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Association between Dietary Intake and Coronary Artery Calcification in Non-Dialysis Chronic Kidney Disease: The PROGREDIR Study

1
Department of Nephrology, Hospital das Clínicas, Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo SP 05403-000, Brazil
2
Heart Institute, Hospital das Clínicas, Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo SP 05403-900, Brazil
3
Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo, São Paulo SP 03178-200, Brazil
4
Health Sciences Center, Federal University of Espírito Santo, Vitória ES 29043-900, Brazil
5
General Medicine Unit, Faculty of Medicine, and Hospital Universitário, University of São Paulo, São Paulo SP 05508-000, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
L.M.G. and D.M.L.M. contributed equally and should both be considered as second author.
Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 372; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030372
Received: 7 February 2018 / Revised: 12 March 2018 / Accepted: 12 March 2018 / Published: 19 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium and Human Health)
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Abstract

Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is a widespread condition in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Diet may play an important role in CAC, but this role is not clear. This study evaluated the association between macro-and micronutrient intakes and CAC in non-dialysis CKD patients. We analyzed the baseline data from 454 participants of the PROGREDIR study. Dietary intake was evaluated by a food frequency questionnaire. CAC was measured by computed tomography. After exclusion of participants with a coronary stent, 373 people remained for the analyses. The highest tertile of CAC was directly associated with the intake of phosphorus, calcium and magnesium. There was a higher intake of pantothenic acid and potassium in the second tertile. After adjustments for confounding variables, the intake of pantothenic acid, phosphorus, calcium and potassium remained associated with CAC in the generalized linear mixed models. In order to handle the collinearity between these nutrients, we used the LASSO (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator) regression to evaluate the nutrients associated with CAC variability. In this approach, the nutrients that most explained the variance of CAC were phosphorus, calcium and potassium. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings and assess the role of interventions regarding these micronutrients on CAC prevention and progression. View Full-Text
Keywords: vascular calcification; diet; micronutrients; phosphorus; calcium; potassium; renal insufficiency; chronic; health surveys vascular calcification; diet; micronutrients; phosphorus; calcium; potassium; renal insufficiency; chronic; health surveys
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Machado, A.D.; Gómez, L.M.; Marchioni, D.M.L.; Dos Anjos, F.S.N.; Molina, M.D.C.B.; Lotufo, P.A.; Benseñor, I.J.M.; Titan, S.M.O. Association between Dietary Intake and Coronary Artery Calcification in Non-Dialysis Chronic Kidney Disease: The PROGREDIR Study. Nutrients 2018, 10, 372.

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