01). Conversely, a suggestive increase in ovarian cancer risk was observed at higher iodine levels (HR = 1.91; 95%CI: 0.64–5.67; p = 0.25). No significant association was found between iodine levels and overall cancer risk. Our results suggest the potential of iodine to reduce breast cancer risk in BRCA1 carriers after prophylactic oophorectomy but require further validation and investigation of its effect on ovarian cancer risk and overall mortality. These findings highlight the need for personalized strategies to manage cancer risk in BRCA1 carriers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenetics: Implications for Whole Life)
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14 pages, 327 KiB  
Article
A Comprehensive Study of Positive Body Image as a Predictor of Psychological Well-Being in Anorexia Nervosa
by Sandra Torres, Ana Isabel Vieira, Filipa Mucha Vieira, Kylee M. Miller, Marina Prista Guerra, Leonor Lencastre, Ana Catarina Reis, Sertório Timóteo, Patrícia Nunes and Maria Raquel Barbosa
Nutrients 2024, 16(11), 1787; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16111787 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 386
Abstract
Recent data suggest a close association between positive body image (PBI) and eating disorder recovery. Nevertheless, the specific mechanisms through which PBI may facilitate recovery from anorexia nervosa (AN) remain unknown. To advance understanding of these mechanisms, this study examined core indices of [...] Read more.
Recent data suggest a close association between positive body image (PBI) and eating disorder recovery. Nevertheless, the specific mechanisms through which PBI may facilitate recovery from anorexia nervosa (AN) remain unknown. To advance understanding of these mechanisms, this study examined core indices of PBI within AN, exploring its association with emotion regulation and well-being outcomes. Data were collected from 159 female participants, 64 with AN diagnosis and 95 healthy controls (HCs), who completed measures of PBI (body appreciation, functionality appreciation, and body responsiveness), emotion regulation, and psychological well-being (depression, anxiety, stress, and psychological quality of life). The AN group reported lower levels of PBI and psychological well-being, along with greater difficulties in regulating emotions, relative to HCs. PBI variables significantly predicted emotion regulation and psychological well-being in AN, accounting for 36% to 72% of the variance, with body appreciation emerging as the strongest predictor. These findings lend credence to the view that PBI can serve as a catalyst for psychological health. We hypothesize that enhancing PBI can improve interoceptive awareness, which is crucial for emotion regulation and reducing maladaptive food-related coping. Emphasizing a mind–body connection in lifestyle could be a relevant element to consider for both treating and preventing AN. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Disordered Eating and Lifestyle Studies—2nd Edition)
15 pages, 744 KiB  
Review
Association of Placental Pathology with Physical and Neuronal Development of Infants: A Narrative Review and Reclassification of the Literature by the Consensus Statement of the Amsterdam Placental Workshop Group
by Chizuko Yaguchi, Megumi Ueda, Yuri Mizuno, Chie Fukuchi, Masako Matsumoto, Naomi Furuta-Isomura and Hiroaki Itoh
Nutrients 2024, 16(11), 1786; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16111786 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 370
Abstract
The placenta is the largest fetal organ, which connects the mother to the fetus and supports most aspects of organogenesis through the transport of nutrients and gases. However, further studies are needed to assess placental pathology as a reliable predictor of long-term physical [...] Read more.
The placenta is the largest fetal organ, which connects the mother to the fetus and supports most aspects of organogenesis through the transport of nutrients and gases. However, further studies are needed to assess placental pathology as a reliable predictor of long-term physical growth or neural development in newborns. The Consensus Statement of the Amsterdam Placental Workshop Group (APWGCS) on the sampling and definition of placental lesions has resulted in diagnostic uniformity in describing the most common pathological lesions of the placenta and contributed to the international standardization of descriptions of placental pathology. In this narrative review, we reclassified descriptions of placental pathology from previously published papers according to the APWGCS criteria and comparatively assessed the relationship with infantile physical and/or neural development. After reclassification and reevaluation, placental pathology of maternal vascular malperfusion, one of the APWGCS criteria, emerged as a promising candidate as a universal predictor of negative infantile neurodevelopmental outcomes, not only in term and preterm deliveries but also in high-risk groups of very low birthweight newborns. However, there are few studies that examined placental pathology according to the full categories of APWGCS and also included low-risk general infants. It is necessary to incorporate the assessment of placental pathology utilizing APWGCS in the design of future birth cohort studies as well as in follow-up investigations of high-risk infants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition in Women)
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13 pages, 1115 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Impact of Extra Virgin Olive Oil on Maternal Immune System and Breast Milk Composition in Rats
by Sonia Zhan-Dai, Blanca Grases-Pintó, Rosa M. Lamuela-Raventós, Margarida Castell, Francisco J. Pérez-Cano, Anna Vallverdú-Queralt and Maria José Rodríguez-Lagunas
Nutrients 2024, 16(11), 1785; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16111785 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 431
Abstract
Maternal breast milk plays a key role in providing newborns with passive immunity and stimulating the maturation of an infant’s immune system, protecting them from many diseases. It is known that diet can influence the immune system of lactating mothers and the composition [...] Read more.
