Topic Editors

College of Food Science & Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China
Dr. Jusheng Zheng
School of Life Sciences, Westlake University, Hangzhou, China

Nutrition in Cancer and Neurodegenerative Diseases

Abstract submission deadline
closed (31 December 2022)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (23 July 2023)
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Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

While people are generally concerned about their dietary and nutritional balance in staying healthy, this is even more so the case for those suffering from cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. It has been some time since we first linked our diet with our health, although studies illustrating how nutrition affects cancer or neurodegenerative diseases were first raised only half a century ago. On the one hand, combinational research, including population, clinical, and basic studies, have revealed that our diet is highly tied with these conditions. On the other hand, their relations are not yet definitively clear due to the extreme complexity in our food, oncology, and neurology. While we are trying all possible dietary patterns to reach an optimal nutritional balance against these diseases, among which includes the ketogenic diet, low-carb diet, vegetarian diet, Mediterranean diet, and intermittent fasting, systematic and individualized studies into nutrition effective against these conditions requires more attention and effort to ensure the wellbeing of all. The 10th National Congress of Nutritional Oncology Congress (NCNO), recently held in Beijing, is one such example of such an effort, with a union of physicians and researchers focused on promoting developments in this field.

Currently, there are many aspects of major concern in nutrition for patients of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases: the biology of nutrition and diseases, the epidemiology of nutrition and diseases, approaches investigating nutrition and diseases, gene–nutrition interaction, nutritional prevention of diseases, bioactive food component against diseases, nutritional assessment, implementation, and support to diseases. Furthermore, there may be other aspects of nutrition that we have not yet mentioned or considered. To report the newest findings, to communicate, and to promote this field, Prof. Dr. Zheng and I will host this topic in the journals of Nutrients, Foods, Brain Sciences, and Dietetics with the support of Prof. Dr. Hanping Shi, the President of the Chinese Society of Nutritional Oncology and Chair of the 10th NCNO. All researchers in this field, inside or outside of the 10th National Congress of Nutritional Oncology Congress, China, are welcome to submit.

To illustrate how diet and nutrition affects the prevention, initiation, progression, recurrence, and curation of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases, papers on but not limited to the following topics are welcome:

  • Effects of food and nutrition on cancer and neurodegenerative diseases
  • Nutrition–microbiome relation on cancer and neurodegenerative diseases
  • Nutrition–metabolic regulation
  • Nutrition–cell microenvironment
  • Oncology–immunology nutrition
  • Nutrition–survivorship
  • Any other nutritional studies related to cancer and neurodegenerative diseases

Dr. Dong Yang
Dr. Jusheng Zheng
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • nutrition
  • cancer
  • neurodegenerative diseases
  • Alzheimer’s
  • Parkinson’s 
  • dementia
  • microbiome

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Nutrients
nutrients
5.9 9.0 2009 14.5 Days CHF 2900
Foods
foods
5.2 5.8 2012 13.1 Days CHF 2900
Brain Sciences
brainsci
3.3 3.9 2011 15.6 Days CHF 2200
Dietetics
dietetics
- - 2022 24.3 Days CHF 1000

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Published Papers (18 papers)

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15 pages, 3532 KiB  
Article
Molecular Mechanism of Calycosin Inhibited Vascular Calcification
by Zekun Zhou, Yi Li, Wei Jiang and Zengli Wang
Nutrients 2024, 16(1), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16010099 - 27 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1009
Abstract
Vascular calcification (VC) is a pathological condition frequently observed in cardiovascular diseases. Primary factors contributing to VC are osteogenic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle and hydroxyapatite deposition. Targeted autophagy (a lysosome-mediated mechanism for degradation/recycling of unnecessary cellular components) is a useful approach for [...] Read more.
Vascular calcification (VC) is a pathological condition frequently observed in cardiovascular diseases. Primary factors contributing to VC are osteogenic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle and hydroxyapatite deposition. Targeted autophagy (a lysosome-mediated mechanism for degradation/recycling of unnecessary cellular components) is a useful approach for inhibiting VC and promoting vascular cell health. Calycosin has been shown to alleviate atherosclerosis by enhancing macrophage autophagy, but its therapeutic effect on VC has not been demonstrated. Using an in vitro model (rat thoracic aortic smooth muscle cell line A7r5), we demonstrated effective inhibition of VC using calycosin (the primary flavonoid component of astragalus), based on the enhancement of autophagic flux. Calycosin treatment activated AMPK/mTOR signaling to induce initiation of autophagy and restored mTORC1-dependent autophagosome–lysosome fusion in late-stage autophagy by promoting soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complex formation, thereby preventing stoppage of autophagy in calcified cells. Calycosin substantially reduced degrees of both osteogenic differentiation and calcium deposition in our VC cell model by enhancing autophagy. The present findings clarify the mechanism whereby calycosin mitigates autophagy stoppage in calcified smooth muscle cells and provide a basis for effective VC treatment via autophagy enhancement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Nutrition in Cancer and Neurodegenerative Diseases)
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17 pages, 2020 KiB  
Review
Nutrient-Based Approaches for Melanoma: Prevention and Therapeutic Insights
by Yucheng Dong, Jiaxin Wei, Fan Yang, Yang Qu, Jiuzuo Huang and Di Shi
Nutrients 2023, 15(20), 4483; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15204483 - 23 Oct 2023
Viewed by 2174
Abstract
Melanoma, a prevalent and lethal form of skin cancer, remains a formidable challenge in terms of prevention and treatment. While significant progress has been made in understanding its pathogenesis and treatment, the quest for effective prevention strategies and therapeutic approaches remains ongoing. Considering [...] Read more.
