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Nutrients, Volume 16, Issue 10 (May-2 2024) – 141 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Diet is increasingly understood to influence behavior, and possibly brain function, in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Of these, the most promising is the ketogenic diet (KD). KD induces an increase in gut-derived butyrate capacity and production, triggering a cascade of events including increased gut microbial diversity, a healthier Firmicutes/Bacteroides ratio, reduced plasma concentrations of inflammatory cytokines, decreased protein levels of circulating Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), and changes in peripheral BDNF-associated microRNA (miRNA) expression. The combination of these effects can affect brain activity, suggesting a new underlying mechanism involving the gut–brain axis for previously observed improvements in sociability among ASD children on a KD. View this paper 
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22 pages, 1218 KiB  
Article
Healthcare Service Providers’ Perspectives on Sociocultural Aspects Affecting Weight Management Activities Amongst People with Obesity in Taiwan—A Qualitative Study
by Jodie Leu, Kuo-Chin Huang, Pey-Rong Chen and Wen-Harn Pan
Nutrients 2024, 16(10), 1540; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16101540 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 595
Abstract
The prevalence of obesity and morbid obesity in Taiwan has risen sharply in recent decades, as in other parts of the world, necessitating urgent action to prevent and curb its detrimental effects. Asian populations are susceptible to the repercussions of obesity at a [...] Read more.
The prevalence of obesity and morbid obesity in Taiwan has risen sharply in recent decades, as in other parts of the world, necessitating urgent action to prevent and curb its detrimental effects. Asian populations are susceptible to the repercussions of obesity at a lower body weight. A higher BMI is associated with more frequent outpatient visits, in-hospital admissions, higher medical costs, and a lower quality of life. However, effective weight management approaches are unlikely to be maintained in the long term without assimilation into daily lifestyle practices. This qualitative study, based on semi-structured interviews with 14 doctors, dieticians, and nurses who work to control the weight of people with obesity, explored and identified multilevel barriers in the context of daily life to improve the efficacy and execution of weight management strategies. They considered diets, physical activity, and sleep as key weight management activities. The cultural and psychosocial aspects of daily life were observed to have an impact upon weight management, particularly family conflicts due to cultural dynamics and socially and culturally reinforced food practices. To improve population weight, less-recognised aspects need to be addressed alongside the inclusion of mental health specialists in weight management protocols and policy interventions to minimise obesogenic practices and create environments conducive to weight management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Nutrition Approaches in Obesity Treatment)
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15 pages, 1765 KiB  
Article
Bioelectrical Impedance Vector Analysis, Nutritional Ultrasound®, and Handgrip Strength as Innovative Methods for Monitoring Critical Anorexia Nervosa Physical Recovery: A Pilot Study
by Jose M. Romero-Márquez, María Novo-Rodríguez, Cristina Novo-Rodríguez, Víctor Siles-Guerrero, Isabel Herrera-Montes, Francisco Garzón Navarro-Pelayo, Martín López-de-la-Torre-Casares and Araceli Muñoz-Garach
Nutrients 2024, 16(10), 1539; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16101539 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 732
Abstract
Eating disorders (EDs) manifest as persistent disruptions in eating habits or related behaviors, significantly impacting physical health and psychosocial well-being. Nutritional assessment in ED patients is crucial for monitoring treatment efficacy. While dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) remains standard, interest in alternative methods such [...] Read more.
Eating disorders (EDs) manifest as persistent disruptions in eating habits or related behaviors, significantly impacting physical health and psychosocial well-being. Nutritional assessment in ED patients is crucial for monitoring treatment efficacy. While dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) remains standard, interest in alternative methods such as bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) and Nutritional Ultrasound® (NU) has risen due to their affordability and portability. Additionally, hand dynamometry offers a user-friendly approach to assessing grip strength (HGS), indicative of nutritional status. A prospective study was carried out to evaluate the utility of BIVA, NU®, and HGS in 43 female AN patients. Measurements were taken at baseline and hospital discharge. A total of 41 patients completed the study. After the intervention, numerous BIVA-related parameters such as fat (3.5 ± 2 kg vs. 5.3 ± 2.7 kg, p < 0.001) and free fat mass (33.9 ± 3.8 kg vs. 37.5 ± 4.1 kg, p < 0.001) were partially restored. Similarly, Nutritional Ultrasound® showed promising results in assessing body composition changes such as total abdominal fat tissue (0.5 ± 0.3 cm vs. 0.9 ± 0.3 cm, p < 0.05). In the same way, rectus femoris cross-sectional area values correlated with clinical outcomes such as free fat mass (0.883, p < 0.05) and appendicular muscle mass (0.965, p < 0.001). HGS reached the normality percentile after the intervention (21.6 ± 9.1 kg vs. 25.9 ± 12.3 kg, p < 0.05), demonstrating a significant association between grip strength and body composition parameters such as free fat mass (0.658, p < 0.001) and appendicular muscle mass (0.482, p < 0.001). Incorporating BIVA-, NU®-, and HGS-enhanced nutritional assessment into the treatment of AN patients offers cost-effective, portable, and non-invasive alternatives to DEXA. These techniques offer valuable insights into changes in body composition and nutritional status, which, in turn, facilitate treatment monitoring and contribute to improved patient outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Morphofunctional Nutritional Assessment in Clinical Practice)
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16 pages, 309 KiB  
Article
Functional Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Children with Autism and ADHD: Profiles of Hair and Salivary Cortisol, Serum Leptin Concentrations and Externalizing/Internalizing Problems
by Andreas Petropoulos, Sophia Anesiadou, Maria Michou, Aikaterini Lymperatou, Eleftheria Roma, George Chrousos and Panagiota Pervanidou
Nutrients 2024, 16(10), 1538; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16101538 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 775
Abstract
Background: Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders (FGIDs) present a higher prevalence in individuals with Neurodevelopmental Disorders (NDDs). The Stress System and the Gut–Brain axis (GBA) may mediate these relations. We aimed to assess the prevalence and profile of FGIDs in a clinical sample of children [...] Read more.
Background: Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders (FGIDs) present a higher prevalence in individuals with Neurodevelopmental Disorders (NDDs). The Stress System and the Gut–Brain axis (GBA) may mediate these relations. We aimed to assess the prevalence and profile of FGIDs in a clinical sample of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) compared to typically developing children (TD) as well as to investigate possible relations between stress-related biomarkers and internalizing/externalizing problems in children with NDDS. Methods: In total, 120 children, aged between 4 and 12 years old, formed three groups (N = 40, each): ADHD, ASD and TD. Salivary cortisol, hair cortisol and serum leptin were measured. Results: The ASD group had more FGID problems than the TD group (p = 0.001). The ADHD and ASD groups had higher total internalizing/externalizing problems than the TD group (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, p = 0.005, respectively). Children with FGIDs showed more total, internalizing and externalizing problems compared to children without FGIDs (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, p = 0.041, respectively). The ADHD group showed lower AUCg values (p < 0.0001), while the hair cortisol was higher for the TD group (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: In conclusion, children with NDDs had more FGID symptoms and present higher internalizing and externalizing problems. Children with ADHD and FGIDs had more internalizing problems compared to those without FGIDs. No differences in stress-related biomarkers were shown to differentiate children with NDDs with and without FGIDs. Future prospective studies including a greater number of children may elucidate the biological pathways linking these comorbidities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Fat Diet, Obesity, and Behavioral Health)
14 pages, 1279 KiB  
Article
Pilot-Study to Explore Metabolic Signature of Type 2 Diabetes: A Pipeline of Tree-Based Machine Learning and Bioinformatics Techniques for Biomarkers Discovery
by Fatma Hilal Yagin, Fahaid Al-Hashem, Irshad Ahmad, Fuzail Ahmad and Abedalrhman Alkhateeb
Nutrients 2024, 16(10), 1537; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16101537 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 565
Abstract
Background: This study aims to identify unique metabolomics biomarkers associated with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) and develop an accurate diagnostics model using tree-based machine learning (ML) algorithms integrated with bioinformatics techniques. Methods: Univariate and multivariate analyses such as fold change, a receiver operating [...] Read more.