Maternal breast milk plays a key role in providing newborns with passive immunity and stimulating the maturation of an infant’s immune system, protecting them from many diseases. It is known that diet can influence the immune system of lactating mothers and the composition of their breast milk. The aim of this study was to establish if a supplementation during the gestation and lactation of Lewis rats with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), due to the high proportion of antioxidant components in its composition, has an impact on the mother’s immune system and on the breast milk’s immune composition. For this, 10 mL/kg of either EVOO, refined oil (control oil) or water (REF group) were orally administered once a day to rats during gestation and lactation periods. Immunoglobulin (Ig) concentrations and gene expressions of immune molecules were quantified in several compartments of the mothers. The EVOO group showed higher IgA levels in both the breast milk and the mammary glands than the REF group. In addition, the gene expression of IgA in mammary glands was also boosted by EVOO consumption. Overall, EVOO supplementation during gestation and lactation is safe and does not negatively affect the mother’s immune system while improving breast milk immune composition by increasing the presence of IgA, which could be critical for an offspring’s immune health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Phytochemicals in Metabolism and Immunity)
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20 pages, 732 KiB  
Article
Dietary Intake among Lebanese Adults: Findings from the Updated LEBANese natiONal Food Consumption Survey (LEBANON-FCS)
by Maha Hoteit, Maroun Khattar, Dana Malli, Esraa Antar, Zahraa Al Hassani, Maher Abdallah, Dalia Hachem, Elham Al Manasfi, Abdulrahman Chahine, Nikolaos Tzenios and the Adults-LEBANON-FCS Group
Nutrients 2024, 16(11), 1784; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16111784 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 501
Abstract
Background: The rates of obesity, undernutrition, and other non-communicable diseases are on the rise among Lebanese adults. Therefore, it is crucial to evaluate the food consumption habits of this population to understand diet quality, analyze consumption trends, and compare them to healthy diets [...] Read more.
Background: The rates of obesity, undernutrition, and other non-communicable diseases are on the rise among Lebanese adults. Therefore, it is crucial to evaluate the food consumption habits of this population to understand diet quality, analyze consumption trends, and compare them to healthy diets known to reduce risks of non-communicable diseases. Aim: To evaluate the food consumption patterns, energy intake, as well as macro- and micro-nutrient intake among a nationally representative sample of Lebanese adults aged 18−64 years old. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out from May to September 2022 involving 444 participants from all eight Lebanese governorates. Sociodemographic and medical information was gathered through a questionnaire, food consumption was evaluated using a validated FFQ and 24 h recall, and anthropometric measurements were recorded. Results: There was a notable lack of adherence to three healthy diets (Mediterranean, EAT-Lancet, USDA) among Lebanese adults. Their dietary pattern is characterized by high energy, added sugars, sodium, and saturated fat intake while being low in healthy fats, vitamin A, D, and E. Adult women are falling short of meeting their daily calcium, vitamin D, iron, and vitamin B12 requirements, putting them at increased risk of anemia, osteoporosis, and other health issues. Grains and cereals were the most consumed food groups, and most participants were found to be overweight or obese. Conclusions: In conclusion, the results highlight the need for public health policies and interventions aimed at encouraging Lebanese adults to make healthier food choices and transition towards diets like the Mediterranean, EAT-Lancet, or USDA diet. These diets have been shown to promote overall health and wellbeing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Health, Nutritional Behavior and Nutritional Status)
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22 pages, 1085 KiB  
Review
Multimodal Prehabilitation for Patients with Crohn’s Disease Scheduled for Major Surgery: A Narrative Review
by Camilla Fiorindi, Francesco Giudici, Giuseppe Dario Testa, Lorenzo Foti, Sara Romanazzo, Cristina Tognozzi, Giovanni Mansueto, Stefano Scaringi, Francesca Cuffaro, Anita Nannoni, Mattias Soop and Gabriele Baldini
Nutrients 2024, 16(11), 1783; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16111783 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 373
Abstract
Approximately 15–50% of patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) will require surgery within ten years following the diagnosis. The management of modifiable risk factors before surgery is essential to reduce postoperative complications and to promote a better postoperative recovery. Preoperative malnutrition reduced functional capacity, [...] Read more.
Approximately 15–50% of patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) will require surgery within ten years following the diagnosis. The management of modifiable risk factors before surgery is essential to reduce postoperative complications and to promote a better postoperative recovery. Preoperative malnutrition reduced functional capacity, sarcopenia, immunosuppressive medications, anemia, and psychological distress are frequently present in CD patients. Multimodal prehabilitation consists of nutritional, functional, medical, and psychological interventions implemented before surgery, aiming at optimizing preoperative status and improve postoperative recovery. Currently, studies evaluating the effect of multimodal prehabilitation on postoperative outcomes specifically in CD are lacking. Some studies have investigated the effect of a single prehabilitation intervention, of which nutritional optimization is the most investigated. The aim of this narrative review is to present the physiologic rationale supporting multimodal surgical prehabilitation in CD patients waiting for surgery, and to describe its main components to facilitate their adoption in the preoperative standard of care. Full article
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17 pages, 5254 KiB  
Article
Gynostemma pentaphyllum Extract Alleviates NASH in Mice: Exploration of Inflammation and Gut Microbiota
by Feng-Yan Jiang, Si-Ran Yue, Yi-Yun Tan, Nan Tang, Yue-Song Xu, Bao-Jun Zhang, Yue-Jian Mao, Zheng-Sheng Xue, Ai-Ping Lu, Bao-Cheng Liu and Rui-Rui Wang
Nutrients 2024, 16(11), 1782; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16111782 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 312
Abstract
NASH (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis) is a severe liver disease characterized by hepatic chronic inflammation that can be associated with the gut microbiota. In this study, we explored the therapeutic effect of Gynostemma pentaphyllum extract (GPE), a Chinese herbal extract, on methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) [...] Read more.