Melanoma, a prevalent and lethal form of skin cancer, remains a formidable challenge in terms of prevention and treatment. While significant progress has been made in understanding its pathogenesis and treatment, the quest for effective prevention strategies and therapeutic approaches remains ongoing. Considering the increased advancements in understanding the dynamic interplay between nutrients and melanoma, we aim to offer a refreshed perspective on nutrient-based approaches for melanoma prevention and adjunctive therapy. In contrast to other studies, we have innovatively provided a detailed exposition of the nutrients’ influences on melanoma prognosis and treatment. This review firstly examines various nutrients, including antioxidants (namely vitamins A, D, C, and E; selenium; and caffeine), polyunsaturated fatty acids, and flavonoids, for their effects and underlying mechanisms in reducing melanoma risk. Among these nutrients, caffeine shows the most promising potential, as it is supported by multiple cohort studies for its protective effect against melanoma. In contrast, there is a certain degree of inconsistency in the research of other nutrients, possibly due to inherent differences between animal studies and epidemiological research, as well as variations in the definition of nutrient intake. To comprehensively investigate the impact of nutrients on melanoma progression and therapeutic approaches, the following sections will explore how nutrients influence immune responses and other physiological processes. While there is robust support from cell and animal studies regarding the immunomodulatory attributes of vitamins D and zinc, the anti-angiogenic potential of polyphenols, and the cell growth-inhibitory effects of flavonoids, the limited availability of human-based research substantially constrains their practical relevance in clinical contexts. As for utilizing nutrients in adjuvant melanoma treatments, multiple approaches have garnered clinical research support, including the utilization of vitamin D to decrease the postoperative recurrence rates among melanoma patients and the adoption of a high-fiber diet to enhance the effectiveness of immunotherapy. In general, the effects of most nutrients on reducing the risk of melanoma are not entirely clear. However, several nutrients, including vitamin D and dietary fiber, have demonstrated their potential to improve the melanoma prognosis and enhance the treatment outcomes, making them particularly deserving of clinical attention. A personalized and interdisciplinary approach, involving dermatologists, oncologists, nutritionists, and researchers, holds the promise of optimizing melanoma treatment strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Nutrition in Cancer and Neurodegenerative Diseases)
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11 pages, 1234 KiB  
Article
Impact of 12 Weeks of Vitamin D3 Administration in Parkinson’s Patients with Deep Brain Stimulation on Kynurenine Pathway and Inflammatory Status
by Zofia Kinga Bytowska, Daria Korewo-Labelle, Konrad Kowalski, Witold Libionka, Katarzyna Przewłócka, Wojciech Kloc and Jan Jacek Kaczor
Nutrients 2023, 15(17), 3839; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15173839 - 2 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1550
Abstract
The current study aimed to investigate whether a 12-week Body Mass Index (BMI)-based (the higher the BMI, the higher the dosage) vitamin D3 administration may affect both the kynurenine pathway (KP) and the inflammatory state in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients with deep [...] Read more.
The current study aimed to investigate whether a 12-week Body Mass Index (BMI)-based (the higher the BMI, the higher the dosage) vitamin D3 administration may affect both the kynurenine pathway (KP) and the inflammatory state in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients with deep brain stimulation (DBS) and may be useful for developing novel therapeutic targets against PD. Patients were randomly assigned to two groups: supplemented with vitamin D3 (VitD, n = 15) and treated with vegetable oil (PL, n = 21). Administration lasted for 12 weeks. The isotope dilution method by LC-MS/MS was applied to measure KP and vitamin D metabolites. Serum concentrations of cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α were measured using ELISA kits. After administration, the serum concentration of TNF-α decreased in PD patients with DBS. Moreover, in KP: 3-hydroksykynurenine (3-HK) was increased in the PL group, picolinic acid was decreased in the PL group, and kynurenic acid tended to be higher after administration. Furthermore, a negative correlation between 3-HK and 25(OH)D3 and 24,25(OH)2D3 was noticed. Our preliminary results provide further evidence regarding a key link between the KP substances, inflammation status, and metabolites of vitamin D in PD patients with DBS. These findings may reflect the neuroprotective abilities of vitamin D3 in PD patients with DBS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Nutrition in Cancer and Neurodegenerative Diseases)
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17 pages, 1754 KiB  
Review
Relationship between Bladder Cancer, Nutritional Supply, and Treatment Strategies: A Comprehensive Review
by Fan Yang, Guanmo Liu, Jiaxin Wei, Yucheng Dong, Xuebin Zhang and Yongchang Zheng
Nutrients 2023, 15(17), 3812; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15173812 - 31 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2159
Abstract
Bladder cancer (BC) is the predominant neoplasm affecting the urinary system and ranks among the most widespread malignancies globally. The causes of bladder cancer include genetic factors; age; sex; and lifestyle factors, such as imbalanced nutrition, obesity, and metabolic disorders. The lack of [...] Read more.
