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Special Issue "Nutrition Solutions for a Changing World"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Jon Buckley

School of Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: nutrition; exercise; health; physical performance
Guest Editor
Dr. Malcolm Riley

Senior Research Scientist, Health and Biosecurity, Commonwealth
Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Adelaide, Australia
Immediate Past President, Nutrition Society of Australia
E-Mail
Phone: +61 8 8303 8989
Interests: dietary intake measurement; population dietary intake; epidemiology; health of Indigenous Australians
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Lisa Wood

Research Professor, School of Biomedical Science and Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Medicine, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, Australia.
President Elect, Nutrition Society of Australia
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +61 2 40420147
Fax: +612 4042 0046
Interests: nutrition; inflammation; immunity; antioxidants; fatty acids; obesity; respiratory disease; asthma; COPD
Guest Editor
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Sheila Skeaff

Research Professor, Department of Human Nutrition,University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
President, Nutrition Society of New Zealand.
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +643 479 7944
Interests: nutritional assessment; nutrient deficiency; minerals and trace elements; salt; lifecycle nutrition; food literacy

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The focus of this Special Issue is “Nutrition Solutions for a Changing World”, which was the theme for the 10th Asia Pacific Conference on Clinical Nutrition which held in Adelaide, Australia, from 26–29 November, 2017.

The conference was a joint meeting of the Nutrition Society of Australia, the Nutrition Society of New Zealand and the Asia Pacific Society for Clinical Nutrition and this Special Issue contains selected papers from that meeting.

Prof. Dr. Jonathan Buckley
Dr. Malcolm Riley
Prof. Dr. Lisa Wood
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Sheila Skeaff
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Determining the Glycaemic Index of Standard and High-Sugar Rodent Diets in C57BL/6 Mice
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 856; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070856
Received: 30 May 2018 / Revised: 23 June 2018 / Accepted: 29 June 2018 / Published: 1 July 2018
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Abstract
The glycaemic index (GI) is a useful tool to compare the glycaemic responses of foods. Numerous studies report the favorable effects of low GI diets on long term metabolic health compared with high GI diets. However, it has not been possible to link
[...] Read more.
The glycaemic index (GI) is a useful tool to compare the glycaemic responses of foods. Numerous studies report the favorable effects of low GI diets on long term metabolic health compared with high GI diets. However, it has not been possible to link these effects to the GI itself because of other components such as macronutrients and dietary fibre, which are known to affect GI. This study aimed to create and evaluate isocaloric diets differing in GI independent of macronutrient and fibre content. The GIs of eight diets differing in carbohydrate source were evaluated in mice; cooked cornstarch (CC), raw cornstarch (RC), chow, maltodextrin, glucose, sucrose, isomaltulose, and fructose. A glucose control was also tested. The GIs of all eight diets were different from the GI of the glucose control (GI: 100; p < 0.0001). The GIs of the glucose (mean ± SEM: 52 ± 3), maltodextrin (52 ± 6), CC (50 ± 4), RC (50 ± 6), and chow (44 ± 4) diets were similar, while the GIs of the sucrose (31 ± 4), isomaltulose (24 ± 5), and fructose (18 ± 2) diets were lower than all other diets (p < 0.05). This is the first trial to report GI testing in vivo in mice, resulting in three main findings: chow is relatively high GI, the glucose availability of raw and cooked cornstarch is similar, and the GI of different sugar diets occur in the same rank order as in humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Solutions for a Changing World)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Synbiotics among Constipated Adults in Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia—A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 824; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070824
Received: 25 May 2018 / Revised: 17 June 2018 / Accepted: 22 June 2018 / Published: 26 June 2018
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Abstract
Synbiotics approach complementarily and synergistically toward the balance of gastrointestinal microbiota and improvement in bowel functions. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted to examine the effects of a synbiotics supplement among constipated adults. A total of 85 constipated adults, diagnosed by Rome
[...] Read more.