Background: This study aims to identify unique metabolomics biomarkers associated with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) and develop an accurate diagnostics model using tree-based machine learning (ML) algorithms integrated with bioinformatics techniques. Methods: Univariate and multivariate analyses such as fold change, a receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC), and Partial Least-Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) were used to identify biomarker metabolites that showed significant concentration in T2D patients. Three tree-based algorithms [eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost), Light Gradient Boosting Machine (LightGBM), and Adaptive Boosting (AdaBoost)] that demonstrated robustness in high-dimensional data analysis were used to create a diagnostic model for T2D. Results: As a result of the biomarker discovery process validated with three different approaches, Pyruvate, D-Rhamnose, AMP, pipecolate, Tetradecenoic acid, Tetradecanoic acid, Dodecanediothioic acid, Prostaglandin E3/D3 (isobars), ADP and Hexadecenoic acid were determined as potential biomarkers for T2D. Our results showed that the XGBoost model [accuracy = 0.831, F1-score = 0.845, sensitivity = 0.882, specificity = 0.774, positive predictive value (PPV) = 0.811, negative-PV (NPV) = 0.857 and Area under the ROC curve (AUC) = 0.887] had the slight highest performance measures. Conclusions: ML integrated with bioinformatics techniques offers accurate and positive T2D candidate biomarker discovery. The XGBoost model can successfully distinguish T2D based on metabolites. Full article
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14 pages, 1572 KiB  
Article
The Accumulative Effect of Multiple Postnatal Risk Factors with the Risk of Being Overweight/Obese in Late Childhood
by Ting Wu, Zijun Liao, Jing Wang and Mengjiao Liu
Nutrients 2024, 16(10), 1536; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16101536 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 661
Abstract
Most past studies focused on the associations of prenatal risk factors with the risks of childhood overweight/obesity. Instead, more postnatal risk factors are modifiable, with less knowledge of their cumulative effects on childhood obesity. We analyzed data of 1869 children in an Australian [...] Read more.
Most past studies focused on the associations of prenatal risk factors with the risks of childhood overweight/obesity. Instead, more postnatal risk factors are modifiable, with less knowledge of their cumulative effects on childhood obesity. We analyzed data of 1869 children in an Australian birth cohort. Key postnatal risk factors included: maternal and paternal overweight/obesity during the child’s infancy, tobacco exposure, low family socioeconomic score, breastfeeding duration < 6 months, early introduction of solid foods, and rapid weight gain during infancy. The risk score was the sum of the number of risk factors. The primary outcome is overweight/obesity in late childhood (11–12 years); secondary outcomes are high-fat mass index (FMI), body fat percentage (BF%), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). Poisson regression models were used in the analyses. Children with higher risk scores had higher risks of overweight/obesity (p-for-trends < 0.001). After adjusting covariates, compared with those with 0–1 risk factors, children with 4–6 risk factors had 4.30 (95% confidence interval: 2.98, 6.21) times higher risk of being overweight/obesity; the relative risks for high FMI, BF%, and WHtR were 7.31 (3.97, 13.45), 4.41 (3.00, 6.50), and 6.52 (3.33, 12.74), respectively. Our findings highlighted that multiple postnatal risk factors were associated with increased risks of being overweight/obesity in late childhood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Early Life and Its Impact through the Life Course)
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18 pages, 1872 KiB  
Article
Differences in the Evaluation of Malnutrition and Body Composition Using Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis, Nutritional Ultrasound, and Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry in Patients with Heart Failure
by Ana Benitez-Velasco, Carlos Alzas-Teomiro, Carmen Zurera Gómez, Concepción Muñoz Jiménez, José López Aguilera, Manuel Crespin, Juan Antonio Vallejo-Casas, María Ángeles Gálvez-Moreno, María José Molina Puerta and Aura D. Herrera-Martínez
Nutrients 2024, 16(10), 1535; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16101535 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 557
Abstract
Background: Although malnutrition is frequently observed in patients with heart failure (HF), this diagnosis should be performed carefully since HF itself is associated with increased inflammatory activity, which affects body weight, functionality, and some nutritional parameters; thus, its isolated interpretation can erroneously identify [...] Read more.
Background: Although malnutrition is frequently observed in patients with heart failure (HF), this diagnosis should be performed carefully since HF itself is associated with increased inflammatory activity, which affects body weight, functionality, and some nutritional parameters; thus, its isolated interpretation can erroneously identify surrogate markers of severity as markers of malnutrition. In this context, we aimed to evaluate the prevalence of malnutrition using different classification systems and perform a comprehensive nutritional evaluation to determine the reliability of different diagnostic techniques. Patients and methods: Eighty-three patients with a recent hospital admission due to HF were evaluated. GLIM diagnosis criteria and subjective global assessment (SGA) were performed; a comprehensive anthropometric, functional, and biochemical nutritional evaluation was performed, in which bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), nutritional ultrasound, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were performed. Additionally, mortality and additional admissions due to HF were determined after a mean follow up of 18 months. Results: Malnutrition according to the GLIM criteria (54%) accurately distinguished patients with impaired functionality, lower lean mass, skeletal mass index, and appendicular muscle mass (BIA), as well as lower trunk fat mass, trunk lean mass, fat-free mass (DXA), and decreased albumin and increased C-reactive protein serum levels. According to SGA, there were significant changes in body composition parameters determined by BIA, muscle ultrasound, and functional tests between well-nourished patients and patients with risk of malnutrition (53.7%) or who had malnutrition (7.1%), but not when the last two groups were compared. BIA and DXA showed strong correlations when evaluating muscle and fat mass in HF patients, but correlations with nutritional ultrasound were limited, as well as functional tests. A multivariate analysis showed that no significant association was observed between body composition and mortality, but preperitoneal fat was associated with an increased risk of new hospital admissions (OR: 0.73). Conclusions: GLIM criteria identified a lower percentage of patients with HF and malnutrition compared with SGA; thus, SGA could have a role in preventing malnutrition in HF patients. Nutritional evaluation with BIA and DXA in patients with HF showed reliable results of body composition parameters in HF, and both help with the diagnosis of malnutrition according to the GLIM or SGA criteria and could provide complementary information in some specific cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Malnutrition in Hospitalized Patients)
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19 pages, 2854 KiB  
Article
Associations of Flavonoid Intakes with Mortality among Populations with Hypertension: A Prospective Cohort Study
by Kang Wang, Taotao Lu, Rukai Yang and Shenghua Zhou
Nutrients 2024, 16(10), 1534; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16101534 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 922
Abstract
Background: The effect of flavonoid consumption on all-cause and special-cause mortality remains unclear among populations with hypertension. Methods: A total of 6110 people with hypertension from three NHANES survey cycles (2007–2008, 2009–2010, and 2017–2018) were enrolled in this study. Cox proportional hazard models [...] Read more.