Bladder cancer (BC) is the predominant neoplasm affecting the urinary system and ranks among the most widespread malignancies globally. The causes of bladder cancer include genetic factors; age; sex; and lifestyle factors, such as imbalanced nutrition, obesity, and metabolic disorders. The lack of proper nutrient intake leads to the development of bladder cancer because insufficient nutrients are consumed to prevent this disease. The purpose of this review was to analyze the nutrients closely linked to the onset and advancement of bladder cancer and to explore the relationship between dietary nutrients and bladder cancer. Particular emphasis was placed on nutrients that are frequently ingested in daily life, including sugar, fat, protein, and others. The focus of this research was to analyze how nutritional intake before and after surgery affects the recovery process of patients who have been diagnosed with bladder cancer. This article seeks to increase awareness among both society and the medical community about the significance of implementing appropriate dietary nutrition to reduce the chances of developing bladder cancer, enhance perioperative care for patients with bladder cancer, and aid in their recuperation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Nutrition in Cancer and Neurodegenerative Diseases)
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23 pages, 5544 KiB  
Article
Involvement of Nrf2 Activation and NF-kB Pathway Inhibition in the Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Hesperetin in Activated BV-2 Microglial Cells
by Jasmine A. Evans, Patricia Mendonca and Karam F. A. Soliman
Brain Sci. 2023, 13(8), 1144; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci13081144 - 29 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1863
Abstract
Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder leading to cognitive decline and memory loss. The incidence of this disease continues to increase due to the limited number of novel therapeutics that prevent or slow down its progression. Flavonoids have been investigated for their [...] Read more.
Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder leading to cognitive decline and memory loss. The incidence of this disease continues to increase due to the limited number of novel therapeutics that prevent or slow down its progression. Flavonoids have been investigated for their potential effects on cellular damage triggered by excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) and neuroinflammatory conditions. This study investigated the effect of the flavonoid hesperetin on LPS-activated murine BV-2 microglial cells. Results show that hesperetin reduced nitric oxide levels and increased catalase, glutathione, and superoxide dismutase levels, suggesting its potential to reduce neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. Moreover, RT-PCR arrays showed that hesperetin modulated multiple genes that regulate oxidative stress. Hesperetin downregulated the mRNA expression of ERCC6, NOS2, and NCF1 and upregulated HMOX1 and GCLC. RT-PCR results showed that hesperetin-induced Nrf2 mRNA and protein expression in LPS-activated BV-2 microglial cells is involved in the transcription of several antioxidant genes, suggesting that hesperetin’s antioxidant effects may be exerted via the Keap1/Nrf2 signaling pathway. Furthermore, the data demonstrated that hesperetin reduced the gene expression of PD-L1, which is upregulated as an individual ages and during chronic inflammatory processes, and inhibited the expression of genes associated with NF-kB signaling activation, which is overactivated during chronic inflammation. It was concluded from this investigation that hesperetin may have therapeutic potential to prevent or slow down the progression of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, by reducing chronic oxidative stress and modulating neuroinflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Nutrition in Cancer and Neurodegenerative Diseases)
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16 pages, 1337 KiB  
Article
Phytochemicals and Glioma: Results from Dietary Mixed Exposure
by Weichunbai Zhang, Ce Wang, Feng Chen, Yongqi He, Shuo Yin, Yue Peng and Wenbin Li
Brain Sci. 2023, 13(6), 902; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci13060902 - 2 Jun 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1399
Abstract
The information about phytochemicals’ potential to prevent cancer is encouraging, including for glioma. However, most studies on phytochemicals and glioma mainly focused on preclinical studies. Their epidemiological studies were not sufficient, and the evidence on the dose–response relationship is usually limited. Therefore, this [...] Read more.
The information about phytochemicals’ potential to prevent cancer is encouraging, including for glioma. However, most studies on phytochemicals and glioma mainly focused on preclinical studies. Their epidemiological studies were not sufficient, and the evidence on the dose–response relationship is usually limited. Therefore, this investigation examined the association between dietary phytochemical intake and glioma in Chinese adults. This case–control study was carried out in a hospital in China. Based on the dietary information obtained from the food frequency questionnaire, the researchers estimated the phytochemical intake of 506 patients with glioma and 506 controls. Compared with participants in the lowest tertile, the highest intakes of carotene, flavonoids, soy isoflavones, anthocyanin, and resveratrol were associated with a reduced risk of glioma. The WQS and BKMR models suggested that anthocyanin and carotene have a greater influence on glioma. The significant nonlinear dose–response associations between dietary phytochemicals and glioma were suggested using the restricted cubic spline function. According to this study on phytochemicals and glioma, higher intakes of carotene, flavonoids, soy isoflavones, anthocyanins, and resveratrol are linked to a lower risk of glioma. So, we might not be able to ignore how phytochemicals affect gliomas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Nutrition in Cancer and Neurodegenerative Diseases)
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9 pages, 2813 KiB  
Communication
Mucin Binding Protein of Lactobacillus casei Inhibits HT-29 Colorectal Cancer Cell Proliferation
by Xuan Ju, Xi Wu, Yukun Chen, Shanshan Cui, Zixuan Cai, Liang Zhao, Yanling Hao, Feng Zhou, Fang Chen, Zhengquan Yu and Dong Yang
Nutrients 2023, 15(10), 2314; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15102314 - 15 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1706
Abstract
Many Lactobacillus casei strains are reported to exhibit anti-proliferative effects on colorectal cancer cells; however, the mechanism remains largely unknown. While there has been considerable interest in bacterial small metabolites such as short chain fatty acids, prior reports suggested that larger-sized molecules mediate [...] Read more.