Synbiotics approach complementarily and synergistically toward the balance of gastrointestinal microbiota and improvement in bowel functions. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted to examine the effects of a synbiotics supplement among constipated adults. A total of 85 constipated adults, diagnosed by Rome III criteria for functional constipation were randomised to receive either synbiotics (n = 43) or placebo (n = 42) once daily (2.5 g) in the morning for 12 weeks. Eight times of follow-up was conducted every fortnightly with treatment response based on a questionnaire that included a record of evacuation (stool frequency, stool type according to Bristol Stool Form Scale), Patients Assessment on Constipation Symptoms (PAC-SYM), and Patients Assessment on Constipation Quality of Life (PAC-QOL). There were no significant differences in stool evacuation, but defecation frequency and stool type in treatment group were improved tremendously than in placebo group. While the treatment group was reported to have higher reduction in severity of functional constipation symptoms, the differences were not statistically significant. Dietary supplementation of synbiotics in this study suggested that the combination of probiotics and prebiotics improved the functional constipation symptoms and quality of life although not significant. This was due to the high placebo effect which synbiotics failed to demonstrate benefit over the controls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Solutions for a Changing World)
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Open AccessArticle Association between Platescapes, Foodscapes, and Meal Energy Intake in Government Employees from Muar, Johor, Malaysia
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 819; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070819
Received: 25 May 2018 / Revised: 13 June 2018 / Accepted: 19 June 2018 / Published: 25 June 2018
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Abstract
A microscale built environment was the focus in this cross-sectional study which aimed to investigate the associations between platescapes, foodscapes, and meal energy intake among subjects. A total of 133 subjects (54 male, 79 female) with mean age 36.8 ± 7.3 years completed
[...] Read more.
A microscale built environment was the focus in this cross-sectional study which aimed to investigate the associations between platescapes, foodscapes, and meal energy intake among subjects. A total of 133 subjects (54 male, 79 female) with mean age 36.8 ± 7.3 years completed a self-administered questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics, platescapes, and foodscape preferences. For platescapes, a plate mapping method was used, where subjects were required to place various sizes of food models on two different sized plates (23 cm and 28 cm) based on their preferences. For foodscape preferences, subjects were given a 23-cm plate and various food models differentiated by shapes and colours. Then, 24-h daily recalls (for one weekday and one weekend day) were obtained using interviews. Significant differences were observed in meal energy intake (p < 0.05) between males (1741 ± 339 kcal) and females (1625 ± 247 kcal) and also between age groups (p < 0.05). There was a significant difference (p < 0.0001) in terms of subjects’ meal energy intake when comparing 23-cm plates (419 ± 124 kcal) and 28-cm plates (561 ± 143 kcal). The bigger plate (28 cm) (p < 0.01) was significantly associated with subjects’ meal energy intakes, but this was not so for the 23-cm plate. There were significant differences in subjects’ meal energy when comparing white rice and multicoloured rice (p < 0.0001), unicoloured and multicoloured proteins (p < 0.0001), and unicoloured and multicoloured vegetables (p < 0.0001). There was a significant difference found between round- and cube-shaped proteins (p < 0.05). The colours of rice (p < 0.01), protein (p < 0.05), and vegetables (p < 0.05) were significantly associated with subjects’ meal energy. Only the shape of carrots in vegetables (p = 0.01) was significantly associated with subjects’ meal energy. Subconsciously, platescapes and foodscapes affect an individual’s energy intake, and thus these elements should be considered in assessing one’s dietary consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Solutions for a Changing World)
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Open AccessArticle Protective Effect of Aplysin Supplementation on Intestinal Permeability and Microbiota in Rats Treated with Ethanol and Iron
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 681; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060681
Received: 24 April 2018 / Revised: 20 May 2018 / Accepted: 22 May 2018 / Published: 27 May 2018
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Abstract
Aplysin, a kind of phytochemicals or phytonutrients, is purified from red alga Laurencia tristicha. The present study aims to investigate the influence of aplysin on changes of intestinal permeability and microbiota induced by excessive ethanol and iron. Thirty male rats were randomly divided
[...] Read more.