NASH (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis) is a severe liver disease characterized by hepatic chronic inflammation that can be associated with the gut microbiota. In this study, we explored the therapeutic effect of Gynostemma pentaphyllum extract (GPE), a Chinese herbal extract, on methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet-induced NASH mice. Based on the peak area, the top ten compounds in GPE were hydroxylinolenic acid, rutin, hydroxylinoleic acid, vanillic acid, methyl vanillate, quercetin, pheophorbide A, protocatechuic acid, aurantiamide acetate, and iso-rhamnetin. We found that four weeks of GPE treatment alleviated hepatic confluent zone inflammation, hepatocyte lipid accumulation, and lipid peroxidation in the mouse model. According to the 16S rRNA gene V3–V4 region sequencing of the colonic contents, the gut microbiota structure of the mice was significantly changed after GPE supplementation. Especially, GPE enriched the abundance of potentially beneficial bacteria such as Akkerrmansia and decreased the abundance of opportunistic pathogens such as Klebsiella. Moreover, RNA sequencing revealed that the GPE group showed an anti-inflammatory liver characterized by the repression of the NF-kappa B signaling pathway compared with the MCD group. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) also showed that GPE downregulated the pathogen-induced cytokine storm pathway, which was associated with inflammation. A high dose of GPE (HGPE) significantly downregulated the expression levels of the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (Myd88), cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14), and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) genes, as verified by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Our results suggested that the therapeutic potential of GPE for NASH mice may be related to improvements in the intestinal microenvironment and a reduction in liver inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics, Probiotics, and Gut Microbiota with Chronic Disease)
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15 pages, 2251 KiB  
Article
Effect of Postbiotics Derived from Lactobacillus rhamnosus PB01 (DSM 14870) on Sperm Quality: A Prospective In Vitro Study
by Sihan Liu, Hiva Alipour, Vladimir Zachar, Ulrik Schiøler Kesmodel and Fereshteh Dardmeh
Nutrients 2024, 16(11), 1781; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16111781 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 446
Abstract
Vaginally administered postbiotics derived from Lactobacillus were recently demonstrated to be effective in alleviating bacterial vaginosis and increasing pregnancy rates. However, their potential effect on sperm quality has not been well investigated. This controlled in vitro study aimed to assess the dose- and [...] Read more.
Vaginally administered postbiotics derived from Lactobacillus were recently demonstrated to be effective in alleviating bacterial vaginosis and increasing pregnancy rates. However, their potential effect on sperm quality has not been well investigated. This controlled in vitro study aimed to assess the dose- and time-dependent effects of postbiotics derived from Lactobacillus rhamnosus PB01 (DSM 14870) on sperm quality parameters. The experiment was conducted in vitro to eliminate potential confounding factors from the female reproductive tract and vaginal microbiota. Sperm samples from 18 healthy donors were subjected to analysis using Computer-Aided Sperm Analysis (CASA) in various concentrations of postbiotics and control mediums at baseline, 60 min, and 90 min of incubation. Results indicated that lower postbiotic concentration (PB5) did not adversely affect sperm motility, kinematic parameters, sperm DNA fragmentation, and normal morphology at any time. However, concentrations exceeding 15% demonstrated a reduction in progressively motile sperm and a negative correlation with non-progressively motile sperm at all time points. These findings underscore the importance of balancing postbiotic dosage to preserve sperm motility while realizing the postbiotics’ vaginal health benefits. Further research is warranted to understand the underlying mechanisms and refine practical applications in reproductive health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Prebiotics and Probiotics)
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17 pages, 1254 KiB  
Review
Carrageenan in the Diet: Friend or Foe for Inflammatory Bowel Disease?
by Nina Kimilu, Katarzyna Gładyś-Cieszyńska, Magdalena Pieszko, Dorota Mańkowska-Wierzbicka and Marcin Folwarski
Nutrients 2024, 16(11), 1780; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16111780 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 725
Abstract
While the exact pathogenesis of IBD remains unclear, genetic, environmental and nutritional factors as well as the composition of the gut microbiome play crucial roles. Food additives, which are increasingly consumed in the Western diet, are being investigated for their potential effects on [...] Read more.
While the exact pathogenesis of IBD remains unclear, genetic, environmental and nutritional factors as well as the composition of the gut microbiome play crucial roles. Food additives, which are increasingly consumed in the Western diet, are being investigated for their potential effects on IBD. These additives can affect gut health by altering the composition of the microbiota, immune responses, and intestinal permeability, contributing to autoimmune diseases and inflammation. Despite the growing number of studies on food additives and IBD, the specific effects of carrageenan have not yet been sufficiently researched. This review addresses this gap by critically analyzing recent studies on the effects of carrageenan on the gut microbiota, intestinal permeability, and inflammatory processes. We searched the MEDLINE and SCOPUS databases using the following terms: carrageenan, carrageenan and inflammatory bowel disease, carrageenan and cancer, food additives and microbiome, food additives and intestinal permeability, and food additives and autoimmune diseases. In animal studies, degraded carrageenan has been shown to trigger intestinal ulceration and inflammation, highlighting its potential risk for exacerbating IBD. It can affect the gut microbiota, reduce bacterial diversity, and increase intestinal permeability, contributing to “leaky gut” syndrome. Some studies suggest that carrageenan may inhibit the growth of cancer cells by influencing the progression of the cell cycle, but the anti-cancer effect is still unclear. Carrageenan may also increase glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Further research is needed to determine whether carrageenan should be excluded from the diet of individuals with IBD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Management for Crohn's Disease)
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13 pages, 489 KiB  
Article
Beef Consumption Is Associated with Higher Intakes and Adequacy of Key Nutrients in Older Adults Age 60+ Years: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011–2018 Analysis
by Sanjiv Agarwal and Victor L. Fulgoni III
Nutrients 2024, 16(11), 1779; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16111779 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 486
Abstract
Beef is an important source of high-quality protein and several micronutrients, including iron, zinc, and B vitamins. We determined beef intake and its relationship with intakes of nutrients and their adequacy using 24 h dietary recall data from 5868 older adults. Usual intakes [...] Read more.