Many Lactobacillus casei strains are reported to exhibit anti-proliferative effects on colorectal cancer cells; however, the mechanism remains largely unknown. While there has been considerable interest in bacterial small metabolites such as short chain fatty acids, prior reports suggested that larger-sized molecules mediate the anti-proliferative effect of L. casei. Here, other possible ways of communication between gut bacteria and its host are investigated. LevH1 is a protein displayed on the surface of L. casei, and its mucin binding domain is highly conserved. Based on previous reports that the cell-free supernatant fractions decreased colorectal cell proliferation, we cloned the mucin binding domain of the LevH1 protein, expressed and purified this mucin binding protein (MucBP). It has a molecular weight of 10 kDa, is encoded by a 250 bp gene, and is composed primarily of a β-strand, β-turns, and random coils. The amino acid sequence is conserved while the 36th amino acid residue is arginine in L. casei CAUH35 and serine in L. casei IAM1045, LOCK919, 12A, and Zhang. MucBP36R exhibited dose-dependent anti-proliferative effects against HT-29 cells while a mutation of 36S abolished this activity. Predicted structures suggest that this mutation slightly altered the protein structure, thus possibly affecting subsequent communication with HT-29 cells. Our study identified a novel mode of communication between gut bacteria and their host. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Nutrition in Cancer and Neurodegenerative Diseases)
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15 pages, 1418 KiB  
Article
Consumption of Coffee and Tea Is Associated with Macular Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness: Results from the UK Biobank
by Yixiong Yuan, Gabriella Bulloch, Shiran Zhang, Yanping Chen, Shaopeng Yang, Wei Wang, Zhuoting Zhu and Mingguang He
Nutrients 2023, 15(5), 1196; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15051196 - 27 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 8540
Abstract
Coffee and tea drinking are thought to be protective for the development and progression of neurodegenerative disorders. This study aims to investigate associations between coffee and tea consumption with macular retinal nerve fiber layer (mRNFL) thickness, a marker of neurodegeneration. After quality control [...] Read more.
Coffee and tea drinking are thought to be protective for the development and progression of neurodegenerative disorders. This study aims to investigate associations between coffee and tea consumption with macular retinal nerve fiber layer (mRNFL) thickness, a marker of neurodegeneration. After quality control and eligibility screening, 35,557 out of 67,321 United Kingdom (UK) Biobank participants from six assessment centers were included in this cross-sectional study. In the touchscreen questionnaire, participants were asked how many cups of coffee and tea were consumed daily on average over the last year. Self-reported coffee and tea consumption were divided into four categories including 0 cup/day, 0.5–1 cups/day, 2–3 cups/day, and ≥4 cups/day, respectively. The mRNFL thickness was measured by the optical coherence tomography (Topcon 3D OCT-1000 Mark II) and automatically analyzed by segmentation algorithms. After adjusting for covariates, coffee consumption was significantly associated with an increased mRNFL thickness (β = 0.13, 95% CI = 0.01~0.25), which was more prominent in those who drank 2~3 cups coffee per day (β = 0.16, 95% CI = 0.03~0.30). The mRNFL thickness was also significantly increased in tea drinkers (β = 0.13, 95% CI = 0.01~0.26), especially for those who drank more than 4 cups of tea per day (β = 0.15, 95% CI = 0.01~0.29). The positive associations with mRNFL thickness, indicating that both coffee and tea consumptions had likely neuroprotective potentials. Causal links and underlying mechanisms for these associations should be explored further. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Nutrition in Cancer and Neurodegenerative Diseases)
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Epidemiology)
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19 pages, 6971 KiB  
Article
A Single Strain of Lactobacillus (CGMCC 21661) Exhibits Stable Glucose- and Lipid-Lowering Effects by Regulating Gut Microbiota
by Yuying Wang, Xiaozhong Wang, Xinzhu Xiao, Shufang Yu, Wennan Huang, Benqiang Rao and Fenglin Chen
Nutrients 2023, 15(3), 670; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15030670 - 28 Jan 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2475
Abstract
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is usually accompanied by obesity and nonalcoholic fatty-liver-related insulin resistance. The link between T2D and dysbiosis has been receiving increasing attention. Probiotics can improve insulin sensitivity by regulating imbalances in microbiota, but efficacy varies based on the probiotic used. [...] Read more.