Aplysin, a kind of phytochemicals or phytonutrients, is purified from red alga Laurencia tristicha. The present study aims to investigate the influence of aplysin on changes of intestinal permeability and microbiota induced by excessive ethanol and iron. Thirty male rats were randomly divided into three groups (10/group): control group (normal saline); ethanol + iron group as EI treated with ethanol (8–12 mL/kg/day) and iron (1000 mg/kg) in diet; EI supplemented with aplysin (150 mg/kg/day) group as AEI; the trial lasts for 12 weeks. The result showed that levels of plasma endotoxin, fatty acid-binding protein 2, D-lactic acid, diamine oxidase were increased in rats in the EI group; and significantly decreased by 14%, 17%, 26%, 16%, respectively (p < 0.05) in the AEI group after the 12-week aplysin treatment. Moreover, in the AEI group the amount of Escherichia coli and Bacteroides fragilis were higher, while the amount of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Clostridium were lower than those in the EI group. The expressions of iron transporters divalent-metal transporter 1(DMT1) and ferroportin 1(FPN1) were significantly upregulated in the EI group compared to those in the control group. In conclusion, aplysin could effectively improve intestinal permeability and intestinal flora disorder induced with excessive ethanol and iron. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Solutions for a Changing World)
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Open AccessArticle Association between Urinary Aflatoxin (AFM1) and Dietary Intake among Adults in Hulu Langat District, Selangor, Malaysia
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 460; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040460
Received: 27 February 2018 / Revised: 4 April 2018 / Accepted: 4 April 2018 / Published: 7 April 2018
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Abstract
Aflatoxin is a food contaminant and its exposure through the diet is frequent and ubiquitous. A long-term dietary aflatoxin exposure has been linked to the development of liver cancer in populations with high prevalence of aflatoxin contamination in foods. Therefore, this study was
[...] Read more.
Aflatoxin is a food contaminant and its exposure through the diet is frequent and ubiquitous. A long-term dietary aflatoxin exposure has been linked to the development of liver cancer in populations with high prevalence of aflatoxin contamination in foods. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify the association between urinary aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), a biomarker of aflatoxin exposure, with the dietary intake among adults in Hulu Langat district, Selangor, Malaysia. Certain food products have higher potential for aflatoxin contamination and these were listed in a Food Frequency Questionnaire, which was given to all study participants. This allowed us to record consumption rates for each food product listed. Concomitantly, urine samples were collected, from adults in selected areas in Hulu Langat district, for the measurement of AFM1 levels using an ELISA kit. Of the 444 urine samples collected and tested, 199 were positive for AFM1, with 37 of them exceeding the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.64 ng/mL. Cereal products showed the highest consumption level among all food groups, with an average intake of 512.54 g per day. Chi-square analysis showed that consumption of eggs (X2 = 4.77, p = 0.03) and dairy products (X2 = 19.36, p < 0.01) had significant associations with urinary AFM1 but both food groups were having a phi and Cramer’s V value that less than 0.3, which indicated that the association between these food groups’ consumption and AFM1 level in urine was weak. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Solutions for a Changing World)
Open AccessArticle Effects of Consuming a Low Dose of Alcohol with Mixers Containing Carbohydrate or Artificial Sweetener on Simulated Driving Performance
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 419; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040419
Received: 9 February 2018 / Revised: 22 March 2018 / Accepted: 26 March 2018 / Published: 28 March 2018
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Abstract
The Australian National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre (NDARC) devised gender-based drinking recommendations to ensure blood or equivalized breath alcohol concentrations (BrAC) remain <0.050%. However, these may be inappropriate for individuals consuming alcohol without carbohydrate (CHO), which results in higher BrACs. This study
[...] Read more.
The Australian National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre (NDARC) devised gender-based drinking recommendations to ensure blood or equivalized breath alcohol concentrations (BrAC) remain <0.050%. However, these may be inappropriate for individuals consuming alcohol without carbohydrate (CHO), which results in higher BrACs. This study investigated the effects of ingesting alcohol with and without CHO on BrACs and simulated driving performance. Thirty-two participants (16 males; age: 23 ± 6 years) completed two randomized single-blinded trials. Participants performed a baseline drive (Drive 1), then an experimental drive (Drive 2), following alcohol consumption (males: 20 g; females: 10 g). Alcoholic beverages contained either 25 g sucrose or aspartame (AS). Driving performance was assessed using lateral control (standard deviation of lane position [SDLP] and number of lane departures) and risk-taking (number of overtaking maneuvers and maximum overtaking speed). BrAC and subjective ratings (e.g., intoxication) were also assessed. BrAC was significantly lower as Drive 2 commenced with CHO compared to AS (0.022 ± 0.008% vs. 0.030 ± 0.011%). Two males provided BrACs >0.050% with AS. Neither beverage influenced changes to simulated driving performance. Ingesting alcohol in quantities advised by the NDARC results in no detectable simulated driving impairment. However, the likelihood of exceeding the legal drink-driving BrAC is increased when alcohol is consumed with artificially-sweetened mixers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Solutions for a Changing World)
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Open AccessArticle Association between Erythrocyte Membrane Phospholipid Fatty Acids and Sleep Disturbance in Chinese Children and Adolescents
Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 344; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030344
Received: 24 January 2018 / Revised: 8 March 2018 / Accepted: 9 March 2018 / Published: 12 March 2018
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Abstract
The relationship between circulating fatty acid (FA) composition and childhood sleep disturbance remains largely unclear. We aimed to investigate the association of erythrocyte membrane FA composition with prevalence of sleep disturbance in Chinese children and adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 2337
[...] Read more.
