Next Issue
Previous Issue

E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Table of Contents

Nutrients, Volume 10, Issue 3 (March 2018)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) Dietary fibers are indigestible food compounds widely recognized to be beneficial for metabolic [...] Read more.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-125
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle Beneficial Effect of Jojoba Seed Extracts on Hyperglycemia-Induced Oxidative Stress in RINm5f Beta Cells
Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 384; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030384
Received: 18 January 2018 / Revised: 12 March 2018 / Accepted: 15 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
PDF Full-text (1437 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Hyperglycemia occurs during diabetes and insulin resistance. It causes oxidative stress by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, leading to cellular damage. Polyphenols play a central role in defense against oxidative stress. In our study, we investigated the antioxidant properties of simmondsin, a
[...] Read more.
Hyperglycemia occurs during diabetes and insulin resistance. It causes oxidative stress by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, leading to cellular damage. Polyphenols play a central role in defense against oxidative stress. In our study, we investigated the antioxidant properties of simmondsin, a pure molecule present in jojoba seeds, and of the aqueous extract of jojoba seeds on fructose-induced oxidative stress in RINm5f beta cells. The exposure of RINm5f beta cells to fructose triggered the loss of cell viability (−48%, p < 0.001) and disruption of insulin secretion (p < 0.001) associated with of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and a modulation of pro-oxidant and antioxidant signaling pathway. Cell pre-treatments with extracts considerably increased cell viability (+86% p < 0.001) for simmondsin and +74% (p < 0.001) for aqueous extract and insulin secretion. The extracts also markedly decreased ROS (−69% (p < 0.001) for simmondsin and −59% (p < 0.001) for aqueous extract) and caspase-3 activation and improved antioxidant defense, inhibiting p22phox and increasing nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) levels (+70%, p < 0.001) for aqueous extract. Simmondsin had no impact on Nrf2 levels. The richness and diversity of molecules present in jojoba seed extract makes jojoba a powerful agent to prevent the destruction of RINm5f beta cells induced by hyperglycemia. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Effects of Different Dietary and Lifestyle Modification Therapies on Metabolic Syndrome in Prediabetic Arab Patients: A 12-Month Longitudinal Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 383; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030383
Received: 12 February 2018 / Revised: 5 March 2018 / Accepted: 15 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
PDF Full-text (1439 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This three-arm, randomized, controlled study aimed to determine the differences in the effects of general advice (GA) on lifestyle change, intensive lifestyle modification programme (ILMP) and GA + metformin (GA + Met) in reducing the prevalence of full metabolic syndrome (MetS) in subjects
[...] Read more.
This three-arm, randomized, controlled study aimed to determine the differences in the effects of general advice (GA) on lifestyle change, intensive lifestyle modification programme (ILMP) and GA + metformin (GA + Met) in reducing the prevalence of full metabolic syndrome (MetS) in subjects with prediabetes; 294 Saudis with prediabetes (fasting glucose 5.6–6.9 mmol/L) were initially randomized, 263 completed 6 months and 237 completed 12 months. They were allocated into three groups: GA group which received a standard lifestyle change education; ILMP which followed a rigorous lifestyle modification support on diet and physical activity; and a GA + Met group. Anthropometric and biochemical estimations were measured. Full MetS (primary endpoint) and its components (secondary endpoint) were screened at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Full MetS in the ILMP group decreased by 26% (p < 0.001); in GA + Met group by 22.4% (p = 0.01) and in GA group by 8.2% (p = 0.28). The number of MetS components decreased significantly in the ILMP and GA + Met groups (mean change 0.81, p < 0.001 and 0.35, p = 0.05, respectively). Between-group comparison revealed a clinically significant decrease in MetS components in favor of the ILMP group (−0.58 (−0.88–0.28), p < 0.001). This study highlights the clinical potency of ILMP versus other diabetes prevention options in reducing MetS in Saudi adults with elevated fasting glucose. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Chronic Conditions)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Influence of Feeding Practices on Malnutrition in Haitian Infants and Young Children
Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 382; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030382
Received: 7 January 2018 / Revised: 23 February 2018 / Accepted: 9 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
PDF Full-text (11220 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Infant malnutrition remains an important cause of death and disability, and Haiti has the highest prevalence in the Americas. Therefore, preventive strategies are needed. Our aims were (1) To assess the prevalence of malnutrition among young children seen at a health center in
[...] Read more.
Infant malnutrition remains an important cause of death and disability, and Haiti has the highest prevalence in the Americas. Therefore, preventive strategies are needed. Our aims were (1) To assess the prevalence of malnutrition among young children seen at a health center in Haiti; (2) Examine adherence to infant feeding practices recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the association to nutritional status. This cross-sectional study recruited children from the Saint Espri Health Center in Port Au Prince in 2014. We recorded feeding practices, socio-demographic data, and anthropometric measurements (WHO-2006). We evaluated 278 infants and children younger than two years old, aged 8.08 ± 6.5 months, 53.2% female. 18.35% were underweight (weight/age <−2 SD); 13.31% stunted (length/age <−2 SD), and 13.67% had moderate or severe wasting (weight/length <−2 SD). Malnutrition was associated with male gender, older age, lower maternal education level, and greater numbers of siblings (Chi2, p < 0.05). Adherence to recommended breastfeeding practices was 11.8–97.9%, and to complementary feeding practices was 9.7–90.3%. Adherence was associated with a lower prevalence of malnutrition. Conclusion: Prevalence of infant and young child malnutrition in this population is high. Adherence to WHO-recommended feeding practices was associated with a better nutritional status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Vulnerable Groups)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Concentrations of Water-Soluble Forms of Choline in Human Milk from Lactating Women in Canada and Cambodia
Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 381; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030381
Received: 15 February 2018 / Revised: 12 March 2018 / Accepted: 16 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
PDF Full-text (273 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Choline has critical roles during periods of rapid growth and development, such as infancy. In human milk, choline is mostly present in water-soluble forms (free choline, phosphocholine, and glycerophosphocholine). It is thought that milk choline concentration is influenced by maternal choline intake, and
[...] Read more.