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is usually accompanied by obesity and nonalcoholic fatty-liver-related insulin resistance. The link between T2D and dysbiosis has been receiving increasing attention. Probiotics can improve insulin sensitivity by regulating imbalances in microbiota, but efficacy varies based on the probiotic used. This study screened the main strain in the feces of healthy adult mice and found it to be a new Lactobacillus (abbreviated as Lb., named as CGMCC No. 21661) after genetic testing. We designed the most common Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum (CGMCC1.2186, abbreviated as B. longum. subsp.), fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), and Lb. CGMCC No. 21661 protocols to explore the best way for modulating dysbiosis to improve T2D. After 6 weeks of gavage in T2D mice, it was found that all three protocols had a therapeutic alleviating effect. Among them, compared with the B. longum. subsp. and FMT, the Lb. CGMCC No. 21661 showed a 1- to 2-fold decrease in blood glucose (11.84 ± 1.29 mmol/L, p < 0.05), the lowest HOMA-IR (p < 0.05), a 1 fold increase in serum glucagon-like peptide-1 (5.84 ± 1.1 pmol/L, p < 0.05), and lowest blood lipids (total cholesterol, 2.21 ± 0.68 mmol/L, p < 0.01; triglycerides, 0.4 ± 0.15 mmol/L, p < 0.01; Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, 0.53 ± 0.16 mmol/L, p < 0.01). In addition, tissue staining in the Lb. CGMCC No. 21661 showed a 2- to 3-fold reduction in T2D-induced fatty liver (p < 0.0001), a 1- to 2-fold decrease in pancreatic apoptotic cells (p < 0.05), and a significant increase in colonic mucus layer thickness (p < 0.05) compared with the B. longum. subsp. and FMT. The glucose and lipid lowering effects of this Lb. CGMCC No. 21661 indicate that it may provide new ideas for the treatment of diabetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Nutrition in Cancer and Neurodegenerative Diseases)
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11 pages, 687 KiB  
Article
Dietary Factors and Endometrial Cancer Risk: A Mendelian Randomization Study
by Xuemin Wang, Dylan M. Glubb and Tracy A. O’Mara
Nutrients 2023, 15(3), 603; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15030603 - 24 Jan 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 5750
Abstract
Given the strong association between obesity and endometrial cancer risk, dietary factors may play an important role in the development of this cancer. However, observational studies of micro- and macronutrients and their role in endometrial cancer risk have been inconsistent. Clarifying these relationships [...] Read more.
Given the strong association between obesity and endometrial cancer risk, dietary factors may play an important role in the development of this cancer. However, observational studies of micro- and macronutrients and their role in endometrial cancer risk have been inconsistent. Clarifying these relationships are important to develop nutritional recommendations for cancer prevention. We performed two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) to investigate the effects of circulating levels of 15 micronutrients (vitamin A (retinol), folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, β-carotene, calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, selenium, and zinc) as well as corrected relative macronutrient intake (protein, carbohydrate, sugar and fat) on risks of endometrial cancer and its subtypes (endometrioid and non-endometrioid histologies). Genetically predicted vitamin C levels were found to be strongly associated with endometrial cancer risk. There was some evidence that genetically predicted relative intake of macronutrients (carbohydrate, sugar and fat) affects endometrial cancer risk. No other significant association were observed. Conclusions: In summary, these findings suggest that vitamin C and macronutrients influence endometrial cancer risk but further investigation is required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Nutrition in Cancer and Neurodegenerative Diseases)
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12 pages, 2727 KiB  
Article
Effects of Glucomannan Supplementation on Type II Diabetes Mellitus in Humans: A Meta-Analysis
by Zhanzhi Zhang, Yu Zhang, Xiaomei Tao, Yuying Wang, Benqiang Rao and Hanping Shi
Nutrients 2023, 15(3), 601; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15030601 - 24 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3290
Abstract
The hypoglycemic and lipid-lowering effects of glucomannan are widely known, and it is a potential effective treatment for type II diabetes. In this study, we evaluated the effects of glucomannan supplementation on blood-lipid-related indicators, blood-glucose-related indicators, blood pressure (BP), and body weight (BW) [...] Read more.
The hypoglycemic and lipid-lowering effects of glucomannan are widely known, and it is a potential effective treatment for type II diabetes. In this study, we evaluated the effects of glucomannan supplementation on blood-lipid-related indicators, blood-glucose-related indicators, blood pressure (BP), and body weight (BW) in patients suffering from type II diabetes. We searched databases including PubMed, Cochrane, the comprehensive biomedical research database (Embase), Web of Science, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) for literature on glucomannan and type II diabetes. Six randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were eligible (n = 440 participants) to be included in our analysis. Glucomannan not only reduced the total cholesterol (TC) (MD −0.38 [95% CI: −0.61, −0.15], p = 0.001) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels (MD −0.35 [95% CI: −0.52, −0.17], p < 0.0001) compared with the control group, but also reduced the fasting blood glucose (FBG) (MD −1.08 [95% CI: −1.65, −0.50], p = 0.0002), 2 h postprandial blood glucose (P2hBG) (MD −1.92 [95% CI: −3.19, −0.65], p = 0.003), fasting insulin (FINS) (MD −1.59 [95% CI: −2.69, −0.50], p = 0.004), and serum fructosamine (SFRA) levels (SMD −1.19 [95% CI: −1.74, −0.64], p < 0.0001). Our analysis indicates that glucomannan is an effective nutritional intervention for type II diabetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Nutrition in Cancer and Neurodegenerative Diseases)
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15 pages, 454 KiB  
Review
Intermittent Fasting in Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review and Critical Update of Available Studies
by Marios Anemoulis, Antonios Vlastos, Vasileios Kachtsidis and Spyridon N. Karras
Nutrients 2023, 15(3), 532; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15030532 - 19 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 6085
Abstract
Breast cancer (BC) is the most-frequent malignancy amongst women, whereas obesity and excess caloric consumption increase the risk for developing the disease. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the impact of intermittent fasting (IF) on previously diagnosed BC patients, regarding [...] Read more.