The relationship between circulating fatty acid (FA) composition and childhood sleep disturbance remains largely unclear. We aimed to investigate the association of erythrocyte membrane FA composition with prevalence of sleep disturbance in Chinese children and adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 2337 school-aged children and adolescents who completed a clinical assessment in Beijing, China. Presence of sleep disturbance was self-reported or parent-reported by questionnaires. Erythrocyte FAs were measured by gas chromatography, and desaturase activities were estimated by FA ratios. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for sleep disturbance across FA quartiles were calculated by a logistical regression model. We found higher proportions of erythrocyte phospholipid 24:0, 24:1n-9, and lower proportions of total n-3 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA), 22:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 in participants with sleep disturbance compared with those without. In the logistical regression models, significant inverse associations were found for total n-3 PUFA, 22:5n-3 and 22:6n-3, the highest versus lowest quartile ORs and 95% CIs were 0.57 (0.40, 0.82), 0.67 (0.47, 0.97) and 0.69 (0.49, 0.96), respectively. For per 1 SD difference of proportion, OR and 95% CI of prevalence of sleep disturbance was 0.91 (0.86, 0.97) for total n-3 PUFA, 0.90 (0.82, 0.98) for 22:5n-3, and 0.92 (0.86, 0.99) for 22:6n-3, respectively. No significant association was found for saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids or FA ratios. The present study suggested that erythrocyte n-3 PUFAs, especially 22:5n-3 and 22:6n-3, are inversely associated with prevalence of sleep disturbance in Chinese children and adolescents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Solutions for a Changing World)
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Open AccessArticle The Impact of a Single Dose of a Polyphenol-Rich Seaweed Extract on Postprandial Glycaemic Control in Healthy Adults: A Randomised Cross-Over Trial
Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 270; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030270
Received: 25 January 2018 / Revised: 19 February 2018 / Accepted: 22 February 2018 / Published: 27 February 2018
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Abstract
This study investigated the impact of a polyphenol-rich seaweed extract on postprandial glycaemia in healthy adults, and, as a secondary outcome, the influence of ethnicity on these outcomes. Thirty-eight volunteers (26 non-Asian, 12 Asian) aged 19 to 56 years participated in this double-blind,
[...] Read more.
This study investigated the impact of a polyphenol-rich seaweed extract on postprandial glycaemia in healthy adults, and, as a secondary outcome, the influence of ethnicity on these outcomes. Thirty-eight volunteers (26 non-Asian, 12 Asian) aged 19 to 56 years participated in this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised cross-over trial. Participants each consumed a low (500 mg), and high (2000 mg) dose of the polyphenol-rich brown seaweed (Fucus vesiculosus) extract, as well as a cellulose placebo (2000 mg), 30 min prior to 50 g of available carbohydrate from white bread. Postprandial blood glucose and plasma insulin concentrations were measured over two hours (fasting, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min) from a finger prick blood sample. Data were analysed using a repeated measures analysis of variance. Compared with the placebo, neither dose had a lowering effect on postprandial glucose or insulin responses. However, individuals of an Asian background experienced consistently elevated plasma insulin responses, assessed using an incremental area under the curve, compared with non-Asian participants, irrespective of supplement (p = 0.016). These results suggest an increased risk of insulin resistance among Asian populations, compared with non-Asian, and that measurement of blood glucose levels alone may be insufficient to diagnose diabetes risk in this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Solutions for a Changing World)
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Open AccessArticle Healthiness of Food and Beverages for Sale at Two Public Hospitals in New South Wales, Australia
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020216
Received: 17 December 2017 / Revised: 12 February 2018 / Accepted: 13 February 2018 / Published: 15 February 2018
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Abstract
(1) Background: Our aim was to conduct objective, baseline food environment audits of two major western Sydney public hospitals and compare them to recently revised state nutritional guidelines. (2) Methods: A cross-sectional assessment was conducted (June–July2017) across 14 fixed food outlets and 70
[...] Read more.