Background: The effect of flavonoid consumption on all-cause and special-cause mortality remains unclear among populations with hypertension. Methods: A total of 6110 people with hypertension from three NHANES survey cycles (2007–2008, 2009–2010, and 2017–2018) were enrolled in this study. Cox proportional hazard models were conducted to estimate the association between the intake of total flavonoids and flavonoid subclasses and all-cause, cancer-related, and cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related mortality. Nonlinear relationships were identified using restricted cubic splines (RCS). Results: During 43,977 person-years of follow-up, 1155 participants died from any cause, 282 participants died from CVD, and 265 participants died from cancer. After adjusting for relevant confounders, including demographic, lifestyle, and dietary intake, a higher intake of total flavonoids was significantly associated with lower all-cause mortality but not CVD-related and cancer-related mortality among the population with hypertension. Compared with extreme quartiles, the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were 0.74 (0.56–0.97) for all-cause mortality, 0.77 (0.40–1.46) for CVD-related mortality, and 0.62 (0.35–1.08) for cancer-related mortality. In terms of all-cause mortality, this inverse association was optimized at total flavonoid consumption of approximately 375 mg/day. In addition, the negative association between total flavonoid consumption and all-cause mortality was more pronounced in non-obese (BMI < 30 kg/m2) compared to obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) populations. Higher intakes of anthocyanidin, flavan-3-ol, flavonol, and isoflavone were significantly associated with lower all-cause mortality (HR (95%CI): 0.70 (0.55–0.89); 0.76 (0.59–0.96); 0.66 (0.46–0.94); 0.79 (0.67–0.93), respectively). Higher intakes of anthocyanidin, flavan-3-ol, and flavonol were significantly associated with lower cancer-related mortality (HR (95%CI): 0.55 (0.32–0.93); 0.51 (0.31–0.82); 0.52 (0.28–0.96), respectively). Conclusion: This study suggests that a heightened consumption of total flavonoids and some flavonoid subclasses was linked to lower mortality, which supports the proposal of increasing flavonoid intake as part of healthy diets in patients with hypertension. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Phytochemicals on Human Health)
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16 pages, 3944 KiB  
Article
Understanding Health-Related Motivations for Urban Food Self-Production in the Light of Semantic Fields Analysis
by Ewa Duda
Nutrients 2024, 16(10), 1533; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16101533 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 540
Abstract
One of the contemporary challenges facing urban areas is the necessity to identify novel approaches to resident involvement in solution creation, with a particular focus on ensuring the best possible nutrition. By investigating the process of co-participation of city dwellers in a unique [...] Read more.
One of the contemporary challenges facing urban areas is the necessity to identify novel approaches to resident involvement in solution creation, with a particular focus on ensuring the best possible nutrition. By investigating the process of co-participation of city dwellers in a unique education project, this paper aims to gain a deeper understanding of the health-related motivations that underpin the decision of early adopters of the implemented technological innovations to join the social experiment. The qualitative study employed purposive sampling and in-depth interviews conducted in two waves, the first between October and November 2022 and the second between September 2023 and January 2024. The study comprised 42 participants drawn from two communities of residents in Łódź and Warsaw, Poland. Transcriptions of the interviews were carried out using semantic field analysis, employing a quantitative approach that counts the frequency of keyword occurrences. Three categories of semantic fields were identified: associations, oppositions, and actions toward the subject, including positive, neutral, and negative temperatures. The findings demonstrate that the health concerns of residents are a pivotal factor in their decision to participate in urban food self-production initiatives, given their limited access to nutritious and healthy vegetables. This is related to several factors, including restrictions related to urbanization and the displacement of local suppliers, lifestyle, and the fast pace of urban life. The dissemination of innovative solutions for growing food in urban environments could, therefore, facilitate awareness-raising and motivation to alter the dietary habits of inhabitants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Food Security for All: A Step towards the Future)
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27 pages, 2010 KiB  
Article
Assessing Lifestyle Patterns and Their Influence on Weight Status in Students from a High School in Sibiu, Romania: An Adaptation of ISCOLE Questionnaires and the Child Feeding Questionnaire
by Mihai Octavian Negrea, Gabriel Octavian Negrea, Gabriela Săndulescu, Bogdan Neamtu, Adelaida Solomon, Mirela Livia Popa, Oana Stoia, Carmen Daniela Domnariu and Minodora Teodoru
Nutrients 2024, 16(10), 1532; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16101532 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 620
Abstract
The escalation of global obesity is driving research to understand environmental influences on this process, particularly during vulnerable developmental stages such as childhood and adolescence. Efforts include the development of various structured data collection tools. We aimed to adapt a series of previously [...] Read more.
The escalation of global obesity is driving research to understand environmental influences on this process, particularly during vulnerable developmental stages such as childhood and adolescence. Efforts include the development of various structured data collection tools. We aimed to adapt a series of previously validated questionnaires from the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE), the Child Feeding Questionnaire, and elements from the World Health Organization Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) in order to assess local lifestyle patterns among Romanian high school students and their families that may predispose them to obesity. To this goal, an expert committee was formed as part of a research partnership to oversee the questionnaire’s translation and adaptation. It consisted of education and school management specialists, clinical research professionals, language experts, and public health experts. The adapted questionnaires were then applied to 114 students enrolled in the 9th and 10th grades attending a high school situated in Sibiu, and their parents. The variables measured were investigated for correlations with overweight and obesity and, as a secondary objective, academic performance. The study revealed several critical findings, including suboptimal sleep durations and physical activity levels among students, a significant amount of screen time, and correlations between weight status and physical activity, sedentary time, and maternal weight status and education levels. The adapted questionnaires proved to be effective tools in capturing the multifaceted factors implicated in adolescent obesity, providing a foundation for targeted interventions and broader public health strategies to address this issue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pediatric Obesity Prevention)
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19 pages, 2763 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Immunomodulatory Potential of Human Milk: Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Activation and Its Impact on Neonatal Gut Health
by Naomi V. Wieser, Mohammed Ghiboub, Caroline Verseijden, Johannes B. van Goudoever, Anne Schoonderwoerd, Tim G. J. de Meij, Hendrik J. Niemarkt, Mark Davids, Antoine Lefèvre, Patrick Emond, Joep P. M. Derikx, Wouter J. de Jonge and Bruno Sovran
Nutrients 2024, 16(10), 1531; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16101531 - 19 May 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 857
Abstract
Several metabolites of the essential amino acid tryptophan have emerged as key players in gut homeostasis through different cellular pathways, particularly through metabolites which can activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). This study aimed to map the metabolism of tryptophan in early life [...] Read more.
Several metabolites of the essential amino acid tryptophan have emerged as key players in gut homeostasis through different cellular pathways, particularly through metabolites which can activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). This study aimed to map the metabolism of tryptophan in early life and investigate the effects of specific metabolites on epithelial cells and barrier integrity. Twenty-one tryptophan metabolites were measured in the feces of full-term and preterm neonates as well as in human milk and formula. The ability of specific AHR metabolites to regulate cytokine-induced IL8 expression and maintain barrier integrity was assessed in Caco2 cells and human fetal organoids (HFOs). Overall, higher concentrations of tryptophan metabolites were measured in the feces of full-term neonates compared to those of preterm ones. Within AHR metabolites, indole-3-lactic acid (ILA) was significantly higher in the feces of full-term neonates. Human milk contained different levels of several tryptophan metabolites compared to formula. Particularly, within the AHR metabolites, indole-3-sulfate (I3S) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) were significantly higher compared to formula. Fecal-derived ILA and milk-derived IAA were capable of reducing TNFα-induced IL8 expression in Caco2 cells and HFOs in an AHR-dependent manner. Furthermore, fecal-derived ILA and milk-derived IAA significantly reduced TNFα-induced barrier disruption in HFOs. Full article
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18 pages, 2174 KiB  
Article
Association between Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy and Children’s Neurodevelopment: A Birth Cohort Study
by Jiajun Ouyang, Wenjin Cai, Penggui Wu, Juan Tong, Guopeng Gao, Shuangqin Yan, Fangbiao Tao and Kun Huang
Nutrients 2024, 16(10), 1530; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16101530 - 19 May 2024
Viewed by 679
Abstract
Background: Research studies have showed that maternal diet may influence fetal neurodevelopment, but most studies have only assessed single nutrients or food groups. Objective: To investigate the impact of maternal prenatal dietary patterns during pregnancy on child neurodevelopment. Methods: Study participants were obtained [...] Read more.