Choline has critical roles during periods of rapid growth and development, such as infancy. In human milk, choline is mostly present in water-soluble forms (free choline, phosphocholine, and glycerophosphocholine). It is thought that milk choline concentration is influenced by maternal choline intake, and the richest food sources for choline are of animal origin. Scarce information exists on milk choline from countries differing in animal-source food availability. In this secondary analysis of samples from previous trials, the concentrations of the water-soluble forms of choline were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in mature milk samples collected from lactating women in Canada (n = 301) and in Cambodia (n = 67). None of the water-soluble forms of choline concentrations in milk differed between Canada and Cambodia. For all milk samples (n = 368), free choline, phosphocholine, glycerophosphocholine, and the sum of water-soluble forms of choline concentrations in milk were (mean (95%CI)) 151 (141, 160, 540 (519, 562), 411 (396, 427), and 1102 (1072, 1133) µmol/L, respectively. Theoretically, only 19% of infants would meet the current Adequate Intake (AI) for choline. Our findings suggest that the concentrations in milk of water-soluble forms of choline are similar in Canada and Cambodia, and that the concentration used to set the infant AI might be inaccurate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Breastfeeding and Human Lactation)
Open AccessArticle Determinants of Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations among Breast Cancer Survivors in Korea
Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 380; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030380
Received: 26 January 2018 / Revised: 7 March 2018 / Accepted: 16 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
PDF Full-text (898 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We identified demographic, lifestyle, and clinical factors associated with vitamin D status among breast cancer survivors. The vitamin D prediction model may be a useful surrogate of circulating 25-hydroxvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations when this measure was not available. We included a total of
[...] Read more.
We identified demographic, lifestyle, and clinical factors associated with vitamin D status among breast cancer survivors. The vitamin D prediction model may be a useful surrogate of circulating 25-hydroxvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations when this measure was not available. We included a total of 216 Korean breast cancer survivors aged 21–79 years who had been diagnosed with stage I to III primary breast cancer and had breast cancer surgery at least 6 months before enrolment. We used linear and logistic regressions to identify determinants for the plasma 25(OH)D concentrations and vitamin D insufficiency (plasma 25(OH)D concentration < 50 nmol/L). We observed that 48.85% of breast cancer survivors had a plasma 25(OH)D concentration less than 50 nmol/L. We identified the following determinants for plasma 25(OH)D concentrations: time since diagnosis (β = −0.005 for 1 month increment), supplementary vitamin D intake (β = 0.06 for 10 μg/day increment), season of the blood draw (β = 0.35 for summer; β = 0.32 for fall; β = 0.26 for winter vs. spring), smoking status (β = 0.28 for former vs. never), use of any supplement (β = −0.35 for non-use vs. use), and the parity number (β = −0.30 for three or more vs. one) were associated with the plasma 25(OH)D concentrations. In addition to the aforementioned variables, body mass index (BMI) was associated with the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency. We identified the determinants for the plasma 25(OH)D concentrations among Korean breast cancer survivors. Future studies are needed to investigate the role of vitamin D in the progression of breast cancer among Korean breast cancer survivors. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Relationship of the Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet and Its Main Components with CRP Levels in the Spanish Population
Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 379; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030379
Received: 20 February 2018 / Revised: 12 March 2018 / Accepted: 16 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (275 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Adherence to a Mediterranean diet seems to be inversely associated with C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration. A 14-point Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS) has been developed to assess dietary compliance. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess whether each of the
[...] Read more.
Background: Adherence to a Mediterranean diet seems to be inversely associated with C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration. A 14-point Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS) has been developed to assess dietary compliance. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess whether each of the MEDAS questions as well as their final score were associated with the levels of CRP in general Spanish population. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of 1411 subjects (mean age 61 years, 43.0% males) randomly selected from the general population. CRP levels were determined by a commercial ELISA kit. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was measured by the 14-point MEDAS. Results: There was an inverse correlation between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and the CRP concentration, even after adjusting by age, gender, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, body mass index, statin treatment and hypertension treatment (p = 0.041). Subjects who consume ≥2 servings of vegetables per day (p = 0.003), ≥3 pieces of fruit per day (p = 0.003), ≥1 serving of butter, margarine, or cream per day (p = 0.041) or ≥3 servings of fish/seafood per week (p = 0.058) had significantly lower levels of CRP. Conclusions: Adherence to a Mediterranean-type diet measured by a simple questionnaire is associated with lower CRP concentration. However, this association seems to be particularly related to a higher consumption of vegetables, fruits, dairy products, and fish. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperReview Protein Requirements in Critically Ill Older Adults
Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 378; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030378
Received: 9 February 2018 / Revised: 11 March 2018 / Accepted: 13 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (225 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Critically ill elderly patients’ nutritional needs are not well understood and vary with the phase of illness and recovery. Patients’ nutritional needs should be assessed early in hospitalization and re-assessed throughout the stay with additional attention during the transitions from critical illness, to
[...] Read more.
Critically ill elderly patients’ nutritional needs are not well understood and vary with the phase of illness and recovery. Patients’ nutritional needs should be assessed early in hospitalization and re-assessed throughout the stay with additional attention during the transitions from critical illness, to severe illness, to post-hospital rehabilitation. In this review, we summarize recent findings and highlight recommendations for protein supplementation in critically ill geriatric patients throughout the stages of recovery. Future research specifically focusing on protein dose, its relationship with caloric needs, and delivery modality must be conducted to provide more specific guidelines for clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Approach to Critically Ill Patients)
Open AccessReview Effect of Zinc Supplementation on Growth Outcomes in Children under 5 Years of Age
Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 377; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030377
Received: 27 February 2018 / Revised: 28 February 2018 / Accepted: 14 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
PDF Full-text (1753 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
(1) Background: The effects of zinc supplementation on child growth, and prior reviews of these studies, have shown mixed results. We aim to systematically review and meta-analyze randomized controlled trials evaluating effects of preventive zinc supplementation for 3 months or longer during pregnancy
[...] Read more.
(1) Background: The effects of zinc supplementation on child growth, and prior reviews of these studies, have shown mixed results. We aim to systematically review and meta-analyze randomized controlled trials evaluating effects of preventive zinc supplementation for 3 months or longer during pregnancy or in children up to age 5 years on pregnancy outcomes and child growth; (2) Methods: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and trial registries for eligible trials up to October 10, 2017. Inclusion selection and data extractions were performed independently and in duplicate. Study quality was evaluated by the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Findings were pooled using random effects meta-analysis, with heterogeneity assessed by I2 and τ2 statistic, stratified analyses, and meta-regression, and publication bias by Egger’s and Begg’s tests; (3) Results: Seventy-eight trials with 34,352 unique participants were identified, including 24 during pregnancy and 54 in infancy/childhood. Maternal zinc supplementation did not significantly increase birth weight (weighted mean difference (WMD) = 0.08 kg, 95%CI: −0.05, 0.22) or decrease the risk of low birth weight (RR = 0.76, 95%CI: 0.52–1.11). Zinc supplementation after birth increased height (WMD = 0.23 cm, 95%CI: 0.09–0.38), weight (WMD = 0.14 kg, 95%CI: 0.07–0.21), and weight-for-age Z-score (WMD = 0.04, 95%CI: 0.001–0.087), but not height-for-age Z-score (WMD = 0.02, 95%CI: −0.01–0.06) or weight-for-height Z score (WMD = 0.02, 95%CI: −0.03–0.06). Child age at zinc supplementation appeared to modify the effects on height (P-interaction = 0.002) and HAZ (P-interaction = 0.06), with larger effects of supplementation starting at age ≥2 years (WMD for height = 1.37 cm, 95%CI: 0.50–2.25; WMD for HAZ = 0.12, 95%CI: 0.05–0.19). No significant effects of supplementation were found on the risk of stunting, underweight or wasting; (4) Conclusion: Although the possibility of publication bias and small study effect could not be excluded, the current meta-analysis indicates that zinc supplementation in infants and early childhood, but not pregnancy, increases specific growth outcomes, with evidence for a potentially stronger effect after 2 years of age. These findings inform recommendation and policy development for zinc supplementation to improve growth among young children. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Preterm Infant Feeding: A Mechanistic Comparison between a Vacuum Triggered Novel Teat and Breastfeeding
Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 376; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030376
Received: 12 February 2018 / Revised: 7 March 2018 / Accepted: 15 March 2018 / Published: 19 March 2018
PDF Full-text (767 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The goal for preterm infants is to achieve full oral feeds quickly and ultimately progress to full breastfeeding. Supplementary oral feeds are often given when the mother is not available to breastfeed. Bottles typically deliver milk in a different fashion compared to breastfeeding,
[...] Read more.