Beef is an important source of high-quality protein and several micronutrients, including iron, zinc, and B vitamins. We determined beef intake and its relationship with intakes of nutrients and their adequacy using 24 h dietary recall data from 5868 older adults. Usual intakes from foods were determined using the National Cancer Institute method, and the percent of the population below the estimated average requirement or above adequate intake was estimated. A high percentage of older adults did not meet nutrient recommendations for vitamin D (96%), choline (96%), vitamin E (84%), potassium (70%), calcium (63%), magnesium (60%), vitamin C (46%), vitamin A (39%), zinc (21%), vitamin B6 (19%), and folate (15%). About 68% of older adults were beef consumers with a mean intake of 56 g/day. Beef consumers had higher (p < 0.05) intakes of energy, protein, calcium, iron, phosphorus, selenium, sodium, zinc, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B12, and choline, and a higher (p < 0.05) proportion met nutrient recommendations for protein, calcium, copper, zinc, thiamin, folate, and vitamin B12 than non-consumers. Consumers of fresh, ground, and processed beef also had generally higher intakes and lower inadequacies of many nutrients depending on the beef type. In conclusion, older adults generally had poor nutrient adequacy from their diets, while beef consumers had higher nutrient intakes and adequacy for certain key nutrients, which are inherently generally available from beef or from foods consumed with beef. Full article
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1 pages, 148 KiB  
Retraction
RETRACTED: Saadh et al. A Mendelian Randomization Analysis Investigates Causal Associations between Inflammatory Bowel Diseases and Variable Risk Factors. Nutrients 2023, 15, 1202
by Nutrients Editorial Office
Nutrients 2024, 16(11), 1778; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16111778 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 277
Abstract
The Nutrients Editorial Office retracts the article, “A Mendelian Randomization Analysis Investigates Causal Associations between Inflammatory Bowel Diseases and Variable Risk Factors” [...] Full article
15 pages, 1964 KiB  
Article
Reciprocal and Differential Influences of Mediterranean Diet and Physical Activity on Adiposity in a Cohort of Young and Older than 40 Years Adults
by Andrea Higuera-Gómez, Begoña de Cuevillas, Rosa Ribot-Rodríguez, Rodrigo San-Cristobal, Víctor de la O, Karina Dos Santos, Amanda Cuevas-Sierra and J. Alfredo Martínez
Nutrients 2024, 16(11), 1777; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16111777 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 524
Abstract
Translational research has documented the conjoint beneficial relationships between dietary and physical activity habits concerning weight maintenance. However, the precise interplay between diet and exercise impacting body composition remains unclear, challenging personalized interventions. This study aimed to explore potential interactions and effect modifications [...] Read more.
Translational research has documented the conjoint beneficial relationships between dietary and physical activity habits concerning weight maintenance. However, the precise interplay between diet and exercise impacting body composition remains unclear, challenging personalized interventions. This study aimed to explore potential interactions and effect modifications of these factors affecting the body mass index (BMI) within an online adult cohort. Data from 11,883 NUTRiMDEA cohort participants were analyzed in this cross-sectional study, categorizing individuals by age, sex, and BMI using linear regression models to assess the interactions between lifestyle factors and adiposity. Significant differences emerged in anthropometry, lifestyle, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) across categories. The combined effect of diet and physical activity had a greater impact on BMI than physical activity or Mediterranean diet adherence alone, with lower BMI as physical activity levels increased (β: −0.5) and adherence to the Mediterranean diet decreased, where a modification effect between them was identified (β: −0.28). Participants with lower Mediterranean diet adherence displayed superior BMI when physical activity was low, but when activity levels were higher, their BMI aligned with those with healthier dietary habits. An interaction link between lifestyle factors and BMI was found, showing the differential effects of the Mediterranean diet and physical activity combination concerning adiposity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthy Aging through Nutrition and Exercise)
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13 pages, 1281 KiB  
Article
Insights into Gut Microbiome Composition in Hidradenitis Suppurativa: A Comprehensive Examination of Dietary Habits and Environmental Influences
by Edyta Lelonek and Jacek C. Szepietowski
Nutrients 2024, 16(11), 1776; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16111776 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 258
Abstract
This study explores the relationship between dietary habits, environmental influences, and gut microbiome composition in individuals with hidradenitis suppurativa (HS), a chronic inflammatory skin condition. A cohort of 80 participants, equally divided into HS patients and healthy controls, was assessed through comprehensive questionnaires [...] Read more.