Background: Research studies have showed that maternal diet may influence fetal neurodevelopment, but most studies have only assessed single nutrients or food groups. Objective: To investigate the impact of maternal prenatal dietary patterns during pregnancy on child neurodevelopment. Methods: Study participants were obtained from the China National Birth Cohort. The Ages and Stages Questionnaire, Third Edition, was used to assess children’s neurodevelopment at 36 months old. Maternal antenatal dietary data were collected over three trimesters using food frequency questionnaires. Five distinct maternal dietary patterns throughout pregnancy were identified by principal component analysis, namely protein- and micronutrient-rich dietary patterns, low-iron dietary patterns, pasta as the staple food dietary patterns, iron-rich dietary patterns, tubers, fruits, and baked food dietary patterns. Group-based trajectory modeling was performed for dietary patterns present in all three periods. Multiple linear regression models were used for statistical analysis. Results: Children of mothers who followed a high protein- and micronutrient-rich dietary pattern trajectory during pregnancy presented better neurodevelopment, including higher gross motor and problem-solving scores. Furthermore, it was observed that children born of women with low-iron dietary patterns had poorer neurodevelopment. In detail, children born to mothers with a low-iron dietary pattern during the first trimester had lower problem-solving scores, while to those who were exposed to a low-iron dietary pattern in the second and third trimesters had lower gross motor scores. Additionally, children with mothers who had a low-iron dietary pattern in the third trimester had lower communication scores. Conclusions: A nutrition-balanced protein- and micronutrient-rich dietary pattern and adequate iron dietary pattern for mothers throughout pregnancy may be beneficial to children’s neurodevelopment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns and Nutrient Intake in Pregnant Women (2nd Edition))
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13 pages, 1168 KiB  
Article
The Effect of 14-Day Consumption of Hydrogen-Rich Water Alleviates Fatigue but Does Not Ameliorate Dyspnea in Long-COVID Patients: A Pilot, Single-Blind, and Randomized, Controlled Trial
by Yineng Tan, Yixun Xie, Gengxin Dong, Mingyue Yin, Zhangyuting Shang, Kaixiang Zhou, Dapeng Bao and Junhong Zhou
Nutrients 2024, 16(10), 1529; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16101529 - 19 May 2024
Viewed by 767
Abstract
(1) Background: Hydrogen (H2) may be a potential therapeutic agent for managing Long COVID symptoms due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, more scientific literature is needed to describe the effects of H2 administration on treating symptoms. A study [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Hydrogen (H2) may be a potential therapeutic agent for managing Long COVID symptoms due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, more scientific literature is needed to describe the effects of H2 administration on treating symptoms. A study aimed to investigate the impact of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) administration on the fatigue and dyspnea of Long-COVID patients for 14 consecutive days. (2) Methods: In this randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled study, 55 participants were recruited, and 23 of them were excluded. A total of 32 eligible participants were randomized into a hydrogen-rich water (HRW) group (n = 16) and a placebo water (PW) group (n = 16) in which they were instructed to consume hydrogen-rich water or placebo water for 14 days, respectively. The participants completed the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT), 30 s Chair Stand Test (30s-CST), Modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Rating Scale (mMRC), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and depression anxiety stress scale (DASS-21) before and after the intervention. A linear mixed-effects model was used to analyze the effects of HRW. Cohen’s d values were used to assess the effect size when significance was observed. The mean change with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) was also reported. (3) Results: The effects of HRW on lowering FSS scores (p = 0.046, [95% CI = −20.607, −0.198, d = 0.696] and improving total distance in the 6WMT (p < 0.001, [95% CI = 41.972, 61.891], d = 1.010), total time for the 30s-CST (p = 0.002, [95% CI = 1.570, 6.314], d = 1.190), and PSQI scores (p = 0.012, [95% CI = −5.169, 0.742], d = 1.274) compared to PW were of a significantly moderate effect size, while there was no significant difference in mMRC score (p = 0.556) or DASS-21 score (p > 0.143). (4) Conclusions: This study demonstrates that HRW might be an effective strategy for alleviating fatigue and improving cardiorespiratory endurance, musculoskeletal function, and sleep quality. Still, it does not ameliorate dyspnea among Long-COVID patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Epidemiology)
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10 pages, 253 KiB  
Article
Preterm Infants on Early Solid Foods and Neurodevelopmental Outcome—A Secondary Outcome Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial
by Margarita Thanhaeuser, Fabian Eibensteiner, Melanie Gsoellpointner, Sophia Brandstetter, Renate Fuiko, Bernd Jilma, Angelika Berger and Nadja Haiden
Nutrients 2024, 16(10), 1528; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16101528 - 19 May 2024
Viewed by 522
Abstract
There are no evidence-based recommendations regarding the introduction of solid foods in preterm infants. The objective of this study was to investigate whether age at the introduction of solid foods affects neurodevelopmental outcomes. This study focuses on analyzing secondary outcomes from a prospective [...] Read more.
There are no evidence-based recommendations regarding the introduction of solid foods in preterm infants. The objective of this study was to investigate whether age at the introduction of solid foods affects neurodevelopmental outcomes. This study focuses on analyzing secondary outcomes from a prospective trial involving very low birth weight infants who were randomly assigned to either an early (10–12th week corrected age) or a late (16–18th week corrected age) complementary feeding group. The study evaluated neurodevelopmental outcomes at one and two years of corrected age, as well as at three years and four months of uncorrected age by utilizing Bayley scales. In total, 89 infants were assigned to the early and 88 infants to the late group, all with a mean gestational age of 27 + 1 weeks. A linear mixed-effects model was used to compare neurodevelopmental outcomes across the study groups, taking into account variables such as gestational age at birth, sex, nutrition at discharge, parents’ highest education level, and high-grade intraventricular hemorrhage. The analysis did not reveal any significant differences between the groups. The timepoint of the introduction of solid foods had no impact on neurodevelopmental outcomes at one and two years of corrected age, and at three years and four months of uncorrected age. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Nutrition)
9 pages, 826 KiB  
Brief Report
Indulging Curiosity: Preliminary Evidence of an Anxiolytic-like Effect of Castor Oil and Ricinoleic Acid
by Khalin E. Nisbett, Leandro F. Vendruscolo and George F. Koob
Nutrients 2024, 16(10), 1527; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16101527 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 605
Abstract
In the process of validating the elevated zero maze, a common test of anxiety-like behavior, in our laboratory, we demonstrated an anxiolytic-like effect of castor oil and its primary component, ricinoleic acid. We tested the effects of vehicle and chlordiazepoxide in male mice [...] Read more.