The goal for preterm infants is to achieve full oral feeds quickly and ultimately progress to full breastfeeding. Supplementary oral feeds are often given when the mother is not available to breastfeed. Bottles typically deliver milk in a different fashion compared to breastfeeding, which is thought to hamper transition to full breastfeeding. The aim of this study was to compare the sucking dynamics of preterm infants fed at the breast to feeding with an experimental novel teat (NT) designed to release milk only upon the application of vacuum. Simultaneous ultrasound imaging of the infant oral cavity and measurement of intra-oral vacuum was performed during a breastfeed and a feed with the NT. Test weighs were used to measure milk intake. Linear mixed effects models were performed to investigate differences by feed type, and simultaneous linear regression was performed to investigate individual patterns. Tongue movement was not different between breastfeeding and the NT. Intra-oral vacuums (median (interquartile range: IQR)) were significantly lower with the NT (Baseline vacuum: −5.8 mmHg (−11.0, 0.1); Peak: 40.0 mmHg (−54.6, −27.1)) compared to breastfeeding (Baseline: −31.1 mmHg (−60.0, −12.7); Peak: −106.2 mmHg (−153.0, −65.5)). Milk intake was significantly higher with the NT (33 mL (22.5, 42.5)) compared to the breastfeed (12 mL (3, 15.5)). The novel teat encouraged a similar tongue action to breastfeeding, and infants transferred a greater volume of milk with the novel teat. Intra-oral vacuums were lower in strength with the novel teat compared to the breast. Use of the novel teat for the training of sucking dynamics in preterm infants has the potential to improve breastfeeding success and requires further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Breastfeeding and Human Lactation)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview The Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 375; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030375
Received: 14 January 2018 / Revised: 13 March 2018 / Accepted: 15 March 2018 / Published: 19 March 2018
PDF Full-text (2254 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Observational studies have indicated an inverse association between vitamin D levels and the risk of diabetes, yet evidence from population interventions remains inconsistent. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched up to September 2017. Data from studies regarding serum 25(OH)D, fasting blood
[...] Read more.
Observational studies have indicated an inverse association between vitamin D levels and the risk of diabetes, yet evidence from population interventions remains inconsistent. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched up to September 2017. Data from studies regarding serum 25(OH)D, fasting blood glucose (FBG), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were pooled. Twenty studies (n = 2703) were included in the meta-analysis. Vitamin D supplementation resulted in a significant improvement in serum 25(OH)D levels (weighted mean difference (WMD) = 33.98; 95%CI: 24.60–43.37) and HOMA-IR (standardized mean difference (SMD) = −0.57; 95%CI: −1.09~−0.04), but not in other outcomes. However, preferred changes were observed in subgroups as follows: short-term (WMDFBG = −8.44; 95%CI: −12.72~−4.15), high dose (WMDFBG = −8.70; 95%CI: −12.96~−4.44), non-obese (SMDFasting insulin = −1.80; 95%CI: −2.66~−0.95), Middle Easterners (WMDFBG = −10.43; 95%CI: −14.80~−6.06), baseline vitamin D deficient individuals (WMDFBG = −5.77; 95%CI: −10.48~−1.05) and well-controlled HbA1c individuals (WMDFBG = −4.09; 95%CI: −15.44~7.27). Vitamin D supplementation was shown to increase serum 25(OH)D and reduce insulin resistance effectively. This effect was especially prominent when vitamin D was given in large doses and for a short period of time, and to patients who were non-obese, Middle Eastern, vitamin D deficient, or with optimal glycemic control at baseline. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Mothers’ Perceptions of Toddler Beverages
Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 374; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030374
Received: 12 February 2018 / Revised: 13 March 2018 / Accepted: 14 March 2018 / Published: 19 March 2018
PDF Full-text (1199 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: The prevalence of obesity among Australian pre-school children is a major concern with links to poor health outcomes. One contributing factor is excess energy intake. Sugar-sweetened beverages are energy-dense, nutrient-poor, readily available and have been implicated in the increasing prevalence of obesity.
[...] Read more.
Background: The prevalence of obesity among Australian pre-school children is a major concern with links to poor health outcomes. One contributing factor is excess energy intake. Sugar-sweetened beverages are energy-dense, nutrient-poor, readily available and have been implicated in the increasing prevalence of obesity. Furthermore, preschooler beverage consumption may develop into dietary habits that track into adulthood. There is little research on factors influencing parents’ decision-making when serving beverages to their preschoolers, or on mothers’ perceptions of preschooler’s beverages. The aim of this study was to explore mothers’ perceptions of commonly consumed preschooler beverages. Methods: The Repertory Grid Technique and the Laddering Technique methodologies were utilized in interviews with 28 mothers from Melbourne, Australia, to explore beverage perceptions. Results: A large number of diverse perceptual categories (‘constructs’) (n = 22) about beverages were elicited, demonstrating the complexity of mothers’ perceptions when making beverage choices for their preschoolers. The five most common categories were related to health, sugar, dairy, packaging, and additives. Thematic analysis of responses from the laddering method identified three major themes: concerns about the types of beverages mothers would like to provide their preschoolers, the healthiness of a beverage, and the sugar content. Conclusions: Mothers’ perceptions of beverages are sophisticated and need to be included in the design of health communication strategies by health promoters and government agencies to influence mothers’ beverage selections for their preschoolers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Beverages on Ingestive Behavior)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview The Effect of Dietary Glycaemic Index on Glycaemia in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 373; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030373
Received: 31 January 2018 / Revised: 7 March 2018 / Accepted: 15 March 2018 / Published: 19 March 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1112 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: The increasing prevalence of diabetes in the United Kingdom and worldwide calls for new approaches to its management, and diets with low glycaemic index have been proposed as a useful means for managing glucose response. However, there are conflicting reports and differences
[...] Read more.