This study explores the relationship between dietary habits, environmental influences, and gut microbiome composition in individuals with hidradenitis suppurativa (HS), a chronic inflammatory skin condition. A cohort of 80 participants, equally divided into HS patients and healthy controls, was assessed through comprehensive questionnaires capturing demographics, dietary habits, and other health-related information. Fecal samples were collected and analyzed using next-generation sequencing to examine microbiome composition. Despite previous studies suggesting gut dysbiosis in HS, this research found no significant differences in alpha-diversity and Shannon diversity index between the groups. However, significant disparities in dietary habits were observed, with HS patients showing higher sugar and milk consumption. The study also identified a significant correlation between coffee consumption and the presence of certain bacterial genera. While the study did not reveal major differences in microbiome diversity, the findings on dietary habits and specific microbiome components suggest potential targets for therapeutic intervention. These results underscore the importance of further research into the gut–skin axis and its role in HS, aiming to enhance management strategies through dietary modifications and lifestyle interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Relationships between Dietary Factors and Inflammatory Skin Diseases)
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12 pages, 1551 KiB  
Article
Hypogammaglobulinemia Class G Is Present in Compensated and Decompensated Patients with Propionate Defects, Independent of Their Nutritional Status
by Lizbeth Alejandra López-Mejía, Marcela Vela-Amieva, Sara Guillén-López, Daniela Mancera-Hernández, Isabel Ibarra-González, Edgar Alejandro Medina-Torres, Sara Elva Espinosa-Padilla and Cynthia Fernández-Lainez
Nutrients 2024, 16(11), 1775; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16111775 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 294
Abstract
Propionate defects (PDs) mainly include methylmalonic (MMA) and propionic acidemia (PA) defects. Lifelong PD patients progress from the compensated to the decompensated stages, the latter of which are characterized by life-threatening acidemia and hyperammonemia crises. PD patients can suffer immunocompromise, especially during the [...] Read more.
Propionate defects (PDs) mainly include methylmalonic (MMA) and propionic acidemia (PA) defects. Lifelong PD patients progress from the compensated to the decompensated stages, the latter of which are characterized by life-threatening acidemia and hyperammonemia crises. PD patients can suffer immunocompromise, especially during the decompensation stage. There is a significant gap in the research regarding the humoral immune response in PD patients. Here, we analyzed serum immunoglobulin concentrations and hemograms across compensated and decompensated stages in PD patients. Nutritional status and crisis triggers of decompensation were also explored. Twenty patients were studied, and 25 decompensation events (DE) and 8 compensation events (CE) were recorded. Compared with those in the CE group, the IgG levels in the DE group (513.4 ± 244.5 mg/dL) were significantly lower than those in the CE group (860.8 ± 456.5 mg/dL) (p < 0.0087). The mean hemoglobin concentration was significantly lower in the DE group (11.8 g/dL) than in the CE group (13.4 g/dL) (p < 0.05). The most frequent (48%) possible decompensation trigger factor was infection. Most of the events were registered in eutrophic patients (87.9%), despite which 65.2% and 50% of patients who experienced decompensated and compensated events, respectively, presented with hypogammaglobulinemia G. These findings provide evidence of the immunodeficiency of PD patients, independent of their nutritional status. We suggest that PD patients be managed as immunocompromised independently of their nutritional status or metabolic state (compensated or decompensated). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Management of Patients with Inborn Errors of Metabolism)
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9 pages, 580 KiB  
Reply
Reply to Benedik et al. Comment on “Jakše et al. Vegan Diets for Children: A Narrative Review of Position Papers Published by Relevant Associations. Nutrients 2023, 15, 4715”
by Boštjan Jakše, Zlatko Fras and Nataša Fidler Mis
Nutrients 2024, 16(11), 1774; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16111774 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 315
Abstract
Benedik et al [...] Full article
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18 pages, 659 KiB  
Review
Nutrition, Vitamin D, and Calcium in Elderly Patients before and after a Hip Fracture and Their Impact on the Musculoskeletal System: A Narrative Review
by Luisella Cianferotti, Giuseppe Bifolco, Carla Caffarelli, Gherardo Mazziotti, Silvia Migliaccio, Nicola Napoli, Carmelinda Ruggiero and Cristiana Cipriani
Nutrients 2024, 16(11), 1773; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16111773 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 409
Abstract
Hip fractures are a major health issue considerably impacting patients’ quality of life and well-being. This is particularly evident in elderly subjects, in which the decline in bone and muscle mass coexists and predisposes individuals to fall and fracture. Among interventions to be [...] Read more.