In the process of validating the elevated zero maze, a common test of anxiety-like behavior, in our laboratory, we demonstrated an anxiolytic-like effect of castor oil and its primary component, ricinoleic acid. We tested the effects of vehicle and chlordiazepoxide in male mice in the elevated zero maze following a 30-min pretreatment time. Chlordiazepoxide is a United States Food and Drug Administration-approved drug that was previously shown to exert anxiolytic-like effects in both the elevated zero maze and elevated plus maze. Chlordiazepoxide was administered at doses of 5 or 10 mg/kg. We used 5% polyoxyl 35 castor oil (Kolliphor® EL) and saline as treatment vehicles and found that the effect of chlordiazepoxide on open zone occupancy and open zone entries was blunted when 5% Kolliphor was used as the vehicle. These tests demonstrated that chlordiazepoxide increased open zone occupancy and entries in the elevated zero maze more effectively when saline was used as the treatment vehicle and that Kolliphor dampened the anxiolytic-like effect of chlordiazepoxide when it was used as the treatment vehicle. Notably, 5% Kolliphor alone slightly increased baseline open zone occupancy and entries. Given that Kolliphor is a derivative of castor oil, we next tested the effect of 5% castor oil and 5% ricinoleic acid, which is a major component of castor oil. We found that both castor oil and ricinoleic acid increased open zone occupancy but not entries compared with saline. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that Kolliphor, castor oil, and ricinoleic acid may exert anxiolytic-like effects in male mice in the elevated zero maze. This potential anxiolytic-like effect of castor oil is consistent with its well-established beneficial effects, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antifungal, and pain-relieving properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemicals and Human Health)
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26 pages, 3067 KiB  
Review
Cholesterol-Lowering Bioactive Foods and Nutraceuticals in Pediatrics: Clinical Evidence of Efficacy and Safety
by Federica Fogacci, Naif Saad ALGhasab, Valentina Di Micoli, Marina Giovannini and Arrigo Francesco Giuseppe Cicero
Nutrients 2024, 16(10), 1526; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16101526 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 902
Abstract
Long-term exposure to even slightly elevated plasma cholesterol levels significantly increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. The latest evidence recommends an improvement in plasma lipid levels, even in children who are not affected by severe hypercholesterolemia. The risk–benefit profile of pharmacological treatments [...] Read more.
Long-term exposure to even slightly elevated plasma cholesterol levels significantly increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. The latest evidence recommends an improvement in plasma lipid levels, even in children who are not affected by severe hypercholesterolemia. The risk–benefit profile of pharmacological treatments in pediatric patients with moderate dyslipidemia is uncertain, and several cholesterol-lowering nutraceuticals have been recently tested. In this context, the available randomized clinical trials are small, short-term and mainly tested different types of fibers, plant sterols/stanols, standardized extracts of red yeast rice, polyunsaturated fatty acids, soy derivatives, and some probiotics. In children with dyslipidemia, nutraceuticals can improve lipid profile in the context of an adequate, well-balanced diet combined with regular physical activity. Of course, they should not be considered an alternative to conventional lipid-lowering drugs when necessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Nutrition)
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15 pages, 1506 KiB  
Article
HDL-Cholesterol Subfraction Dimensional Distribution Is Associated with Cardiovascular Disease Risk and Is Predicted by Visceral Adiposity and Dietary Lipid Intake in Women
by Domenico Sergi, Juana Maria Sanz, Alessandro Trentini, Gloria Bonaccorsi, Sharon Angelini, Fabiola Castaldo, Sara Morrone, Riccardo Spaggiari, Carlo Cervellati, Angelina Passaro and MEDIA HDL Research Group
Nutrients 2024, 16(10), 1525; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16101525 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 762
Abstract
HDL-cholesterol quality, including cholesterol distribution in HDL subfractions, is emerging as a key discriminant in dictating the effects of these lipoproteins on cardiovascular health. This study aims at elucidating the relationship between cholesterol distribution in HDL subfractions and CVD risk factors as well [...] Read more.
HDL-cholesterol quality, including cholesterol distribution in HDL subfractions, is emerging as a key discriminant in dictating the effects of these lipoproteins on cardiovascular health. This study aims at elucidating the relationship between cholesterol distribution in HDL subfractions and CVD risk factors as well as diet quality and energy density in a population of pre- and postmenopausal women. Seventy-two women aged 52 ± 6 years were characterized metabolically and anthropometrically. Serum HDL-C subfractions were quantified using the Lipoprint HDL System. Cholesterol distribution in large HDL subfractions was lower in overweight individuals and study participants with moderate to high estimated CVD risk, hypertension, or insulin resistance. Cholesterol distribution in large, as opposed to small, HDL subfractions correlated negatively with insulin resistance, circulating triglycerides, and visceral adipose tissue (VAT). VAT was an independent positive and negative predictor of cholesterol distribution in large and small HDL subfractions, respectively. Furthermore, an increase in energy intake could predict a decrease in cholesterol levels in large HDL subfractions while lipid intake positively predicted cholesterol levels in small HDL subfractions. Cholesterol distribution in HDL subfractions may represent an additional player in shaping CVD risk and a novel potential mediator of the effect of diet on cardiovascular health. Full article
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16 pages, 285 KiB  
Article
The Quality of Menu Offerings in Independently Owned Restaurants in Baltimore, Maryland: Results from Mixed-Methods Formative Research for the FRESH Trial
by Shuxian Hua, Anna Claire Tucker, Sydney R. Santos, Audrey E. Thomas, Yeeli Mui, Veronica Velez-Burgess, Lisa Poirier, Lawrence J. Cheskin, Mika Matsuzaki, Stacey Williamson, Uriyoan Colon-Ramos and Joel Gittelsohn
Nutrients 2024, 16(10), 1524; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16101524 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 722
Abstract
(1) Background: Independently owned restaurants (IORs) are prevalent in under-resourced racial and ethnic minority communities in the US and present a unique setting for public health nutrition interventions. (2) Methods: We conducted 14 in-depth interviews with IOR owners in Baltimore about their perceptions [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Independently owned restaurants (IORs) are prevalent in under-resourced racial and ethnic minority communities in the US and present a unique setting for public health nutrition interventions. (2) Methods: We conducted 14 in-depth interviews with IOR owners in Baltimore about their perceptions of healthy food, and customers’ acceptance of healthier menus and cooking methods and concurrent observations of the availability of healthy options on their menus. Qualitative data were coded and analyzed using ATLAS.ti. Observations were analyzed with statistical analysis performed in R. (3) Results: Owners perceived non-fried options, lean proteins, and plant-based meals as healthy. While open to using healthier cooking fats, they had mixed feelings about reducing salt, adopting non-frying methods for cooking, and adding vegetables and whole grains to the menu, and were reluctant to reduce sugar in recipes and beverages. Only 17.5% of 1019 foods and 27.6% of 174 beverages in these IORs were healthy, with no significant differences in the healthfulness of restaurant offerings within low-healthy-food-access/low-income neighborhoods and those outside. (4) Conclusion: Healthy options are generally scarce in Baltimore’s IORs. Insights from owners inform future interventions to tailor healthy menu offerings that are well-received by customers and feasible for implementation. Full article
14 pages, 684 KiB  
Article
Dietary Supplementation with an Extract of Aloysia citrodora (Lemon verbena) Improves Sleep Quality in Healthy Subjects: A Randomized Double-Blind Controlled Study
by Silvia Pérez-Piñero, Juan Carlos Muñoz-Carrillo, Jon Echepare-Taberna, Macarena Muñoz-Cámara, Cristina Herrera-Fernández, Ana I. García-Guillén, Vicente Ávila-Gandía, Pau Navarro, Nuria Caturla, Jonathan Jones and Francisco Javier López-Román
Nutrients 2024, 16(10), 1523; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16101523 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 1621
Abstract
Seventy-one healthy subjects with sleep disturbances participated in a randomized, double-blind controlled trial in which dietary supplementation with an extract of Aloysia citrodora (lemon verbena) (n = 33) or placebo (n = 38) was administered for 90 days. There were between-group [...] Read more.