Breast cancer (BC) is the most-frequent malignancy amongst women, whereas obesity and excess caloric consumption increase the risk for developing the disease. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the impact of intermittent fasting (IF) on previously diagnosed BC patients, regarding quality of life (QoL) scores during chemotherapy, chemotherapy-induced toxicity, radiological response and BC recurrence, endocrine-related outcomes, as well as IF-induced adverse effects in these populations. A comprehensive search was conducted between 31 December 2010 and 31 October 2022, using the PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane, Web of Science, and Scopus databases. Two investigators independently performed abstract screenings, full-text screenings, and data extraction, and the Mixed Method Appraisal Tool (MMAT) was used to evaluate the quality of the selected studies. We screened 468 papers, 10 of which were selected for data synthesis. All patients were female adults whose age ranged between 27 and 78 years. Participants in all studies were women diagnosed with BC of one of the following stages: I, II (HER2−/+), III (HER2−/+), IV, LUMINAL-A, LUMINAL-B (HER2−/+). Notably, IF during chemotherapy was found to be feasible, safe and able to relieve chemotherapy-induced adverse effects and cytotoxicity. IF seemed to improve QoL during chemotherapy, through the reduction of fatigue, nausea and headaches, however data were characterized as low quality. IF was found to reduce chemotherapy-induced DNA damage and augmented optimal glycemic regulation, improving serum glucose, insulin, and IGF-1 concentrations. A remarkable heterogeneity of duration of dietary patterns was observed among available studies. In conclusion, we failed to identify any IF-related beneficial effects on the QoL, response after chemotherapy or related symptoms, as well as measures of tumor recurrence in BC patients. We identified a potential beneficial effect of IF on chemotherapy-induced toxicity, based on markers of DNA and leukocyte damage; however, these results were derived from three studies and require further validation. Further studies with appropriate design and larger sample sizes are warranted to elucidate its potential standard incorporation in daily clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Nutrition in Cancer and Neurodegenerative Diseases)
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8 pages, 2058 KiB  
Communication
Molecular Mechanism of Cyanidin-3-O-Glucoside Disassembling Aβ Fibril In Silico
by Jihui Gao, Jiahui Fu, Xiaoyu Gao and Dong Yang
Nutrients 2023, 15(1), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15010109 - 26 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1807
Abstract
The deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) in the brain leads to neurotoxic effects and subsequent Alzheimer’s disease (AD). While AD is becoming more and more prevalent in modern society, therapeutic efforts targeting Aβ could be a promising solution. Currently, two natural products are reported [...] Read more.
The deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) in the brain leads to neurotoxic effects and subsequent Alzheimer’s disease (AD). While AD is becoming more and more prevalent in modern society, therapeutic efforts targeting Aβ could be a promising solution. Currently, two natural products are reported to disintegrate preformed Aβ fibril in vitro. Meanwhile, the chemical driving force behind this phenomenon remains unknown. Taking cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (Cy-3G) as an example, here we studied its interaction with different Aβ polymorphs in silico. Negative charges on different Aβ polymorphs draw the interaction with the flavylium cation on Cy-3G. Our results show that Aβ in a single peptide form in solution exposed more hydrophobic solvent accessible surface area than its fibril structure (per protomer), and Cy-3G interacts more intensively with the single peptide form than fibril as indicated by more hydrogen bonding formed and more amino acid residues involved in their hydrophobic interactions. Thus, the single Aβ peptide aggregation into fibril and fibril dissociation into single peptide equilibrium could be disturbed by the preferential binding of Cy-3G to the monomeric Aβ peptide, which leads to the disassembly of the pathogenic Aβ fibril. This study offers a novel perspective of Cy-3G alleviated AD syndrome beyond its dogmatic antioxidant activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Nutrition in Cancer and Neurodegenerative Diseases)
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12 pages, 324 KiB  
Article
Adherence to Pro-Vegetarian Food Patterns and Risk of Oesophagus, Stomach, and Pancreas Cancers: A Multi Case–Control Study (The PANESOES Study)
by Alejandro Oncina-Cánovas, Sandra González-Palacios, Leyre Notario-Barandiaran, Laura Torres-Collado, Antonio Signes-Pastor, Enrique de-Madaria, Miguel Santibañez, Manuela García-de la Hera and Jesús Vioque
Nutrients 2022, 14(24), 5288; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14245288 - 12 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3286
Abstract
We aimed to evaluate the association between three previously defined pro-vegetarian (PVG) food patterns and the cancers of the oesophagus, stomach, and pancreas in a multi case–control study. We analyzed data from a multi-case hospital-based study carried out in two Mediterranean provinces in [...] Read more.