Background: The increasing prevalence of diabetes in the United Kingdom and worldwide calls for new approaches to its management, and diets with low glycaemic index have been proposed as a useful means for managing glucose response. However, there are conflicting reports and differences in the results of studies in terms of their effectiveness. Furthermore, the impact of low-glycaemic index diets and their long-term use in patients with type 2 diabetes remains unclear. Objectives: The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of low-glycaemic index diets in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: Search methods: Randomised controlled studies were selected from a number of databases (EBSCOHost with links to Health Research databases, PubMed, and grey literature) based on the Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcomes and Study designs (PICOS) framework. The search terms included synonyms and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and involved the use of Boolean operators (AND/OR) which allowed the combination of words and search terms. Selection criteria: As per the selection criteria, the following types of articles were selected: studies on randomised controlled trials, with year of publication between 2008 and 2018, including patients with type 2 diabetes. Thus, studies involving patients with gestational and type 1 diabetes were excluded, as were observational studies. Nine articles which met the inclusion criteria were selected for the systematic review, whereas only six articles which met the criteria were included in the meta-analysis. Data collection and analysis: Studies were evaluated for quality and risk of bias. In addition, heterogeneity, meta-analysis, and sensitivity tests of the extracted data were carried out using Review Manager 5.3 (Review Manager, 2014). Results: The findings of the systematic review showed that the low-glycaemic index (low-GI) diet resulted in a significant improvement (<0.05) in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in two studies: low-GI diet Δ = −0.5% (95% CI, −0.61% to −0.39%) vs. high-cereal fibre diet Δ = −0.18% (95% CI, −0.29% to −0.07%); and low-GI legume diet Δ = −0.5% (95%, −0.6% to −0.4%) vs. high-wheat fibre diet Δ = −0.3% (95% Cl, −0.4 to −0.2%). There was a slight improvement in one study (low glycaemic response = 6.5% (6.3–7.1) vs. control = 6.6% (6.3–7.0) and no significant difference (p > 0.05) in four studies compared with the control diet. Four studies showed improvements in fasting blood glucose in low-GI diets compared to higher-GI diets or control: low-GI diet = 150.8 ± 8.7 vs. higher-GI diet = 157.8 ± 10.4 mg/dL, mean ± SD p = 0.43; low-GI diet = 127.7 vs. high-cereal fibre diet = 136.8 mg/dL, p = 0.02; low-GI diet = 6.5 (5.6–8.4) vs. standard diabetic diet = 6.7 (6.1–7.5) mmol/L, median and interquartile range p > 0.05; and low-GI diet = 7.3 ± 0.3 vs. conventional carbohydrate exchange diet = 7.7 ± 0.4 mmol/L, mean ± SEM (Standard Error of Mean) p < 0.05. The results of the meta-analysis and sensitivity tests demonstrated significant differences (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively) between the low-GI diet and the higher-GI diet or control diet in relation to glycated haemoglobin. Differences between the low-GI diet and higher-GI diet or control were significant (p < 0.05) with respect to the fasting blood glucose following meta-analysis. Conclusion: The low-GI diet is more effective in controlling glycated haemoglobin and fasting blood glucose compared with a higher-GI diet or control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Chronic Conditions)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Association between Dietary Intake and Coronary Artery Calcification in Non-Dialysis Chronic Kidney Disease: The PROGREDIR Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 372; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030372
Received: 7 February 2018 / Revised: 12 March 2018 / Accepted: 12 March 2018 / Published: 19 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (721 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is a widespread condition in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Diet may play an important role in CAC, but this role is not clear. This study evaluated the association between macro-and micronutrient intakes and CAC in non-dialysis CKD patients. We
[...] Read more.
Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is a widespread condition in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Diet may play an important role in CAC, but this role is not clear. This study evaluated the association between macro-and micronutrient intakes and CAC in non-dialysis CKD patients. We analyzed the baseline data from 454 participants of the PROGREDIR study. Dietary intake was evaluated by a food frequency questionnaire. CAC was measured by computed tomography. After exclusion of participants with a coronary stent, 373 people remained for the analyses. The highest tertile of CAC was directly associated with the intake of phosphorus, calcium and magnesium. There was a higher intake of pantothenic acid and potassium in the second tertile. After adjustments for confounding variables, the intake of pantothenic acid, phosphorus, calcium and potassium remained associated with CAC in the generalized linear mixed models. In order to handle the collinearity between these nutrients, we used the LASSO (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator) regression to evaluate the nutrients associated with CAC variability. In this approach, the nutrients that most explained the variance of CAC were phosphorus, calcium and potassium. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings and assess the role of interventions regarding these micronutrients on CAC prevention and progression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium and Human Health)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Looking through the Keyhole: Exploring Realities and Possibilities for School Breakfast Programs in Rural Western Australia
Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 371; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030371
Received: 10 January 2018 / Revised: 12 March 2018 / Accepted: 15 March 2018 / Published: 17 March 2018
PDF Full-text (257 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Objective: To assess the school breakfast program (SBP) in two schools with high Aboriginal student populations in rural Western Australia, their contribution to holistic support, nutritional health education and possibilities for improvement. Methods: The operations and functioning of one regional and one remote
[...] Read more.
Objective: To assess the school breakfast program (SBP) in two schools with high Aboriginal student populations in rural Western Australia, their contribution to holistic support, nutritional health education and possibilities for improvement. Methods: The operations and functioning of one regional and one remote SBP were assessed by stakeholder inquiry related to process and challenges, observations and documentary review. An intervention to increase health education, social interaction and learning about nutrition and food origins implemented in one school was assessed. Results: Strengths, system and structural factors that impeded realisation of optimal outcomes of the SBPs were identified. The SBPs focussed on serving food rather than building nutritional understanding or on social interactions and support. Systems for delivery and management of the programs largely relied on staff with limited time. When offered a more interactive and social environment, children enjoyed learning about food. Conclusions: Opportunities for SBPs to offer holistic support and educational enhancement for disadvantaged children are limited by the realities of pressures on staff to support them and a view constraining their primary role as food delivery. The lack of volunteer support in disadvantaged schools limits the potential benefits of SBPs in providing psychosocial support. Health education resources which exist for use in SBPs are not necessarily used. Full article
Open AccessArticle Effects of Low Versus Moderate Glycemic Index Diets on Aerobic Capacity in Endurance Runners: Three-Week Randomized Controlled Crossover Trial
Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 370; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030370
Received: 22 January 2018 / Revised: 22 February 2018 / Accepted: 12 March 2018 / Published: 17 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (808 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The glycemic index (GI) of ingested carbohydrates may influence substrate oxidation during exercise and athletic performance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of low- and moderate-GI three-week diets on aerobic capacity and endurance performance in runners. We conducted
[...] Read more.