Seventy-one healthy subjects with sleep disturbances participated in a randomized, double-blind controlled trial in which dietary supplementation with an extract of Aloysia citrodora (lemon verbena) (n = 33) or placebo (n = 38) was administered for 90 days. There were between-group differences in favor of the experimental group in the visual analogue scale (VAS) for sleep quality (6.5 ± 1.6 vs. 5.5 ± 2.1, p = 0.021) as well as in the overall score (5.8 ± 2.4, p = 0.008) and scores for sleep latency (1.6 ± 1.0 vs. 1.9 ± 0.7, p = 0.027) and sleep efficiency (84.5 ± 12.8 vs. 79.8 ± 13.6, p = 0.023) in the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Sleep-related variables (latency, efficiency, wakefulness after sleep onset, awakenings) assessed by actigraphy also showed better scores in the experimental group (p = 0.001). Plasma nocturnal melatonin levels also increased significantly in the experimental group (199.7 ± 135.3 vs. 174.7 ± 115.4 pg/mL, p = 0.048). Changes in anthropometric parameters and physical activity levels were not found. In summary, a dietary supplement of lemon verbena administered for 3 months was associated with a significant improvement in sleep quality as compared with placebo in a population of healthy subjects with sleep problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Associations between Sleep, Nutrition, and Health)
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11 pages, 253 KiB  
Article
Differing Within-Household Food Security Statuses Are Associated with Varied Maternal Mental Health Outcomes
by Rachel A. Liebe, Chanit’a Holmes and Sarah A. Misyak
Nutrients 2024, 16(10), 1522; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16101522 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 510
Abstract
Household food insecurity is not necessarily equally experienced by all household members, with mothers often changing their intake first when food resources are limited. The purpose of this study was to understand the association between maternal mental health and intrahousehold differences in food [...] Read more.
Household food insecurity is not necessarily equally experienced by all household members, with mothers often changing their intake first when food resources are limited. The purpose of this study was to understand the association between maternal mental health and intrahousehold differences in food security statuses. A cross-sectional survey was administered to Virginia mothers with low income (August–October 2021), assessing validated measures of food security, mental and physical health and related factors. Participants (n = 570) were grouped according to the food security status of adults and children within the household. Linear regression was used to assess the outcomes of interest by group and controlled for key demographic variables. Mothers in households with any food insecurity reported worse overall mental health and used 3–4 more food coping strategies than households experiencing food security (p < 0.05). Only mothers in households where adults experienced food insecurity reported significantly greater anxiety and depressive symptoms (61.5 and 58.1, respectively) compared to households experiencing food security (55.7 and 52.4, p < 0.001). While any experience of household food insecurity is associated with worse maternal mental health, there were differences by the within-household food security status. Future research should explore screening measures that capture specific household members’ food security to connect households with available resources. Full article
20 pages, 588 KiB  
Review
The Effectiveness of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) in Binge Eating Disorder (BED)—Review and Insight into the Mechanisms of Action
by James Chmiel, Donata Kurpas, Filip Rybakowski and Jerzy Leszek
Nutrients 2024, 16(10), 1521; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16101521 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 734
Abstract
Introduction: Binge eating disorder (BED) is the most common eating disorder among those contributing to the development of obesity, and thus acts as a significant burden on the lives and health of patients. It is characterized by complex neurobiology, which includes changes in [...] Read more.
Introduction: Binge eating disorder (BED) is the most common eating disorder among those contributing to the development of obesity, and thus acts as a significant burden on the lives and health of patients. It is characterized by complex neurobiology, which includes changes in brain activity and neurotransmitter secretion. Existing treatments are moderately effective, and so the search for new therapies that are effective and safe is ongoing. Aim and Methods: This review examines the use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in the treatment of binge eating disorder. Searches were conducted on the PubMed/Medline, Research Gate, and Cochrane databases. Results: Six studies were found that matched the review topic. All of them used the anodal stimulation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in BED patients. tDCS proved effective in reducing food cravings, the desire to binge eat, the number of binging episodes, and food intake. It also improved the outcomes of inhibitory control and the treatment of eating disorder psychopathology. The potential mechanisms of action of tDCS in BED are explained, limitations in current research are outlined, and recommendations for future research are provided. Conclusions: Preliminary evidence suggests that the anodal application of tDCS to the right DLPFC reduces the symptoms of BED. However, caution should be exercised in the broader use of tDCS in this context due to the small number of studies performed and the small number of patients included. Future studies should incorporate neuroimaging and neurophysiological measurements to elucidate the potential mechanisms of action of tDCS in BED. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Dietary Patterns: Effects on Brain Function)
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17 pages, 2431 KiB  
Article
Post-Transplant Diabetes Mellitus in Kidney-Transplanted Patients: Related Factors and Impact on Long-Term Outcome
by Carlo Alfieri, Edoardo Campioli, Paolo Fiorina, Emanuela Orsi, Valeria Grancini, Anna Regalia, Mariarosaria Campise, Simona Verdesca, Nicholas Walter Delfrate, Paolo Molinari, Anna Maria Pisacreta, Evaldo Favi, Piergiorgio Messa and Giuseppe Castellano
Nutrients 2024, 16(10), 1520; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16101520 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 638
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and determinants of glucose metabolism abnormalities and their impact on long-term clinical outcomes in kidney transplant recipients (KTxps). A retrospective analysis of 832 KTxps (2004–2020) was performed. Patients were assessed at 1 (T1), 6 (T6), and [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and determinants of glucose metabolism abnormalities and their impact on long-term clinical outcomes in kidney transplant recipients (KTxps). A retrospective analysis of 832 KTxps (2004–2020) was performed. Patients were assessed at 1 (T1), 6 (T6), and 12 (T12) months post-transplantation and clinically followed for an average of 103 ± 60 months. At T6, 484 patients underwent an oral glucose tolerance test for the diagnosis of alterations in glucose metabolism (AMG+) or post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM+). The prevalence of pre-transplant diabetes was 6.2%, with 22.4% of PTDM+ within the 1st year. Patients with AMG were older and exhibited altered lipid profiles, higher body mass index, and increased inflammatory indices. Age at transplantation, lipid profile, and inflammatory status were significant determinants of PTDM. Graft loss was unaffected by glucose metabolism alterations. Survival analysis demonstrated significantly worse long-term survival for KTxps with diabetes (pre- and PTDM+, p = 0.04). In a comparison of the ND and PTDM+ groups, no significant differences in death with a functioning graft were found. The AMG+ group exhibited worse survival (p < 0.001) than AMG−, even after excluding patients with diabetes mellitus. Future randomized controlled trials are necessary to delve deeper into this subject, specifically examining the effects of new antidiabetic treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet Management in Renal Diseases)
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15 pages, 2271 KiB  
Article
Oral Microbiota Linking Associations of Dietary Factors with Recurrent Oral Ulcer
by Yetong Wang, Haiyan Yue, Yuzhou Jiang, Qiumin Huang, Jie Shen, Gulisiya Hailili, Zhonghan Sun, Xiaofeng Zhou, Yanni Pu, Huiling Song, Changzheng Yuan and Yan Zheng
Nutrients 2024, 16(10), 1519; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16101519 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 675
Abstract
Recurrent oral ulcer (ROU) is a prevalent and painful oral disorder with implications beyond physical symptoms, impacting quality of life and necessitating comprehensive management. Understanding the interplays between dietary factors, oral microbiota, and ROU is crucial for developing targeted interventions to improve oral [...] Read more.
