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Special Issue "Balancing Physical Activity and Nutrition for Human Health"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Francisco B. Ortega

PROFITH “PROmoting FITness and Health through Physical Activity” Research Group, Department of Physical Education and Sports, Faculty of Sports Sciences, University of Granada, Granada 18011, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: physical activity; exercise; physical fitness; obesity; cardiovascular health; cognition; brain
Guest Editor
Prof. Idoia Labayen

Department of Health Sciences, Public University of Navarra, Pamplona 31008, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: nutrition; obesity; physical activity; exercise; metabolic syndrom; cardiovascular health

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Physical activity and dietary habits are key lifestyle behaviors that are increasingly being studied for their associations with the incidence and progression of many chronic diseases, such as obesity, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer. Energy expenditure and energy intake are the two sides of the balance, and should never be interpreted in isolation. However, most of the existing research has focused on either physical activity or nutrition, with limited evidence studying both key components in an integrative manner. This Special Issue of Nutrients, entitled “The Physical Activity-Nutrition Nexus and Its Relationship with Human Health”, welcomes submissions of observational and intervention studies, as well as reviews, systematic reviews and meta-analyses. We have particular interest in studies examining both physical activity and nutrition in relation to health outcomes.

Potential topics may include, but are not limited to:

  • Associations between physical activity levels and dietary patterns and health outcomes, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome, bone health, mental health, cognitive function and quality of life.
  • Associations between physical fitness and dietary habits with chronic disease risk factors.
  • Associations between physical activity and fitness with nutritional status.
  • Interventions with exercise and diet for the treatment of chronic diseases
  • Assessment of trajectories of physical activity and nutritional status and health outcomes.
  • Systematic reviews and meta-analysis of physical activity, dietary patterns and health outcomes.
Prof. Francisco B. Ortega
Prof. Idoia Labayen
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Physical activity
  • Fitness
  • Nutrition
  • Dietary habits

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Influence of Physical Activity on Bone Mineral Content and Density in Overweight and Obese Children with Low Adherence to the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1075; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081075
Received: 18 July 2018 / Revised: 9 August 2018 / Accepted: 10 August 2018 / Published: 12 August 2018
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Abstract
The objective of the present cross-sectional study was to examine the associations of physical activity and the adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) with bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) in children with overweight and obesity. A total of 177 (
[...] Read more.
The objective of the present cross-sectional study was to examine the associations of physical activity and the adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) with bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) in children with overweight and obesity. A total of 177 (n = 80 girls) children with overweight and obesity aged 8 to 12 years old participated in the study. Both BMC and BMD were assessed by Dual-Energy X-ray absorptiometry. Dietary patterns were assessed by the KIDMED questionnaire and two 24-hour recalls. Physical activity was assessed by accelerometers for 7 consecutive days (24 hours/day). Low adherence to the MDP was observed in 82.4% of participants. Higher physical activity levels (of at least moderate intensity) and lower sedentary time were significantly associated with BMC and BMD in children with low adherence to the MDP (all p < 0.05). No associations were observed between physical activity and BMC and BMD in children with high adherence to the MDP. In conclusion, engaging in moderate to vigorous physical activity and reducing the time spent in sedentary behavior might be particularly beneficial for improving bone health in overweight or obese children with poor adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Balancing Physical Activity and Nutrition for Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Association of Breakfast Quality and Energy Density with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Overweight/Obese Children: Role of Physical Activity
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1066; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081066
Received: 18 July 2018 / Revised: 1 August 2018 / Accepted: 7 August 2018 / Published: 10 August 2018
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Abstract
There is a general belief that having breakfast is an important healthy lifestyle factor; however, there is scarce evidence on the influence of breakfast quality and energy density on cardiometabolic risk in children, as well as on the role of physical activity in