Hip fractures are a major health issue considerably impacting patients’ quality of life and well-being. This is particularly evident in elderly subjects, in which the decline in bone and muscle mass coexists and predisposes individuals to fall and fracture. Among interventions to be implemented in hip fractured patients, the assessment and management of nutritional status is pivotal, particularly in subjects older than 65. Nutrition plays a central role in both primary and secondary preventions of fracture. An adequate protein intake improves muscle mass and strength and the intestinal absorption of calcium. Other nutrients with recognized beneficial effects on bone health are calcium, vitamins D, K, and C, potassium, magnesium, folate, and carotenoids. With reference to calcium, results from longitudinal studies showed that the consumption of dairy foods has a protective role against fractures. Moreover, the most recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses and one umbrella review demonstrated that the combination of calcium and vitamin D supplementation significantly reduces hip fracture risk, with presumed higher efficacy in older and institutionalized subjects. Owing to these reasons, the adequate intake of calcium, vitamin D, protein, and other macro and micronutrients has been successfully implemented in the Fracture Liaison Services (FLSs) that represent the most reliable model of management for hip fracture patients. In this narrative review, papers (randomized controlled trials, prospective and intervention studies, and systematic reviews) retrieved by records from three different databases (PubMed, Embase, and Medline) have been analyzed, and the available information on the screening, assessment, and management of nutritional and vitamin D status and calcium intake in patients with hip fractures is presented along with specific prevention and treatment measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium, Vitamin D and Aging in Humans)
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3 pages, 173 KiB  
Comment
Comment on Jakše et al. Vegan Diets for Children: A Narrative Review of Position Papers Published by Relevant Associations. Nutrients 2023, 15, 4715
by Evgen Benedik, Matjaž Homan, Marko Pokorn, Nada Rotovnik Kozjek, Bernarda Vogrin, Jernej Dolinšek, Matjaž Homšak, Mojca Juričič, Peter Najdenov, Denis Baš, Andreja Širca Čampa, Nataša Bratina and Tadej Battelino
Nutrients 2024, 16(11), 1772; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16111772 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 325
Abstract
We have read the recent narrative review article by Jakše et al [...] Full article
14 pages, 473 KiB  
Article
Prenatal Iodine Intake and Maternal Pregnancy and Postpartum Depressive and Anhedonia Symptoms: Findings from a Multiethnic US Cohort
by Aderonke A. Akinkugbe, Yueh-Hsiu Mathilda Chiu, Srimathi Kannan, Veerle Bergink and Rosalind J. Wright
Nutrients 2024, 16(11), 1771; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16111771 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 316
Abstract
Objective: Emerging evidence suggests that essential trace elements, including iodine, play a vital role in depressive disorders. This study investigated whether prenatal dietary iodine intake alone and in combination with supplemental iodine intake during pregnancy were associated with antepartum and postpartum depressive [...] Read more.
Objective: Emerging evidence suggests that essential trace elements, including iodine, play a vital role in depressive disorders. This study investigated whether prenatal dietary iodine intake alone and in combination with supplemental iodine intake during pregnancy were associated with antepartum and postpartum depressive and anhedonia symptoms. Methods: The study population included 837 mothers in the PRogramming of Intergenerational Stress Mechanisms (PRISM) study. The modified BLOCK food frequency questionnaire was used to estimate prenatal dietary and supplemental iodine intake, while the 10-item Edinburg Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) ascertained depressive symptoms. Analyses considered the global EPDS score and the anhedonia and depressive symptom subscale scores using dichotomized cutoffs. Logistic regression estimating odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) assessed associations of iodine intake in the second trimester of pregnancy and 6-month postpartum depressive and anhedonia symptoms considering dietary intake alone and combined dietary and supplementary intake in separate models. Results: Most women were Black/Hispanic Black (43%) and non-Black Hispanics (35%), with 39% reporting a high school education or less. The median (interquartile range, IQR) dietary and supplemental iodine intake among Black/Hispanic Black (198 (115, 337) µg/day) and non-Black Hispanic women (195 (126, 323) µg/day) was higher than the overall median intake level of 187 (116, 315) µg/day. Relative to the Institute of Medicine recommended iodine intake level of 160–220 µg/day, women with intake levels < 100 µg/day, 100–<160 µg/day, >220–<400 µg/day and ≥400 µg/day had increased adjusted odds of 6-month postpartum anhedonia symptoms (aOR = 1.74 (95% CI: 1.08, 2.79), 1.25 (95% CI: 0.80, 1.99), 1.31 (95% CI: 0.82, 2.10), and 1.47 (95% CI: 0.86, 2.51), respectively). The corresponding estimates for postpartum global depressive symptoms were similar but of smaller magnitude. Conclusions: Prenatal iodine intake, whether below or above the recommended levels for pregnant women, was most strongly associated with greater anhedonia symptoms, particularly in the 6-month postpartum period. Further studies are warranted to corroborate these findings, as dietary and supplemental iodine intake are amenable to intervention. Full article
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17 pages, 1004 KiB  
Article
An Examination into the Effects of a Nutraceutical Supplement on Cognition, Stress, Eye Health, and Skin Satisfaction in Adults with Self-Reported Cognitive Complaints: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial
by Adrian L. Lopresti, Stephen J. Smith, Melanie L. Riggs, Rebecca A. Major, Tanner G. Gibb, Steven M. Wood, Shelly N. Hester and Helen E. Knaggs
Nutrients 2024, 16(11), 1770; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16111770 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 543
Abstract
Background: Dietary quality and the consumption of antioxidant-rich foods have been shown to protect against memory decline. Therefore, this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study aimed to investigate the effects of a nutritional supplement on changes in cognitive performance. Methods: In adults aged [...] Read more.