Recurrent oral ulcer (ROU) is a prevalent and painful oral disorder with implications beyond physical symptoms, impacting quality of life and necessitating comprehensive management. Understanding the interplays between dietary factors, oral microbiota, and ROU is crucial for developing targeted interventions to improve oral and systemic health. Dietary behaviors and plant-based diet indices including the healthful plant-based diet index (hPDI) were measured based on a validated food frequency questionnaire. Saliva microbial features were profiled using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. In this cross-sectional study of 579 community-based participants (aged 22–74 years, 66.5% females), 337 participants had ROU. Participants in the highest tertile of hPDI exhibited a 43% lower prevalence of ROU (odds ratio [OR] = 0.57, 95%CI: 0.34–0.94), compared to the lowest tertile, independent of demographics, lifestyle, and major chronic diseases. Participants with ROU tended to have lower oral bacterial richness (Observed ASVs, p < 0.05) and distinct bacterial structure compared to those without ROU (PERMANOVA, p = 0.02). The relative abundances of 16 bacterial genera were associated with ROU (p-FDR < 0.20). Of these, Olsenella, TM7x, and unclassified Muribaculaceae were identified as potential mediators in the association between hPDI and ROU (all p-mediations < 0.05). This study provides evidence of the intricate interplays among dietary factors, oral microbiota, and ROU, offering insights that may inform preventive and therapeutic strategies targeting diets and oral microbiomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Epidemiology)
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11 pages, 976 KiB  
Review
Croatian Action on Salt and Health (CRASH): On the Road to Success—Less Salt, More Health
by Bojan Jelaković, Mihaela Marinović Glavić, Marija Batinić Sermek, Lovorka Bilajac, Marija Bubaš, Vlatka Buzjak Služek, Krunoslav Capak, Ines Drenjančević, Andrea Gross Bošković, Ana Jelaković, Tomislav Jukić, Sanja Kolarić Kravar, Verica Kralj, Ivan Pećin, Lea Pollak, Dunja Skoko-Poljak, Danijela Stražanac, Ana Stupin, Vanja Vasiljev, Valentina Vidranski and Željko Reineradd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Nutrients 2024, 16(10), 1518; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16101518 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 745
Abstract
The World Health Organization recommends adjusting salt intake as a part of the nine global targets to reduce premature mortality from non-communicable chronic diseases as a priority and the most cost-effective intervention. In 2006, the main aim of the Croatian Action on Salt [...] Read more.
The World Health Organization recommends adjusting salt intake as a part of the nine global targets to reduce premature mortality from non-communicable chronic diseases as a priority and the most cost-effective intervention. In 2006, the main aim of the Croatian Action on Salt and Health was to decrease salt intake by 16% because of its critical intake and consequences on human health. We have organized educative activities to increase awareness on salt harmfulness, define food categories of prime interest, collaborate with industries and determine salt intake (24 h urine sodium excretion). It was determined that the proportion of salt in ready-to-eat baked bread should not exceed 1.4%. In the period 2014–2022, salt in semi-white bread was reduced by 14%, 22% in bakery and 25% in the largest meat industry. Awareness of the harmfulness of salt on health increased from 65.3% in 2008 to 96.9% in 2023 and salt intake was reduced by 15.9–1.8 g/day (22.8% men, 11.7% women). In the last 18 years, a significant decrease in salt intake was achieved in Croatia, awareness of its harmfulness increased, collaboration with the food industry was established and regulatory documents were launched. However, salt intake is still very high, underlying the need for continuation of efforts and even stronger activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Sodium, Potassium Intake and Blood Pressure)
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18 pages, 2970 KiB  
Article
Alcohol Exposure and Disease Associations: A Mendelian Randomization and Meta-Analysis on Weekly Consumption and Problematic Drinking
by Mengyao Li, Xuying Zhang, Kailei Chen, Yang Miao, Yaxin Xu, Yishuo Sun, Mengxian Jiang, Mengcao Liu, Yan Gao, Xiaoxia Xue and Xuelian Li
Nutrients 2024, 16(10), 1517; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16101517 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 1020
Abstract
Alcohol consumption significantly impacts disease burden and has been linked to various diseases in observational studies. However, comprehensive meta-analyses using Mendelian randomization (MR) to examine drinking patterns are limited. We aimed to evaluate the health risks of alcohol use by integrating findings from [...] Read more.
Alcohol consumption significantly impacts disease burden and has been linked to various diseases in observational studies. However, comprehensive meta-analyses using Mendelian randomization (MR) to examine drinking patterns are limited. We aimed to evaluate the health risks of alcohol use by integrating findings from MR studies. A thorough search was conducted for MR studies focused on alcohol exposure. We utilized two sets of instrumental variables—alcohol consumption and problematic alcohol use—and summary statistics from the FinnGen consortium R9 release to perform de novo MR analyses. Our meta-analysis encompassed 64 published and 151 de novo MR analyses across 76 distinct primary outcomes. Results show that a genetic predisposition to alcohol consumption, independent of smoking, significantly correlates with a decreased risk of Parkinson’s disease, prostate hyperplasia, and rheumatoid arthritis. It was also associated with an increased risk of chronic pancreatitis, colorectal cancer, and head and neck cancers. Additionally, a genetic predisposition to problematic alcohol use is strongly associated with increased risks of alcoholic liver disease, cirrhosis, both acute and chronic pancreatitis, and pneumonia. Evidence from our MR study supports the notion that alcohol consumption and problematic alcohol use are causally associated with a range of diseases, predominantly by increasing the risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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13 pages, 1166 KiB  
Article
Association between Dietary Quality and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Korean Adults: A Nationwide, Population-Based Study Using the Korean Healthy Eating Index (2013–2021)
by Seong-Uk Baek, Taeyeon Kim, Yu-Min Lee, Jong-Uk Won and Jin-Ha Yoon
Nutrients 2024, 16(10), 1516; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16101516 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 496
Abstract
This study explored the relationship between the Korean Healthy Eating Index (KHEI) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This cross-sectional study included 34,174 Korean adults. The KHEI was composed of three subcomponents (adequacy, moderation, and energy balance) and calculated based on a 24 [...] Read more.
This study explored the relationship between the Korean Healthy Eating Index (KHEI) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This cross-sectional study included 34,174 Korean adults. The KHEI was composed of three subcomponents (adequacy, moderation, and energy balance) and calculated based on a 24 h dietary recall. The total score ranged from 0 to 100, with a higher score indicating a greater adherence to the Korean dietary guidelines. The total KHEI scores were categorized into quartiles (Q1–Q4). NAFLD was classified using the hepatic steatosis index. Logistic regressions were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The adjusted OR (95% CI) of NAFLD was 0.95 (0.87–1.03) for the Q2 group, 0.90 (0.83–0.98) for the Q3 group, and 0.79 (0.72–0.87) for the Q4 group, compared with the Q1 group. Among the subcomponents of the KHEI, individuals with high scores in the adequacy component, characterized by an abundant consumption of fruits, vegetables, and dairy products, exhibited the most pronounced association with NAFLD. A higher KHEI score was negatively associated with NAFLD in Korean adults. Therefore, the promotion of healthy dietary patterns can play a beneficial role in the prevention or management of NAFLD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Intervention in Liver Health and Disease)
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43 pages, 1600 KiB  
Review
Combined Lifestyle Interventions in the Prevention and Management of Asthma and COPD: A Systematic Review
by Charlotte D. C. Born, Rohini Bhadra, George D’Souza, Stef P. J. Kremers, Sucharita Sambashivaiah, Annemie M. W. J. Schols, Rik Crutzen and Rosanne J. H. C. G. Beijers
Nutrients 2024, 16(10), 1515; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16101515 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 832
Abstract
(1) Background: A healthy lifestyle has a protective role against the onset and management of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Therefore, combined lifestyle interventions (CLIs) are a potentially valuable prevention approach. This review aims to provide an overview of existing CLIs [...] Read more.