The glycemic index (GI) of ingested carbohydrates may influence substrate oxidation during exercise and athletic performance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of low- and moderate-GI three-week diets on aerobic capacity and endurance performance in runners. We conducted a randomized crossover feeding study of matched diets differing only in GI (low vs. moderate) in 21 endurance-trained runners. Each participant consumed both, low- (LGI) and moderate-GI (MGI) high-carbohydrate (~60%) and nutrient-balanced diets for three weeks each. At the beginning and end of each diet, participants had their aerobic capacity and body composition measured and performed a 12-min running test. After LGI, time to exhaustion during incremental cycling test (ICT) and distance covered in the 12-min run were significantly increased. The MGI diet led to an increase in maximal oxygen uptake ( V ˙ O2max), but no performance benefits were found after the MGI diet. The LGI and MGI diets improved time and workload at gas exchange threshold (GET) during ICT. The results indicate that a three-week high-carbohydrate LGI diet resulted in a small but significant improvement in athletic performance in endurance runners. Observed increase in V ˙ O2max on MGI diet did not affect performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Sport and Performance Nutrition)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Comprehensive Nutritional and Dietary Intervention for Autism Spectrum Disorder—A Randomized, Controlled 12-Month Trial
Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 369; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030369
Received: 30 January 2018 / Revised: 1 March 2018 / Accepted: 10 March 2018 / Published: 17 March 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3858 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study involved a randomized, controlled, single-blind 12-month treatment study of a comprehensive nutritional and dietary intervention. Participants were 67 children and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) ages 3–58 years from Arizona and 50 non-sibling neurotypical controls of similar age and gender.
[...] Read more.
This study involved a randomized, controlled, single-blind 12-month treatment study of a comprehensive nutritional and dietary intervention. Participants were 67 children and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) ages 3–58 years from Arizona and 50 non-sibling neurotypical controls of similar age and gender. Treatment began with a special vitamin/mineral supplement, and additional treatments were added sequentially, including essential fatty acids, Epsom salt baths, carnitine, digestive enzymes, and a healthy gluten-free, casein-free, soy-free (HGCSF) diet. There was a significant improvement in nonverbal intellectual ability in the treatment group compared to the non-treatment group (+6.7 ± 11 IQ points vs. −0.6 ± 11 IQ points, p = 0.009) based on a blinded clinical assessment. Based on semi-blinded assessment, the treatment group, compared to the non-treatment group, had significantly greater improvement in autism symptoms and developmental age. The treatment group had significantly greater increases in EPA, DHA, carnitine, and vitamins A, B2, B5, B6, B12, folic acid, and Coenzyme Q10. The positive results of this study suggest that a comprehensive nutritional and dietary intervention is effective at improving nutritional status, non-verbal IQ, autism symptoms, and other symptoms in most individuals with ASD. Parents reported that the vitamin/mineral supplements, essential fatty acids, and HGCSF diet were the most beneficial. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview A Review of the Health Benefits of Cherries
Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 368; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030368
Received: 16 February 2018 / Revised: 12 March 2018 / Accepted: 14 March 2018 / Published: 17 March 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (357 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Increased oxidative stress contributes to development and progression of several human chronic inflammatory diseases. Cherries are a rich source of polyphenols and vitamin C which have anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Our aim is to summarize results from human studies regarding health benefits of
[...] Read more.
Increased oxidative stress contributes to development and progression of several human chronic inflammatory diseases. Cherries are a rich source of polyphenols and vitamin C which have anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Our aim is to summarize results from human studies regarding health benefits of both sweet and tart cherries, including products made from them (juice, powder, concentrate, capsules); all referred to as cherries here. We found 29 (tart 20, sweet 7, unspecified 2) published human studies which examined health benefits of consuming cherries. Most of these studies were less than 2 weeks of duration (range 5 h to 3 months) and served the equivalent of 45 to 270 cherries/day (anthocyanins 55–720 mg/day) in single or split doses. Two-thirds of these studies were randomized and placebo controlled. Consumption of cherries decreased markers for oxidative stress in 8/10 studies; inflammation in 11/16; exercise-induced muscle soreness and loss of strength in 8/9; blood pressure in 5/7; arthritis in 5/5, and improved sleep in 4/4. Cherries also decreased hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C), Very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and triglycerides/high-density lipoprotein (TG/HDL) in diabetic women, and VLDL and TG/HDL in obese participants. These results suggest that consumption of sweet or tart cherries can promote health by preventing or decreasing oxidative stress and inflammation. Full article
Open AccessArticle Effects of Different Dietary Interventions on Calcitriol, Parathyroid Hormone, Calcium, and Phosphorus: Results from the DASH Trial
Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 367; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030367
Received: 11 January 2018 / Revised: 7 March 2018 / Accepted: 13 March 2018 / Published: 17 March 2018
PDF Full-text (258 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The “Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension” (DASH) diet, rich in fiber and low-fat dairy, effectively lowers blood pressure. DASH’s effect on calcitriol and other markers of bone-mineral metabolism is unknown. This secondary analysis of the DASH trial aimed to determine the effect of
[...] Read more.
The “Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension” (DASH) diet, rich in fiber and low-fat dairy, effectively lowers blood pressure. DASH’s effect on calcitriol and other markers of bone-mineral metabolism is unknown. This secondary analysis of the DASH trial aimed to determine the effect of dietary patterns on blood concentrations of calcitriol, parathyroid hormone (PTH), ionized calcium, and urinary excretion of calcium and phosphorus. Outcomes were available in 334 participants in the trial. After a 3-week run-in on the control diet, participants were randomized to control, fruits and vegetables (F&V), or DASH diets. Outcomes were assessed at the end of run-in, and during the last week of the intervention period. Mean age of participants was 45.7 ± 10.7 years, 46% female, and 57% African-American. Mean ± Standard Deviation(SD) baseline serum concentrations of calcitriol, PTH, and ionized calcium were 37.8 ± 9.2 pg/mL, 46.1 ± 18.5 pg/mL and 5.2 ± 0.23 mg/dL, respectively. Mean (±SD) urinary calcium and phosphorus excretions were 150.1 ± 77.8 and 708.0 ± 251.8 mg/24 h, respectively. Compared with control, DASH reduced calcitriol −3.32 pg/mL (p = 0.004). Otherwise, there was no significant effect on other biomarkers. DASH lowered serum calcitriol perhaps more among African-Americans. These results raise important questions about the interpretation and clinical significance of low calcitriol concentrations in the setting of recommended diets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
Open AccessReview Vitamin D, Hypercalciuria and Kidney Stones
Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 366; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030366
Received: 29 December 2017 / Revised: 13 March 2018 / Accepted: 14 March 2018 / Published: 17 March 2018
PDF Full-text (266 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The estimated lifetime risk of nephrolithiasis is growing nowadays, and the formation of kidney stones is frequently promoted by hypercalciuria. Vitamin D, and especially its active metabolite calcitriol, increase digestive calcium absorption—as urinary calcium excretion is directly correlated with digestive calcium absorption, vitamin
[...] Read more.