Background: Dietary quality and the consumption of antioxidant-rich foods have been shown to protect against memory decline. Therefore, this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study aimed to investigate the effects of a nutritional supplement on changes in cognitive performance. Methods: In adults aged 40 to 70 years with subjective memory complaints, participants were randomly allocated to take a supplement containing vitamin E, astaxanthin, and grape juice extract daily for 12 weeks or a matching placebo. The primary outcomes comprised changes in cognitive tasks assessing episodic memory, working memory, and verbal memory. Secondary and exploratory measures included changes in the speed of information processing, attention, and self-report measures of memory, stress, and eye and skin health. Moreover, changes in plasma concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, malondialdehyde, tumor-necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6 were measured, along with changes in skin carotenoid concentrations. Results: Compared to the placebo, nutritional supplementation was associated with larger improvements in one primary outcome measure comprising episodic memory (p = 0.037), but not for working memory (p = 0.418) or verbal learning (p = 0.841). Findings from secondary and exploratory outcomes demonstrated that the nutraceutical intake was associated with larger improvements in the Everyday Memory Questionnaire (p = 0.022), increased plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (p = 0.030), decreased plasma malondialdehyde (p = 0.040), and increased skin carotenoid concentrations (p = 0.006). However, there were no group differences in changes in the remaining outcome measures. Conclusions: Twelve weeks of supplementation with a nutritional supplement was associated with improvements in episodic memory and several biological markers associated with cognitive health. Future research will be essential to extend and validate the current findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geriatric Nutrition)
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17 pages, 5775 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Consumption of Junk Food Products and Lifestyle among Teenagers and Young Population from Romania
by Magdalena Mititelu, Gabriela Stanciu, Monica Licu, Sorinel Marius Neacșu, Mariana Floricica Călin, Adrian Cosmin Roșca, Tiberius Iustinian Stanciu, Ștefan Sebastian Busnatu, Gabriel Olteanu, Steluța Constanța Boroghină, Teodor Octavian Nicolescu, Felicia Suciu and Carmen Elena Lupu
Nutrients 2024, 16(11), 1769; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16111769 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 566
Abstract
Background: The long-term consumption of junk food products can lead to nutritional and metabolic imbalances, especially when it is associated with a lack of physical activity and the consumption of alcohol or other high-calorie products. Methods: The evaluation of junk food consumption among [...] Read more.
Background: The long-term consumption of junk food products can lead to nutritional and metabolic imbalances, especially when it is associated with a lack of physical activity and the consumption of alcohol or other high-calorie products. Methods: The evaluation of junk food consumption among teenagers and young people in Romania was carried out with the help of a cross-sectional study based on a questionnaire. Results: A total number of 1017 respondents participated in this study, comprising 470 males and 547 females aged between 16 and 25 years. Although the majority of young people fell into the normal-weight category (607 of them, p < 0.0001), some aspects can be noted that in the long term can produce a series of nutritional imbalances: an increased tendency toward sedentarism, with 553 (p = 0.613) of the respondents declaring that they performed sports rarely or not at all, and a tendency toward relatively high consumption of foods high in calories (fast food products and especially fried potatoes, hamburgers, shawarma, pastries, and snacks, along with sweetened drinks and even alcoholic beverages). The respondents participating in this study even indicated a perceived addiction to the consumption of certain products: coffee (50.48%), fried potatoes (38.9%), hamburgers (37.05%), shawarma (31.65%), and snacks (30.08%). Many of these products are rich in calories, saturated fat, and even trans fat. Conclusions: This study highlights a series of aspects that can have long-term negative effects related to the excess weight associated with other imbalances: consumption preferences among young people for hypercaloric fast food products, sweetened drinks associated with reduced physical activity, and even the development of some forms of food addictions for a series of hypercaloric foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Policies and Education for Health Promotion)
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18 pages, 778 KiB  
Systematic Review
Nutritional Ergogenic Aids in Cycling: A Systematic Review
by Alberto Valiño-Marques, Alexandre Lamas, José M. Miranda, Alberto Cepeda and Patricia Regal
Nutrients 2024, 16(11), 1768; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16111768 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 776
Abstract
This systematic review aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the independent or combined use of nutritional ergogenic aids belonging to Group A of the ABCD classification by the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS) in the context of cycling (caffeine, creatine, sodium bicarbonate, beta-alanine, [...] Read more.
This systematic review aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the independent or combined use of nutritional ergogenic aids belonging to Group A of the ABCD classification by the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS) in the context of cycling (caffeine, creatine, sodium bicarbonate, beta-alanine, nitrates, and glycerol). A comprehensive search was carried out using three databases: PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. All the databases were searched for Randomized Controlled Trials or crossover design studies assessing the effects of supplementation on cycling performance in comparison with placebos in healthy adults. The methodological quality of each study was evaluated using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale. Thirty-six articles involving 701 participants were included in this review, examining supplementation with caffeine (n = 5), creatine (n = 2), sodium bicarbonate (n = 6), beta-alanine (n = 3), and nitrates (n = 8). Additionally, supplemental combinations of caffeine and creatine (n = 3), caffeine and sodium bicarbonate (n = 3), caffeine and nitrates (n = 1), creatine and sodium bicarbonate (n = 1), and sodium bicarbonate and beta-alanine (n = 4) were analyzed. A benefit for cyclists’ athletic performnce was found when consuming a caffeine supplement, and a potential positive effect was noted after the consumption of sodium bicarbonate, as well as after the combination of caffeine and creatine. However, no statistically significant effects were identified for the remaining supplements, whether administered individually or in combination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Supplements in Sport, Exercise and Health)
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15 pages, 1665 KiB  
Review
Choline—An Underappreciated Component of a Mother-to-Be’s Diet
by Agnieszka Dymek, Łukasz Oleksy, Artur Stolarczyk and Anna Bartosiewicz
Nutrients 2024, 16(11), 1767; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16111767 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 350
Abstract
The nutritional status of the mother-to-be has a key impact on the proper development of the fetus. Although all nutrients are important for the developing baby, recent research indicates the importance of adequate choline intake during the periconceptional period, pregnancy, and lactation. Choline [...] Read more.