(1) Background: A healthy lifestyle has a protective role against the onset and management of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Therefore, combined lifestyle interventions (CLIs) are a potentially valuable prevention approach. This review aims to provide an overview of existing CLIs for the prevention and management of asthma or COPD. (2) Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycInfo. Studies were included if CLIs targeted at least two lifestyle factors. (3) Results: Among the 56 included studies, 9 addressed asthma and 47 addressed COPD management, with no studies focusing on prevention. For both conditions, the most prevalent combination of lifestyle targets was diet and physical activity (PA), often combined with smoking cessation in COPD. The studied CLIs led to improvements in quality of life, respiratory symptoms, body mass index/weight, and exercise capacity. Behavioural changes were only measured in a limited number of studies and mainly showed improvements in dietary intake and PA level. (4) Conclusions: CLIs are effective within asthma and COPD management. Next to optimising the content and implementation of CLIs, these positive results warrant paying more attention to CLIs for persons with an increased risk profile for these chronic respiratory diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Lung Disease)
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20 pages, 2180 KiB  
Review
Effects of Saponins on Lipid Metabolism: The Gut–Liver Axis Plays a Key Role
by Shixi Cao, Mengqi Liu, Yao Han, Shouren Li, Xiaoyan Zhu, Defeng Li, Yinghua Shi and Boshuai Liu
Nutrients 2024, 16(10), 1514; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16101514 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 1040
Abstract
Unhealthy lifestyles (high-fat diet, smoking, alcohol consumption, too little exercise, etc.) in the current society are prone to cause lipid metabolism disorders affecting the health of the organism and inducing the occurrence of diseases. Saponins, as biologically active substances present in plants, have [...] Read more.
Unhealthy lifestyles (high-fat diet, smoking, alcohol consumption, too little exercise, etc.) in the current society are prone to cause lipid metabolism disorders affecting the health of the organism and inducing the occurrence of diseases. Saponins, as biologically active substances present in plants, have lipid-lowering, inflammation-reducing, and anti-atherosclerotic effects. Saponins are thought to be involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism in the body; it suppresses the appetite and, thus, reduces energy intake by modulating pro-opiomelanocortin/Cocaine amphetamine regulated transcript (POMC/CART) neurons and neuropeptide Y/agouti-related peptide (NPY/AGRP) neurons in the hypothalamus, the appetite control center. Saponins directly activate the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway and related transcriptional regulators such as peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptors (PPAR), CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP), and sterol-regulatory element binding proteins (SREBP) increase fatty acid oxidation and inhibit lipid synthesis. It also modulates gut–liver interactions to improve lipid metabolism by regulating gut microbes and their metabolites and derivatives—short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), bile acids (BAs), trimethylamine (TMA), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), et al. This paper reviews the positive effects of different saponins on lipid metabolism disorders, suggesting that the gut–liver axis plays a crucial role in improving lipid metabolism processes and may be used as a therapeutic target to provide new strategies for treating lipid metabolism disorders. Full article
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14 pages, 771 KiB  
Review
A Scoping Review of the Prevalence of Eating Disorders in Spain
by Néstor Benítez Brito, Francisco Moreno Redondo, Berta Pinto Robayna, Jesús De las Heras Roge, Yolanda Ramallo Fariña and Carlos Diaz Romero
Nutrients 2024, 16(10), 1513; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16101513 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 705
Abstract
Introduction: Eating disorders (EDs) are mental health illnesses with a multifactorial origin. At present, no review of indexed publications studying their prevalence in Spain is available. Material and methods: A scoping review (PROSPERO -CRD42019140884-) was carried out through systematic searches (MEDLINE, EMBASE and [...] Read more.
Introduction: Eating disorders (EDs) are mental health illnesses with a multifactorial origin. At present, no review of indexed publications studying their prevalence in Spain is available. Material and methods: A scoping review (PROSPERO -CRD42019140884-) was carried out through systematic searches (MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO) until January 2022. Papers published in Spanish/English analysing the prevalence of EDs in Spain (population < 65 years) were selected. Results: A total of 766 articles were identified (186 eliminated as duplicates). A total of 580 articles were analysed on the basis of title and abstract, and 67 articles were selected for full-text analysis. A total of 37 studies analysed the prevalence of EDs in Spain. Conclusions: This is the first scoping review to analyse the prevalence of EDs in Spain. Puberty and adolescence are the most extensively studied stages. There is a high heterogeneity in the use of ED screening tools and a paucity of information on diagnostic tools. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Epidemiology)
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24 pages, 8098 KiB  
Article
Fucoidan Improves D-Galactose-Induced Cognitive Dysfunction by Promoting Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Maintaining Gut Microbiome Homeostasis
by Yan Xu, Meilan Xue, Jing Li, Yiqing Ma, Yutong Wang, Huaqi Zhang and Hui Liang
Nutrients 2024, 16(10), 1512; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16101512 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 518
Abstract
Recent studies have indicated that fucoidan has the potential to improve cognitive impairment. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the protective effect and possible mechanisms of fucoidan in D-galactose (D-gal)-induced cognitive dysfunction. Sprague Dawley rats were injected with D-galactose (200 mg/kg, [...] Read more.
Recent studies have indicated that fucoidan has the potential to improve cognitive impairment. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the protective effect and possible mechanisms of fucoidan in D-galactose (D-gal)-induced cognitive dysfunction. Sprague Dawley rats were injected with D-galactose (200 mg/kg, sc) and administrated with fucoidan (100 mg/kg or 200 mg/kg, ig) for 8 weeks. Our results suggested that fucoidan significantly ameliorated cognitive impairment in D-gal-exposed rats and reversed histopathological changes in the hippocampus. Fucoidan reduced D-gal-induced oxidative stress, declined the inflammation level and improved mitochondrial dysfunction in hippocampal. Fucoidan promoted mitochondrial biogenesis by regulating the PGC-1α/NRF1/TFAM pathway, thereby improving D-gal-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. The regulation effect of fucoidan on PGC-1α is linked to the upstream protein of APN/AMPK/SIRT1. Additionally, the neuroprotective action of fucoidan could be related to maintaining intestinal flora homeostasis with up-regulation of Bacteroidota, Muribaculaceae and Akkermansia and down-regulation of Firmicutes. In summary, fucoidan may be a natural, promising candidate active ingredient for age-related cognitive impairment interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Prebiotics and Probiotics)
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13 pages, 423 KiB  
Review
Associations between Vegetable Nitrate Intake and Cardiovascular Disease Risk and Mortality: A Systematic Review
by Loucas Tan, Libby Stagg, Emily Hanlon, Toby Li, Andrea M. Fairley, Mario Siervo, Jamie Matu, Alex Griffiths and Oliver M. Shannon
Nutrients 2024, 16(10), 1511; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16101511 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 1126
Abstract
Consumption of nitrate-rich vegetables increases nitric oxide bioavailability, lowers blood pressure, and improves endothelial function. These effects could also translate into reduced cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and mortality. This systematic review aimed to investigate the associations between habitual vegetable nitrate intake and CVD [...] Read more.
Consumption of nitrate-rich vegetables increases nitric oxide bioavailability, lowers blood pressure, and improves endothelial function. These effects could also translate into reduced cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and mortality. This systematic review aimed to investigate the associations between habitual vegetable nitrate intake and CVD incidence and mortality. A secondary aim was to identify factors that moderate the relationship between vegetable nitrate intake and CVD incidence/mortality. Seven databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, CINAHL, and APA PsycINFO) were searched from inception to 13 February 2023. Observational studies quantifying vegetable nitrate intake in participants aged 18+ years through self-reported dietary exposure and assessing incidence or mortality from CVD overall, or individual CVD subtypes, were eligible. Five studies including a total of 63,155 participants were included. There was an inverse association between vegetable nitrate intake and most reported CVD outcomes. Reported risk reductions tended to plateau at moderate intake, suggesting a possible ceiling effect. The risk of bias across all studies was low. The results of this systematic review suggest a potential role for vegetable nitrate in reducing CVD risk and mortality. Further randomised controlled trials are now required to corroborate these findings. Full article
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