We aimed to evaluate the association between three previously defined pro-vegetarian (PVG) food patterns and the cancers of the oesophagus, stomach, and pancreas in a multi case–control study. We analyzed data from a multi-case hospital-based study carried out in two Mediterranean provinces in Spain. A total of 1233 participants were included in the analyses: 778 incident cancer cases, histologically confirmed (199 oesophagus, 414 stomach, and 165 pancreas) and 455 controls. A dietary assessment was performed using a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Three PVG food patterns (general, healthful, and unhealthful) were estimated using 12 food groups for the general PVG (gPVG), scoring positive plant-based foods and negative animal-based foods, and 18 food groups, for the healthful (hPVG) and unhealthful (uPVG) food patterns. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate relative risk ratios (RRR) and confidence intervals (95% CI) for quintiles of adherence to PVG patterns and as a continuous variable. The RRR (95% CI) for the highest vs. the lowest quintile of gPVG were, RRR = 0.37 (0.32, 0.42) for the oesophagus, RRR = 0.34 (0.27, 0.43) for the stomach, and RRR = 0.43 (0.35, 0.52) for pancreas cancer. For the hPVG, the RRR were RRR = 0.72 (0.58, 0.90) for the oesophagus, RRR = 0.42 (0.34, 0.52) for the stomach, and RRR = 0.74 (0.59, 0.92) for pancreas cancer. The uPVG was associated with a higher risk of stomach cancer RRR = 1.76 (1.42, 2.18). Higher adherence to gPVG and hPVG food patterns is associated with a lower risk of oesophageal, stomach, and pancreas cancers, while a higher adherence to a uPVG food pattern is associated with a higher risk of stomach cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Nutrition in Cancer and Neurodegenerative Diseases)
16 pages, 2017 KiB  
Article
Mid-Arm Muscle Circumference or Body Weight-Standardized Hand Grip Strength in the GLIM Superiorly Predicts Survival in Chinese Colorectal Cancer Patients
by Tiantian Wu, Hongxia Xu, Yuanlin Zou, Jiuwei Cui, Kedi Xu, Mingming Zhou, Pengxia Guo, Haoqing Cheng, Hanping Shi, Chunhua Song and The Investigation on Nutrition Status and its Clinical Outcome of Common Cancers (INSCOC) Group
Nutrients 2022, 14(23), 5166; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14235166 - 5 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2815
Abstract
Our objective was to identify the optimal method to assess reduced muscle mass (RMM) using the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) approach and investigate the roles of the GLIM approach in nutrition assessment and survival prediction in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. During [...] Read more.
Our objective was to identify the optimal method to assess reduced muscle mass (RMM) using the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) approach and investigate the roles of the GLIM approach in nutrition assessment and survival prediction in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. During a median follow-up period of 4.2 (4.0, 4.4) years, a development cohort of 3612 CRC patients with a mean age of 64.09 ± 12.45 years was observed, as well as an external validation cohort of 875 CRC patients. Kaplan–Meier curves and multivariate Cox regression were adopted to analyze the association between GLIM-diagnosed malnutrition and the overall survival (OS) of CRC patients. A nomogram predicting individualized survival was constructed based on independent prognostic predictors. The concordance index, calibration curve, and decision curve were applied to appraise the discrimination, accuracy, and clinical efficacy of the nomogram, respectively. Patients diagnosed with severe malnutrition based on either the mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC) or body weight-standardized hand grip strength (HGS/W) method had the highest mortality hazard ratio (HR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.34–1.70; p < 0.001). GLIM-defined malnutrition was diagnosed in 47.6% of patients. Severe malnutrition was an independent mortality risk factor for OS (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.10–1.42; p < 0.001). The GLIM nomogram showed good performance in predicting the survival of CRC patients and was clinically beneficial. Our findings support the effectiveness of GLIM in diagnosing malnutrition and predicting OS in CRC patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Nutrition in Cancer and Neurodegenerative Diseases)
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17 pages, 2935 KiB  
Article
Longitudinal Associations of Adherence to the Dietary World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) and Dutch Healthy Diet (DHD) Recommendations with Plasma Kynurenines in Colorectal Cancer Survivors after Treatment
by Daniëlle D. B. Holthuijsen, Martijn J. L. Bours, Eline H. van Roekel, Stéphanie O. Breukink, Maryska L. G. Janssen-Heijnen, Eric T. P. Keulen, Per M. Ueland, Øivind Midttun, Stefanie Brezina, Biljana Gigic, Andrea Gsur, Dieuwertje E. Kok, Jennifer Ose, Cornelia M. Ulrich, Matty P. Weijenberg and Simone J. P. M. Eussen
Nutrients 2022, 14(23), 5151; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14235151 - 3 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2726
Abstract
The tryptophan-kynurenine pathway has been linked to cancer aetiology and survivorship, and diet potentially affects metabolites of this pathway, but evidence to date is scarce. Among 247 stage I-III CRC survivors, repeated measurements were performed at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year [...] Read more.