The estimated lifetime risk of nephrolithiasis is growing nowadays, and the formation of kidney stones is frequently promoted by hypercalciuria. Vitamin D, and especially its active metabolite calcitriol, increase digestive calcium absorption—as urinary calcium excretion is directly correlated with digestive calcium absorption, vitamin D metabolites could theoretically increase calciuria and promote urinary stone formation. Nevertheless, there was, until recently, low evidence that 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum levels would be correlated with kidney stone formation, even if high calcitriol concentrations are frequently observed in hypercalciuric stone formers. Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum levels have been associated with a broad spectrum of diseases, leading to a huge increase in vitamin D prescription in the general population. In parallel, an increased frequency of kidney stone episodes has been observed in prospective studies evaluating vitamin D alone or in association with calcium supplements, and epidemiological studies have identified an association between high 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum levels and kidney stone formation in some groups of patients. Moreover, urinary calcium excretion has been shown to increase in response to vitamin D supplements, at least in some groups of kidney stone formers. It seems likely that predisposed individuals may develop hypercalciuria and kidney stones in response to vitamin D supplements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Changing Times for Vitamin D and Health)
Open AccessReview The Western Diet–Microbiome-Host Interaction and Its Role in Metabolic Disease
Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 365; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030365
Received: 7 February 2018 / Revised: 6 March 2018 / Accepted: 14 March 2018 / Published: 17 March 2018
PDF Full-text (331 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The dietary pattern that characterizes the Western diet is strongly associated with obesity and related metabolic diseases, but biological mechanisms supporting these associations remain largely unknown. We argue that the Western diet promotes inflammation that arises from both structural and behavioral changes in
[...] Read more.
The dietary pattern that characterizes the Western diet is strongly associated with obesity and related metabolic diseases, but biological mechanisms supporting these associations remain largely unknown. We argue that the Western diet promotes inflammation that arises from both structural and behavioral changes in the resident microbiome. The environment created in the gut by ultra-processed foods, a hallmark of the Western diet, is an evolutionarily unique selection ground for microbes that can promote diverse forms of inflammatory disease. Recognizing the importance of the microbiome in the development of diet-related disease has implications for future research, public dietary advice as well as food production practices. Research into food patterns suggests that whole foods are a common denominator of diets associated with a low level of diet-related disease. Hence, by studying how ultra-processing changes the properties of whole foods and how these foods affect the gut microbiome, more useful dietary guidelines can be made. Innovations in food production should be focusing on enabling health in the super-organism of man and microbe, and stronger regulation of potentially hazardous components of food products is warranted. Full article
Open AccessReview Association between Sarcopenia and Metabolic Syndrome in Middle-Aged and Older Non-Obese Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 364; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030364
Received: 21 January 2018 / Revised: 10 March 2018 / Accepted: 14 March 2018 / Published: 16 March 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1026 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The associations between sarcopenia and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in non-obese middle-aged and older adults remain controversial. Thus, this meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the overall prevalence of MetS and the correlations between sarcopenia and MetS in middle-aged and older non-obese adults. We performed a
[...] Read more.
The associations between sarcopenia and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in non-obese middle-aged and older adults remain controversial. Thus, this meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the overall prevalence of MetS and the correlations between sarcopenia and MetS in middle-aged and older non-obese adults. We performed a systematic searched strategy using PUBMED, EMBASE and Web of Science databases for relevant observational studies investigating sarcopenia and MetS up to 11 May 2017. The polled prevalence of MetS and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CI), as well as subgroup analyses were calculated using a random effects model. Twelve articles with a total of 35,581 participants were included. The overall prevalence of MetS was 36.45% (95% CI, 28.28–45.48%) in middle-aged and older non-obese adults with sarcopenia. Our analysis demonstrated a positive association between sarcopenia and MetS (OR = 2.01, 95% CI, 1.63–2.47). The subgroup analysis showed that both larger cohort size and the use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure body composition can enhance the relationship. Our study revealed that a higher proportion of MetS in middle-aged and older non-obese people with sarcopenia. Moreover, sarcopenia was positively associated with MetS in this population. Further large-scale prospective cohort studies are needed to investigate the causality between sarcopenia and MetS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Solutions for a Changing World)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Effects of Coffee Extracts with Different Roasting Degrees on Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Systems in Mice
Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 363; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030363
Received: 5 February 2018 / Revised: 6 March 2018 / Accepted: 8 March 2018 / Published: 16 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2159 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Coffee roasting affects the taste, color, and aroma of coffee. The Maillard reaction, a major reaction during the roasting process, produces melanoidin, which affects the overall antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory effects of coffee. In this experiment, coffee roasting was divided into four degrees:
[...] Read more.
Coffee roasting affects the taste, color, and aroma of coffee. The Maillard reaction, a major reaction during the roasting process, produces melanoidin, which affects the overall antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory effects of coffee. In this experiment, coffee roasting was divided into four degrees: Light, Medium, City, and French. To examine the in vivo antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of coffee extracts with different roasting degrees, we used 10-week-old male C57BL/6 mice. Mice were pre-treated with coffee extracts for 10 days by oral gavage (300 mg/Kg.B.W). After the last pre-treatment, lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 15 mg/Kg.B.W) was injected intraperitoneally for immune stimulation. Histopathological analysis showed that hepatic portal vein invasion and liver necrosis were severe in the LPS-treated group. However, these phenomena were greatly ameliorated when mice were pre-treated with Light- or Medium-roasted coffee extracts. Hepatic glutathione level was increased in the French group but decreased in the LPS-stimulated group. When mice were treated with LPS, mRNA expression level of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) was increased, whereas TNF-α expression was significantly reduced in the Light and Medium groups. Treatment with coffee extracts decreased the mRNA expression levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6) in mice stimulated by LPS, regardless of coffee roasting degrees. These effects decreased with the increasing coffee roasting degree. Results of luciferase reporter assay revealed that these effects of coffee extracts were transcriptionally regulated by the NF-κB pathway. Taken together, these results suggest that the roasting degree affects the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of coffee extracts. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle First-Year University Students Who Self-Select into Health Studies Have More Desirable Health Measures and Behaviors at Baseline but Experience Similar Changes Compared to Non-Self-Selected Students
Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 362; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030362
Received: 28 December 2017 / Revised: 12 March 2018 / Accepted: 14 March 2018 / Published: 16 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (253 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Studies demonstrate that first-year university students are at high risk for weight gain. These reports typically rely on self-selected participants. The purpose of this study was to explore if students who chose to participate in a health-based research study had more desirable health
[...] Read more.