The nutritional status of the mother-to-be has a key impact on the proper development of the fetus. Although all nutrients are important for the developing baby, recent research indicates the importance of adequate choline intake during the periconceptional period, pregnancy, and lactation. Choline plays a key role in the biosynthesis of cell membranes, supporting liver function, neurotransmission, brain development, and DNA and histone methylation. Choline participates in the formation of a child’s nervous system, supports its cognitive development, and reduces the risk of neural tube defects. The human body is incapable of producing sufficient choline to meet its needs; therefore, it must be obtained from the diet. Current data indicate that most women in their reproductive years do not achieve the recommended daily intake of choline. The presented narrative review indicates the importance of educating mothers-to-be and thereby increasing their awareness of the effects of choline on maternal and child health, which can lead to a more aware and healthy pregnancy and proper child development. Full article
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17 pages, 552 KiB  
Article
Randomized Trial to Assess the Safety and Tolerability of Daily Intake of an Allulose Amino Acid-Based Hydration Beverage in Men and Women
by Richard J. Bloomer, Jacquelyn Pence, Janine Hellenbrand, Allyson Davis, Samantha Davis, Michelle Stockton and Keith R. Martin
Nutrients 2024, 16(11), 1766; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16111766 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 348
Abstract
Background: Maintaining adequate hydration is critical to optimal health, well-being, and performance. Those who are physically active in stressful environments, such as warm and/or humid scenarios, may be at particular risk for dehydration with ensuing loss of electrolytes, leading to sluggishness and impaired [...] Read more.
Background: Maintaining adequate hydration is critical to optimal health, well-being, and performance. Those who are physically active in stressful environments, such as warm and/or humid scenarios, may be at particular risk for dehydration with ensuing loss of electrolytes, leading to sluggishness and impaired physical performance. Methods: We evaluated an electrolyte and amino acid product containing L-alanine and L-glutamine, as well as select vitamins [B3 (niacin), B5 (pantothenic acid), B6 (pyridoxine), B12 (cobalamin), and vitamin C (ascorbic acid)]. Subjects (n = 40; four groups, n = 10) were randomized to consume either a placebo packet or one, two, or three packets daily of the test product for 4 weeks with site visits at 0, 2, and 4 weeks. We tested safety and tolerability by analyzing hematological parameters (complete blood counts), metabolic parameters (hepatic, renal, acid–base balance), urinalysis end products, thyroid status [T3 (triiodothyronine), T4 (thyroxine), TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone)], tolerability (via questionnaire), vital signs, and dietary intake. Results: Statistical analyses displayed ten significant main effects (p < 0.05) with white blood cells, lymphocytes, neutrophils, urinary pH, thyroxine, urination frequency, calcium, calories, fat, and cholesterol. Interactions for time and group (p < 0.05) were observed for MCV, eGFR, potassium, overall tolerability, bloating, and cramping—demonstrating mild GA disturbances. Little to no change of physiological relevance was noted for any outcome variable, regardless of dosing level. Conclusions: Our results indicate the product was well-tolerated at all dosing levels and no significant adverse changes occurred in any of the test parameters compared to the placebo group, indicating relative safety of ingestion over a 4-week treatment period, at the volumes used, and outside the context of physical stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Proteins and Amino Acids)
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16 pages, 939 KiB  
Article
Longitudinal Analysis of One-Carbon Metabolism-Related Metabolites in Maternal and Cord Blood of Japanese Pregnant Women
by Yoshinori Kubo, Hideoki Fukuoka, Kumiko Shoji, Chisato Mori, Kenichi Sakurai, Masazumi Nishikawa, Kyoichi Oshida, Yuichiro Yamashiro and Terue Kawabata
Nutrients 2024, 16(11), 1765; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16111765 - 4 Jun 2024
Viewed by 425
Abstract
One-carbon metabolism (OCM) is a complex and interconnected network that undergoes drastic changes during pregnancy. In this study, we investigated the longitudinal distribution of OCM-related metabolites in maternal and cord blood and explored their relationships. Additionally, we conducted cross-sectional analyses to examine the [...] Read more.
One-carbon metabolism (OCM) is a complex and interconnected network that undergoes drastic changes during pregnancy. In this study, we investigated the longitudinal distribution of OCM-related metabolites in maternal and cord blood and explored their relationships. Additionally, we conducted cross-sectional analyses to examine the interrelationships among these metabolites. This study included 146 healthy pregnant women who participated in the Chiba Study of Mother and Child Health. Maternal blood samples were collected during early pregnancy, late pregnancy, and delivery, along with cord blood samples. We analyzed 18 OCM-related metabolites in serum using stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. We found that serum S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) concentrations in maternal blood remained stable throughout pregnancy. Conversely, S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) concentrations increased, and the total homocysteine/total cysteine ratio significantly increased with advancing gestational age. The betaine/dimethylglycine ratio was negatively correlated with total homocysteine in maternal blood for all sampling periods, and this correlation strengthened with advances in gestational age. Most OCM-related metabolites measured in this study showed significant positive correlations between maternal blood at delivery and cord blood. These findings suggest that maternal OCM status may impact fetal development and indicate the need for comprehensive and longitudinal evaluations of OCM during pregnancy. Full article
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