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Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 381; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030381

Concentrations of Water-Soluble Forms of Choline in Human Milk from Lactating Women in Canada and Cambodia

1
Food, Nutrition, and Health Program, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
2
BC Children’s Hospital Research Institute, Vancouver, BC V5Z 4H4, Canada
3
Department of Applied Human Nutrition, Mount Saint Vincent University, Halifax, NS B3M 2J6, Canada
4
Helen Keller International—Cambodia Country Office, Phnom Penh 12301, Cambodia
5
National Nutrition Programme, Maternal and Child Health Centre, Ministry of Health, Phnom Penh 12202, Cambodia
6
South Australia Health and Medical Research Institute, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Deceased.
Received: 15 February 2018 / Revised: 12 March 2018 / Accepted: 16 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Breastfeeding and Human Lactation)
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Abstract

Choline has critical roles during periods of rapid growth and development, such as infancy. In human milk, choline is mostly present in water-soluble forms (free choline, phosphocholine, and glycerophosphocholine). It is thought that milk choline concentration is influenced by maternal choline intake, and the richest food sources for choline are of animal origin. Scarce information exists on milk choline from countries differing in animal-source food availability. In this secondary analysis of samples from previous trials, the concentrations of the water-soluble forms of choline were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in mature milk samples collected from lactating women in Canada (n = 301) and in Cambodia (n = 67). None of the water-soluble forms of choline concentrations in milk differed between Canada and Cambodia. For all milk samples (n = 368), free choline, phosphocholine, glycerophosphocholine, and the sum of water-soluble forms of choline concentrations in milk were (mean (95%CI)) 151 (141, 160, 540 (519, 562), 411 (396, 427), and 1102 (1072, 1133) µmol/L, respectively. Theoretically, only 19% of infants would meet the current Adequate Intake (AI) for choline. Our findings suggest that the concentrations in milk of water-soluble forms of choline are similar in Canada and Cambodia, and that the concentration used to set the infant AI might be inaccurate. View Full-Text
Keywords: choline; phosphocholine; glycerophosphocholine; lactation; human milk; infants; adequate intake; dietary recommendations; Canada; Cambodia choline; phosphocholine; glycerophosphocholine; lactation; human milk; infants; adequate intake; dietary recommendations; Canada; Cambodia
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Wiedeman, A.M.; Whitfield, K.C.; March, K.M.; Chen, N.N.; Kroeun, H.; Sokhoing, L.; Sophonneary, P.; Dyer, R.A.; Xu, Z.; Kitts, D.D.; Green, T.J.; Innis, S.M.; Barr, S.I. Concentrations of Water-Soluble Forms of Choline in Human Milk from Lactating Women in Canada and Cambodia. Nutrients 2018, 10, 381.

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