Studies demonstrate that first-year university students are at high risk for weight gain. These reports typically rely on self-selected participants. The purpose of this study was to explore if students who chose to participate in a health-based research study had more desirable health measures and behaviors than students who completed health assessments as part of a first-year seminar course. Health measures included blood pressure (BP), body mass index (BMI), and percent body fat. Health behaviors included dietary patterns (Starting the Conversation questionnaire) and alcohol use (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption). A total of 191 (77% female) participants completed testing in the self-selected “Health Study” group, whereas 73 of the 91 students (80%, 55% female) enrolled in the “Seminar” allowed their data to be used for research purposes. Baseline measures favored Health Study participants, including but not limited to fewer participants with undesirable BMI (≥25.0 kg/m2; males and females) and a smaller percentage of participants with undesirable BP (systolic ≥120 mmHg and/or diastolic ≥80 mmHg; females only). Differences in dietary behaviors at baseline were inconsistent, but Seminar students engaged in more problematic alcohol-use behaviors. While both groups experienced undesirable changes in health measures over time, the degree of change did not differ between groups. Changes in health behaviors over time typically resulted in undesirable changes in the Seminar group, but the magnitude of change over time did not differ between groups. Thus, results from first-year university students who self-select into health studies likely underestimate the seriousness of undesirable health measures and behaviors but may accurately reflect the degree of change over time. Full article
Open AccessArticle Food Insecurity and Behavioral Characteristics for Academic Success in Young Adults Attending an Appalachian University
Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 361; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030361
Received: 13 February 2018 / Revised: 7 March 2018 / Accepted: 14 March 2018 / Published: 16 March 2018
PDF Full-text (474 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to investigate the impact of food insecurity on college students in a highly health disparate region we (1) assessed the prevalence of food insecurity among young adults at a large, rural university in Appalachia, and (2) investigated the relationship between food
[...] Read more.
In order to investigate the impact of food insecurity on college students in a highly health disparate region we (1) assessed the prevalence of food insecurity among young adults at a large, rural university in Appalachia, and (2) investigated the relationship between food insecurity and behavioral characteristics including academic performance, coping strategies, and money expenditure. A cross-sectional design was used to capture a representative sample of young adults attending a large, central Appalachian university in Fall 2016. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Adult Food Security Survey was used to measure food insecurity. Independent variables include money expenditure (MES), coping strategies (CSS), academic performance (APS), and demographic, health, economic and culinary variables. Participant responses (n = 692) showed one third (36.6%) of respondents were food-insecure. Students with higher scores for MES and CSS had significantly higher odds of being food-insecure (odds ratio (OR) = 2.07; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.81 to 2.38 and OR = 1.20; 95% CI 1.16 to 1.23, respectively). The odds of high APS scores (OR = 0.79; 95% CI 0.73 to 0.86) were inversely related to food insecurity. Results of the logistic regression showed MES, CSS, health, and school year remained a significant predictor of food insecurity in college students. These findings suggest behavioral differences in terms of coping strategies, money expenditure, and academic progress among food-insecure students and can be used to identify and target at-risk students to promote student food security and well-being. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Protein for Life: Review of Optimal Protein Intake, Sustainable Dietary Sources and the Effect on Appetite in Ageing Adults
Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 360; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030360
Received: 21 February 2018 / Revised: 12 March 2018 / Accepted: 14 March 2018 / Published: 16 March 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (560 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With an ageing population, dietary approaches to promote health and independence later in life are needed. In part, this can be achieved by maintaining muscle mass and strength as people age. New evidence suggests that current dietary recommendations for protein intake may be
[...] Read more.
With an ageing population, dietary approaches to promote health and independence later in life are needed. In part, this can be achieved by maintaining muscle mass and strength as people age. New evidence suggests that current dietary recommendations for protein intake may be insufficient to achieve this goal and that individuals might benefit by increasing their intake and frequency of consumption of high-quality protein. However, the environmental effects of increasing animal-protein production are a concern, and alternative, more sustainable protein sources should be considered. Protein is known to be more satiating than other macronutrients, and it is unclear whether diets high in plant proteins affect the appetite of older adults as they should be recommended for individuals at risk of malnutrition. The review considers the protein needs of an ageing population (>40 years old), sustainable protein sources, appetite-related implications of diets high in plant proteins, and related areas for future research. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview The Effect of Vitamins on Glaucoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 359; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030359
Received: 9 February 2018 / Revised: 6 March 2018 / Accepted: 14 March 2018 / Published: 16 March 2018
PDF Full-text (1511 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Background: The aim of is to determine the association of vitamins with glaucoma by performing a systematic review and meta-analyses. Methods: Studies on the relation of vitamins and glaucoma published up to December 2017 were identified in the PubMed and Embase database. Data
[...] Read more.
Background: The aim of is to determine the association of vitamins with glaucoma by performing a systematic review and meta-analyses. Methods: Studies on the relation of vitamins and glaucoma published up to December 2017 were identified in the PubMed and Embase database. Data on vitamins (method of assessment), glaucoma (type and method of assessment), study characteristics and quality were recorded. In case of multiple studies for one nutrient a meta-analysis was performed. Results: A total of 629 articles were identified of which 36 were included in the systematic review. The meta-analysis included five of them (940 open-angle glaucoma (OAG) cases and 123,697 controls in total) and resulted in an odds ratio [95% confidence interval] (OR [95% CI]) of 0.58 [0.37–0.91] for dietary vitamin A, though heterogeneity was high (I2 = 51%). After omitting studies that contributed significantly to the heterogeneity, the pooled OR [95% CI] was 0.45 [0.30–0.68] for dietary vitamin A on OAG (I2 = 0%). For vitamin B1, C and E no significant association with OAG was found (OR [95% CI]: 0.84 [0.47–1.51]; 0.68 [0.38–1.22]; 0.95 [0.75–1.19]; respectively). However, after addressing heterogeneity, vitamin C showed a protective effect as well. Especially, foods high in these vitamins (e.g., dark green vegetables) were protective for OAG. Conclusions: Dietary intake of vitamin A and C showed a beneficial association with OAG; however, findings on blood levels of vitamins do not show a clear relation with OAG. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Cardiorespiratory Fitness as a Mediator of the Influence of Diet on Obesity in Children
Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 358; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030358
Received: 3 February 2018 / Revised: 9 March 2018 / Accepted: 13 March 2018 / Published: 16 March 2018
PDF Full-text (503 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The association between diet and obesity has been widely studied and it continues to be controversial; however, the extent to which cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) acts as a confounder or mediator in this relation has not been analyzed. The aim of this study is
[...] Read more.