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There is a general belief that having breakfast is an important healthy lifestyle factor; however, there is scarce evidence on the influence of breakfast quality and energy density on cardiometabolic risk in children, as well as on the role of physical activity in this association. The aims of this paper were (i) to examine the associations of breakfast quality and energy density from both solids and beverages with cardiometabolic risk factors, and (ii) to explore whether physical activity levels may attenuate these relationships in children with overweight/obesity from two projects carried out in the north and south of Spain. Breakfast consumption, breakfast quality index (BQI) score, BEDs/BEDb (24 h-recalls and the KIDMED questionnaire), and physical activity (PA; accelerometry) were assessed, in 203 children aged 8–12 years who were overweight or obese. We measured body composition (Dual X-ray Absorptiometry), uric acid, blood pressure, lipid profile, gamma-glutamyl-transferase (GGT), glucose, and insulin, and calculated the HOMA and metabolic syndrome z-score. The BQI score was inversely associated with serum uric acid independently of a set of relevant confounders (β = −0.172, p = 0.028), but the relationship was attenuated after further controlling for total PA (p < 0.07). BEDs was positively associated with total and HDL cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure regardless of confounders (all p < 0.05), while BEDb was positively associated with HOMA in either active/inactive children (all p < 0.03). In conclusion, higher breakfast quality and lower breakfast energy density should be promoted in overweight/obesity children to improve their cardiometabolic health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Balancing Physical Activity and Nutrition for Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Influence of Food Neophobia Level on Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Its Association with Urban Area of Residence and Physical Activity in a Nationwide Case-Control Study of Polish Adolescents
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 897; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070897
Received: 18 May 2018 / Revised: 4 July 2018 / Accepted: 10 July 2018 / Published: 13 July 2018
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Abstract
Among the factors that may influence fruit and vegetable intake, there is a food neophobia level, but the other elements, including physical activity and place of residence, must also be taken into account as interfering ones. The aim of the study was to
[...] Read more.
Among the factors that may influence fruit and vegetable intake, there is a food neophobia level, but the other elements, including physical activity and place of residence, must also be taken into account as interfering ones. The aim of the study was to analyze the association between food neophobia level and the intake of fruits and vegetables in a nationwide case-control study of Polish adolescents (12–13 years), including the influence of gender, the physical activity program participation and the place of residence. The #goathletics Study was conducted among a group of 1014 adolescents, 507 individuals representative for a nationwide physical activity program “Athletics for All” participants (characterized by an active lifestyle) and 507 pair-matched individuals (characterized by sedentary behavior), while 502 were representative for urban and 512 for suburban area. The assessment of food neophobia level was based on the Food Neophobia Scale questionnaire and the assessment of fruit and vegetable intake was based on the validated food frequency questionnaire. It was observed that higher food neophobia level is associated with a lower fruit and vegetable intake, that was stated both for girls and boys, as well as both for individuals characterized by an active lifestyle and those characterized by sedentary behavior, both from urban and suburban area. Food neophobic individuals characterized by an active lifestyle and those from urban areas were characterized by a higher fruit intake than individuals characterized by sedentary behavior and those from suburban areas, from the same food neophobia category. It was found that food neophobia may reduce fruit and vegetable intake, but the physical activity education with peers may reduce the observed influence and should be applied especially in the case of neophobic individuals from suburban areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Balancing Physical Activity and Nutrition for Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Roles of Sedentary Behaviors and Unhealthy Foods in Increasing the Obesity Risk in Adult Men and Women: A Cross-Sectional National Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 704; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060704
Received: 23 March 2018 / Revised: 28 May 2018 / Accepted: 30 May 2018 / Published: 31 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1207 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Sedentary behaviors and dietary intake are independently associated with obesity risk. In the literature, only a few studies have investigated gender differences for such associations. The present study aims to assess the association of sedentary behaviors and unhealthy foods intake with obesity in