(1) Background: Our aim was to conduct objective, baseline food environment audits of two major western Sydney public hospitals and compare them to recently revised state nutritional guidelines. (2) Methods: A cross-sectional assessment was conducted (June–July2017) across 14 fixed food outlets and 70 vending machines in two hospitals using an audit tool designed to assess the guideline’s key food environment parameters of availability, placement, and promotion of ‘Everyday’ (healthy) and ‘Occasional’ (less healthy) products. (3) Results: Availability: Overall, Everyday products made up 51% and 44% of all products available at the two hospitals. Only 1/14 (7%) fixed outlets and 16/70 (23%) vending machines met the guideline’s availability benchmarks of ≥75% Everyday food and beverages. Proportion of Everyday products differed among different types of food outlets (café, cafeteria, convenience stores). Placement: On average, food outlets did not meet recommendations of limiting Occasional products in prominent positions, with checkout areas and countertops displaying over 60% Occasional items. Promotion: Over two-thirds of meal deals at both hospitals included Occasional products. (4) Conclusion: Baseline audit results show that substantial improvements in availability, placement, and promotion can be made at these public hospitals to meet the nutrition guidelines. Audits of other NSW hospitals using the developed tool are needed to investigate similarities and differences in food environment between sites. These findings highlight the need for ongoing tracking to inform whether the revised guidelines are leading to improved food environments in health facilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Solutions for a Changing World)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Effects of Substitution, and Adding of Carbohydrate and Fat to Whey-Protein on Energy Intake, Appetite, Gastric Emptying, Glucose, Insulin, Ghrelin, CCK and GLP-1 in Healthy Older Men—A Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020113
Received: 13 December 2017 / Revised: 5 January 2018 / Accepted: 18 January 2018 / Published: 23 January 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1352 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Protein-rich supplements are used widely for the management of malnutrition in the elderly. We reported previously that the suppression of energy intake by whey protein is less in older than younger adults. The aim was to determine the effects of substitution, and adding
[...] Read more.
Protein-rich supplements are used widely for the management of malnutrition in the elderly. We reported previously that the suppression of energy intake by whey protein is less in older than younger adults. The aim was to determine the effects of substitution, and adding of carbohydrate and fat to whey protein, on ad libitum energy intake from a buffet meal (180–210 min), gastric emptying (3D-ultrasonography), plasma gut hormone concentrations (0–180 min) and appetite (visual analogue scales), in healthy older men. In a randomized, double-blind order, 13 older men (75 ± 2 years) ingested drinks (~450 mL) containing: (i) 70 g whey protein (280 kcal; ‘P280’); (ii) 14 g protein, 28 g carbohydrate, 12.4 g fat (280 kcal; ‘M280’); (iii) 70 g protein, 28 g carbohydrate, 12.4 g fat (504 kcal; ‘M504’); or (iv) control (~2 kcal). The caloric drinks, compared to a control, did not suppress appetite or energy intake; there was an increase in total energy intake (drink + meal, p < 0.05), which was increased most by the M504-drink. P280- and M504-drink ingestion were associated with slower a gastric-emptying time (n = 9), lower ghrelin, and higher cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) than M280 (p < 0.05). Glucose and insulin were increased most by the mixed-macronutrient drinks (p < 0.05). In conclusion, energy intake was not suppressed, compared to a control, and particularly whey protein, affected gastric emptying and gut hormone responses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Solutions for a Changing World)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Pictorial Dietary Assessment Tool for Hospitalized Patients with Diabetes: Cost, Accuracy, and User Satisfaction Analysis
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010027
Received: 24 November 2017 / Revised: 22 December 2017 / Accepted: 22 December 2017 / Published: 28 December 2017
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Abstract
Although nutritional screening and dietary monitoring in clinical settings are important, studies on related user satisfaction and cost benefit are still lacking. This study aimed to: (1) elucidate the cost of implementing a newly developed dietary monitoring tool, the Pictorial Dietary Assessment Tool
[...] Read more.