The association between diet and obesity has been widely studied and it continues to be controversial; however, the extent to which cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) acts as a confounder or mediator in this relation has not been analyzed. The aim of this study is to examine if the relation between diet and obesity is mediated by CRF. In this cross-sectional study, fat mass (by electronic bioimpedance) was measured in 320 schoolchildren, aged 9–11 years. Diet was measured through two computerised 24-h dietary recalls and CRF was assessed by the 20-m shuttle run test. Simple mediation analyses were fitted. CRF acts as a partial mediator in the negative relationship between dietary factors (energy intake/weight, carbohydrate intake/weight, protein intake/weight, and fat intake/weight) and fat mass. The percentage of mediation ranged from 24.3 to 33.2%. Thus, Spanish schoolchildren with higher levels of energy and macronutrients intake had lower adiposity levels, especially when they had good levels of CRF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Balancing Physical Activity and Nutrition for Human Health)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Low-/No-Calorie Sweeteners: A Review of Global Intakes
Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 357; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030357
Received: 31 January 2018 / Revised: 8 March 2018 / Accepted: 13 March 2018 / Published: 15 March 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (437 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The current review examined published data on the intake of all major low-/no-calorie sweeteners—aspartame, acesulfame-K, saccharin, sucralose, cyclamate, thaumatin and steviol glycosides—globally over the last decade. The most detailed and complex exposure assessments were conducted in Europe, following a standardized approach. Japan and
[...] Read more.
The current review examined published data on the intake of all major low-/no-calorie sweeteners—aspartame, acesulfame-K, saccharin, sucralose, cyclamate, thaumatin and steviol glycosides—globally over the last decade. The most detailed and complex exposure assessments were conducted in Europe, following a standardized approach. Japan and Korea similarly had up-to-date and regular intake data available. The data for other Asian countries, Latin America, Australia/New Zealand and global estimates, evaluated by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), while available, were shown to be more limited in terms of design. Overall, the studies conducted since 2008 raised no concerns with respect to exceedance of individual sweetener acceptable daily intake (ADIs) among the general population globally. The data identified do not suggest a shift in exposure over time, with several studies indicating a reduction in intake. However, some data suggest there may have been an increase in the numbers of consumers of low-/no-calorie-sweetened products. Future research should consider a more standardized approach to allow the monitoring of potential changes in exposure based upon events such as sugar reduction recommendations, to ensure there is no shift in intake, particularly for high-risk individuals, including diabetics and children with specific dietary requirements, and to ensure risk management decisions are based on quality intake analyses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Nutritive Sweeteners: A Global Perspective)
Open AccessArticle Chondroprotective Effects of a Standardized Extract (KBH-JP-040) from Kalopanax pictus, Hericium erinaceus, and Astragalus membranaceus in Experimentally Induced In Vitro and In Vivo Osteoarthritis Models
Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 356; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030356
Received: 23 January 2018 / Revised: 6 March 2018 / Accepted: 14 March 2018 / Published: 15 March 2018
PDF Full-text (8232 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the chondroprotective effect of a standardized extract (KBH-JP-040) of the Korean traditional herbs Kalopanax pictus Castor-Aralia, Hericium erinaceus (Bull.) Persoon, and Astragalus membranaceus Schischkin on in vivo and in vitro osteoarthritis (OA) models. Cultured rat
[...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the chondroprotective effect of a standardized extract (KBH-JP-040) of the Korean traditional herbs Kalopanax pictus Castor-Aralia, Hericium erinaceus (Bull.) Persoon, and Astragalus membranaceus Schischkin on in vivo and in vitro osteoarthritis (OA) models. Cultured rat chondrocytes were pre-treated with KBH-JP-040 (50, 100 and 200 μg/mL) for 1 h, then recombinant human IL-1α (rhIL-1α) for 24 h. For the in vivo model, rabbits (n = 60) were equally divided into experimental groups: normal control (NC), a collagenase-induced OA group, and OA groups treated with KBH-JP-040 (75, 100, and 150 mg/kg body weight) and celecoxib (Cx, 100 mg/kg) orally for 28 days. Treatment with KBH-JP-040 significantly attenuated inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), suppressed the expression of IκBα, NF-κB, and JNK/p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, and upregulated aggrecan and collagen type-II expression in rhIL-1α-stimulated chondrocytes. Furthermore, the serum and synovial levels of inflammatory cytokines of rabbits also decreased in the treatment groups when compared with the OA group. Improved magnetic resonance imaging and histopathological findings further confirmed the therapeutic efficacy of KBH-JP-040 against OA. In conclusion, these results indicate that KBH-JP-040 possesses chondroprotective effects, suppressing inflammation and MMPs, and downregulating IκBα, NF-κB, and JNK/p38 MAP kinase-signaling pathways. This might be a potential therapeutic candidate for OA treatment. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Limiting trans Fats in Foods: Use of Partially Hydrogenated Vegetable Oils in Prepacked Foods in Slovenia
Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 355; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030355
Received: 12 January 2018 / Revised: 8 March 2018 / Accepted: 13 March 2018 / Published: 15 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (768 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Consumption of industrially produced trans-fatty acids (TFAs) is a well-established health risk factor that correlates with the increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. The recommended TFA intake is as low as possible, within the context of a nutritionally adequate diet. Different countries
[...] Read more.
Consumption of industrially produced trans-fatty acids (TFAs) is a well-established health risk factor that correlates with the increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. The recommended TFA intake is as low as possible, within the context of a nutritionally adequate diet. Different countries have introduced different measures to minimize the exposure of their population to TFAs. Previous data have shown that TFA content has significantly decreased in Western European countries, while this was not the case in many Central-Eastern European countries, including Slovenia. In the absence of regulatory requirements, a number of awareness campaigns were launched in Slovenia since 2015, with the common goal of lowering the use of partially hydrogenated oils (PHO), which are considered a major source of TFAs. To determine if this goal had been reached, we performed an assessment of the exposure of the population to prepacked foods containing PHOs in years 2015 and 2017. Altogether, data on the composition of 22,629 prepacked foods was collected from food labels, using a specifically developed smartphone application. Furthermore, the food categories with the most frequent use of PHOs were identified. The proportion of PHO-containing products was determined for each specific food category, and adjusted with the market share data. The results showed that in 2015, vegetable cream substitutes, soups, and biscuits were the categories with the highest penetration of declared PHO content. In 2017, the proportion of products with PHO decreased considerably. In vegetable cream substitutes the percentage of PHO containing items dropped from 30 down to 4%, in soups it decreased from 21 to 5%, in biscuits from 17 to 8%, and in crisps and snacks from 10 to 4%. However, PHO content remained notable among cakes, muffins, pastries, and biscuits. We can conclude that the voluntary guidelines and regular public communication of the risks related to the TFA consumption has had a considerable effect on the food supply, but did not result in sufficient removal of PHOs from foods. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Back to Top