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Sedentary behaviors and dietary intake are independently associated with obesity risk. In the literature, only a few studies have investigated gender differences for such associations. The present study aims to assess the association of sedentary behaviors and unhealthy foods intake with obesity in men and women in a comparative manner. The analysis presented in this study was based on the data from a population-based, cross-sectional, nationally representative survey (Indonesian Basic Health Research 2013/RISKESDAS 2013). In total, 222,650 men and 248,590 women aged 19–55 years were enrolled. A validated questionnaire, physical activity card, and food card were used for the assessments. The results showed that the prevalence of obesity (body mass index of ≥27.5 kg/m2) was higher in women (18.71%) than in men (8.67%). The mean body mass index in women tended to be higher than in men. After adjusting for age and education, the gender effect on obesity persisted in women and was more significant than in men. There was also a positive and significant effect on obesity of sedentary behaviors and unhealthy foods intake. Moreover, fatty and fried foods displayed a positive multiplicative interaction, increasing obesity risk in women more than in men and indicating a possible dietary risk in in women in relation to obesity. The study suggests that the implementation of educational programs on nutrition and physical activity is particularly important for promoting a healthy body weight among Indonesian women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Balancing Physical Activity and Nutrition for Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Providing High-Fat versus High-Carbohydrate Meals on Daily and Postprandial Physical Activity and Glucose Patterns: a Randomised Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 557; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050557
Received: 10 April 2018 / Revised: 25 April 2018 / Accepted: 27 April 2018 / Published: 30 April 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1614 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We determined the effects of altering meal timing and diet composition on temporal glucose homeostasis and physical activity measures. Eight sedentary, overweight/obese men (mean ± SD, age: 36 ± 4 years; BMI: 29.8 ± 1.8 kg/m2) completed two × 12-day (12-d)
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We determined the effects of altering meal timing and diet composition on temporal glucose homeostasis and physical activity measures. Eight sedentary, overweight/obese men (mean ± SD, age: 36 ± 4 years; BMI: 29.8 ± 1.8 kg/m2) completed two × 12-day (12-d) measurement periods, including a 7-d habitual period, and then 5 d of each diet (high-fat diet [HFD]: 67:15:18% fat:carbohydrate:protein versus high-carbohydrate diet [HCD]: 67:15:18% carbohydrate:fat:protein) of three meals/d at ±30 min of 0800 h, 1230 h, and 1800 h, in a randomised order with an 8-d washout. Energy intake (EI), the timing of meal consumption, blood glucose regulation (continuous glucose monitor system (CGMS)), and activity patterns (accelerometer and inclinometer) were assessed across each 12-d period. Meal provision did not alter the patterns of reduced physical activity, and increased sedentary behaviour following dinner, compared with following breakfast and lunch. The HCD increased peak (+1.6 mmol/L, p < 0.001), mean (+0.5 mmol/L, p = 0.001), and total area under the curve (+670 mmol/L/min, p = 0.001), as well as 3-h postprandial meal glucose concentrations (all p < 0.001) compared with the HFD. In overweight/obese males, the provision of meals did not alter physical activity patterns, but did affect glycaemic control. Greater emphasis on meal timing and composition is required in diet and/or behaviour intervention studies to ensure relevance to real-world behaviours. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Balancing Physical Activity and Nutrition for Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Optimal Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet and High Muscular Fitness Are Associated with a Healthier Cardiometabolic Profile in Collegiate Students
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 511; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040511
Received: 30 March 2018 / Revised: 13 April 2018 / Accepted: 17 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (294 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of the study was to investigate the combined association of adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and muscular fitness (MF) with cardiometabolic health in collegiate students. The present cross-sectional analysis consisted of 1248 (714 females) healthy collegiate students (20.1 ± 2.7