The tryptophan-kynurenine pathway has been linked to cancer aetiology and survivorship, and diet potentially affects metabolites of this pathway, but evidence to date is scarce. Among 247 stage I-III CRC survivors, repeated measurements were performed at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year post-treatment. Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/ American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF) and Dutch Healthy Diet (DHD) recommendations was operationalized using seven-day dietary records. Plasma kynurenines of nine metabolites were analysed. Longitudinal associations of adherence to these dietary patterns and plasma kynurenines were analysed using confounder-adjusted linear mixed-models. In general, higher adherence to the dietary WCRF/AICR and DHD recommendations was associated with lower concentrations of kynurenines with pro-oxidative, pro-inflammatory, and neurotoxic properties (3-hydroxykynurenine (HK) and quinolinic acid (QA)), and higher concentrations of kynurenines with anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective properties (kynurenic acid (KA) and picolinic acid (Pic)), but associations were weak and not statistically significant. Statistically significant positive associations between individual recommendations and kynurenines were observed for: nuts with kynurenic-acid-to-quinolinic-acid ratio (KA/QA); alcohol with KA/QA, KA, and xanthurenic acid (XA); red meat with XA; and cheese with XA. Statistically significant inverse associations were observed for: nuts with kynurenine-to-tryptophan ratio (KTR) and hydroxykynurenine ratio; alcohol with KTR; red meat with 3-hydroxyanthranilic-to-3-hydroxykynurenine ratio; ultra-processed foods with XA and KA/QA; and sweetened beverages with KA/QA. Our findings suggest that CRC survivors might benefit from adhering to the dietary WCRF and DHD recommendations in the first year after treatment, as higher adherence to these dietary patterns is generally, but weakly associated with more favourable concentrations of kynurenines and their ratios. These results need to be validated in other studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Nutrition in Cancer and Neurodegenerative Diseases)
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12 pages, 1403 KiB  
Article
The Association of Serum L-Carnitine Concentrations with the Risk of Cancer in Chinese Adults with Hypertension
by Tong Liu, Chenan Liu, Xiaomeng Wang, Yaping Wei, Shuqun Li, Yun Song, Ping Chen, Lishun Liu, Binyan Wang and Hanping Shi
Nutrients 2022, 14(23), 4999; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14234999 - 24 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1779
Abstract
Background: The effect of serum L-carnitine (LC) concentrations on cancer risk remains unclear. This study aims to explore the association between serum LC and the risk of incident cancer. Methods: This is a case-control study, including 574 patients with incident cancer and 574 [...] Read more.
Background: The effect of serum L-carnitine (LC) concentrations on cancer risk remains unclear. This study aims to explore the association between serum LC and the risk of incident cancer. Methods: This is a case-control study, including 574 patients with incident cancer and 574 controls matched in a 1:1 ratio by age, sex, and residence, nested within the China H-Type Hypertension Registry Study (CHHRS). Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association of serum LC and incident cancer risk. Results: When LC was assessed as quartiles, compared with patients with low LC (Q1), patients in the highest quartile (Q4) had a 33% (OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.46 to 0.99), 52% (OR = 0.48, 95% CI: 0.23 to 0.99), and 39% (OR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.38 to 0.99) decreased risk of overall, digestive system, and non-digestive system cancer in the adjusted models, respectively. In subgroup analyses, an inverse association of LC with cancer risk was observed in individuals who were overweight (obese), who never drink, who never smoke, and who were female. In the mediation analysis, serum trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) concentrations did not mediate the reversed association of LC with cancer risk. Conclusions: This study showed that serum LC concentrations had a protective impact on overall, digestive system, and non-digestive system cancer risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Nutrition in Cancer and Neurodegenerative Diseases)
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11 pages, 1020 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Prognostic Capacity of a Novel Survival Marker in Patients with Sinonasal Squamous Cell Carcinoma
by Faris F. Brkic, Stefan Stoiber, Sega Al-Gboore, Clemens Quint, Julia Schnoell, Alexandra Scheiflinger, Gregor Heiduschka, Markus Brunner and Lorenz Kadletz-Wanke
Nutrients 2022, 14(20), 4337; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14204337 - 17 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1472
Abstract
Sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma (SNSCC) is a malignant tumor associated with poor survival, and easily obtainable prognostic markers are of high interest. Therefore, we aimed to assess the prognostic value of a novel survival index (SI) combining prognostic values of clinical (T and [...] Read more.
Sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma (SNSCC) is a malignant tumor associated with poor survival, and easily obtainable prognostic markers are of high interest. Therefore, we aimed to assess the prognostic value of a novel survival index (SI) combining prognostic values of clinical (T and N classifications and invasion across Ohngren’s line), inflammatory (neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio), and nutritional (albumin and body-mass index) markers. All patients with primarily treated SNSCC between 2002 and 2020 (n = 51) were included. Each of the six SI components was stratified into a low- (0) and high-risk (1) categories. Subsequently, the cohort was stratified into low- (SI of 0–2) and high-risk SI groups (SI of 3–6). Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were compared between patients with low- and high-risk SI. The log-rank test was used to test for statistical significance. Overall, the mortality rate was 41.2% (n = 21), and the recurrence rate was 43.1% (n = 22). We observed significantly better OS in patients with low-risk SI (n = 24/51, 47.1%, mean OS: 7.9 years, 95% confidence interval (CI): 6.3–9.6 years) than in high-risk SI (n = 27/51, 52.9%, mean OS: 3.4 years, 95% CI: 2.2–4.5 years; p = 0.013). Moreover, we also showed that patients with low-risk SI had a longer DFS than patients with high-risk SI (mean DFS: 6.4, 95% CI: 4.8–8.0 vs. mean DFS: 2.4 years, 95% CI 1.3–3.5, p = 0.012). The SI combines the prognostic capacity of well-established clinical, radiologic, inflammatory, and nutritional prognosticators and showed prognostic potential in our cohort of SNSCC patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Nutrition in Cancer and Neurodegenerative Diseases)
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