[...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to investigate the combined association of adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and muscular fitness (MF) with cardiometabolic health in collegiate students. The present cross-sectional analysis consisted of 1248 (714 females) healthy collegiate students (20.1 ± 2.7 years old). Adherence to a MedDiet was assessed by a KIDMED (Mediterranean Diet Quality Index) questionnaire. Standing broad jump, standing vertical jump, and isometric handgrip dynamometry were used as indicators of MF. The cardiometabolic profile was assessed using the following components: triglycerides, blood pressure, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, glucose, and waist circumference. Analysis of covariance shows a significant difference in the cardiometabolic profile of both genders between the high MF/low MedDiet and high MF/optimal MedDiet groups, and the low MF/low MedDiet and low MF/optimal MedDiet groups (p < 0.001). No difference was found on cardiometabolic profile between high MF/optimal MedDiet and high MF/low MedDiet, both in males and females. Additionally, logistic regression shows that both female (odds ratio (OR) = 2.01; 95% confidence interval (CI): (1.8–3.7); p = 0.02) and male (OR = 3.38; 95% CI: (1.9–5.8); p < 0.001) participants in the optimal MedDiet/high MF group had the highest odds of expressing a healthier cardiometabolic profile as compared to those in the low MF/low MedDiet group. In conclusion, a combination of high MF levels and optimal adherence to a MedDiet is associated with a healthier cardiometabolic profile; however, high MF levels seem to circumvent the deleterious effects of having a low adherence to a MedDiet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Balancing Physical Activity and Nutrition for Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Cardiorespiratory Fitness as a Mediator of the Influence of Diet on Obesity in Children
Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 358; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030358
Received: 3 February 2018 / Revised: 9 March 2018 / Accepted: 13 March 2018 / Published: 16 March 2018
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Abstract
The association between diet and obesity has been widely studied and it continues to be controversial; however, the extent to which cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) acts as a confounder or mediator in this relation has not been analyzed. The aim of this study is
[...] Read more.
The association between diet and obesity has been widely studied and it continues to be controversial; however, the extent to which cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) acts as a confounder or mediator in this relation has not been analyzed. The aim of this study is to examine if the relation between diet and obesity is mediated by CRF. In this cross-sectional study, fat mass (by electronic bioimpedance) was measured in 320 schoolchildren, aged 9–11 years. Diet was measured through two computerised 24-h dietary recalls and CRF was assessed by the 20-m shuttle run test. Simple mediation analyses were fitted. CRF acts as a partial mediator in the negative relationship between dietary factors (energy intake/weight, carbohydrate intake/weight, protein intake/weight, and fat intake/weight) and fat mass. The percentage of mediation ranged from 24.3 to 33.2%. Thus, Spanish schoolchildren with higher levels of energy and macronutrients intake had lower adiposity levels, especially when they had good levels of CRF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Balancing Physical Activity and Nutrition for Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, Body Composition, and Nutrition Are Associated with Bone Status in University Students
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010061
Received: 22 November 2017 / Revised: 27 December 2017 / Accepted: 5 January 2018 / Published: 10 January 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (274 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Understanding the modifiable factors that improve and maximize peak bone mass at an early age is necessary to design more effective intervention programs to prevent osteoporosis. To identify these modifiable factors, we analyzed the relationship of physical activity (PA), physical fitness, body composition,
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Understanding the modifiable factors that improve and maximize peak bone mass at an early age is necessary to design more effective intervention programs to prevent osteoporosis. To identify these modifiable factors, we analyzed the relationship of physical activity (PA), physical fitness, body composition, and dietary intake with bone stiffness index (SI), measured by quantitative ultrasonometry in young university students (18–21 years). Moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) was the strongest predictor of SI (β = 0.184; p = 0.035). SI was most closely related with very vigorous PA in males (β = 0.288; p = 0.040) and with the number of steps/day in females (β = 0.319; p = 0.002). An association between thigh muscle and SI was consistent in both sexes (β = 0.328; p < 0.001). Additionally, extension maximal force was a bone SI predictor factor in females (β = 0.263; p = 0.016) independent of thigh muscle perimeter. Calcium intake was the only nutrition parameter that had a positive relationship with SI (R = 0.217; p = 0.022). However, it was not included as a predictor for SI in our regression models. This study identifies predictors of bone status in each sex and indicates that muscle and bone interrelate with PA and fitness in young adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Balancing Physical Activity and Nutrition for Human Health)
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