Although nutritional screening and dietary monitoring in clinical settings are important, studies on related user satisfaction and cost benefit are still lacking. This study aimed to: (1) elucidate the cost of implementing a newly developed dietary monitoring tool, the Pictorial Dietary Assessment Tool (PDAT); and (2) investigate the accuracy of estimation and satisfaction of healthcare staff after the use of the PDAT. A cross-over intervention study was conducted among 132 hospitalized patients with diabetes. Cost and time for the implementation of PDAT in comparison to modified Comstock was estimated using the activity-based costing approach. Accuracy was expressed as the percentages of energy and protein obtained by both methods, which were within 15% and 30%, respectively, of those obtained by the food weighing. Satisfaction of healthcare staff was measured using a standardized questionnaire. Time to complete the food intake recording of patients using PDAT (2.31 ± 0.70 min) was shorter than when modified Comstock (3.53 ± 1.27 min) was used (p < 0.001). Overall cost per patient was slightly higher for PDAT (United States Dollar 0.27 ± 0.02) than for modified Comstock (USD 0.26 ± 0.04 (p < 0.05)). The accuracy of energy intake estimated by modified Comstock was 10% lower than that of PDAT. There was poorer accuracy of protein intake estimated by modified Comstock (<40%) compared to that estimated by the PDAT (>71%) (p < 0.05). Mean user satisfaction of healthcare staff was significantly higher for PDAT than that for modified Comstock (p < 0.05). PDAT requires a shorter time to be completed and was rated better than modified Comstock. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Solutions for a Changing World)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Association between Sarcopenia and Metabolic Syndrome in Middle-Aged and Older Non-Obese Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 364; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030364
Received: 21 January 2018 / Revised: 10 March 2018 / Accepted: 14 March 2018 / Published: 16 March 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1026 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The associations between sarcopenia and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in non-obese middle-aged and older adults remain controversial. Thus, this meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the overall prevalence of MetS and the correlations between sarcopenia and MetS in middle-aged and older non-obese adults. We performed a
[...] Read more.
The associations between sarcopenia and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in non-obese middle-aged and older adults remain controversial. Thus, this meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the overall prevalence of MetS and the correlations between sarcopenia and MetS in middle-aged and older non-obese adults. We performed a systematic searched strategy using PUBMED, EMBASE and Web of Science databases for relevant observational studies investigating sarcopenia and MetS up to 11 May 2017. The polled prevalence of MetS and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CI), as well as subgroup analyses were calculated using a random effects model. Twelve articles with a total of 35,581 participants were included. The overall prevalence of MetS was 36.45% (95% CI, 28.28–45.48%) in middle-aged and older non-obese adults with sarcopenia. Our analysis demonstrated a positive association between sarcopenia and MetS (OR = 2.01, 95% CI, 1.63–2.47). The subgroup analysis showed that both larger cohort size and the use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure body composition can enhance the relationship. Our study revealed that a higher proportion of MetS in middle-aged and older non-obese people with sarcopenia. Moreover, sarcopenia was positively associated with MetS in this population. Further large-scale prospective cohort studies are needed to investigate the causality between sarcopenia and MetS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Solutions for a Changing World)
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Open AccessReview Characteristics of Effective Interventions Promoting Healthy Eating for Pre-Schoolers in Childcare Settings: An Umbrella Review
Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 293; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030293
Received: 25 January 2018 / Revised: 18 February 2018 / Accepted: 25 February 2018 / Published: 1 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (442 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) settings have a pivotal role in shaping children’s dietary food habits by providing the contextual environment within which they develop these behaviours. This study examines systematic reviews for (1) the effectiveness of interventions to promote healthy eating
[...] Read more.
Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) settings have a pivotal role in shaping children’s dietary food habits by providing the contextual environment within which they develop these behaviours. This study examines systematic reviews for (1) the effectiveness of interventions to promote healthy eating in children aged 2–5 years attending centre-based childcare; (2) intervention characteristics which are associated with promoting healthy eating and; (3) recommendations for child-health policies and practices. An Umbrella review of systematic reviews was undertaken using a standardized search strategy in ten databases. Twelve systematic reviews were examined using validated critical appraisal and data extraction tools. Children’s dietary food intake and food choices were significantly influenced. Interventions to prevent obesity did not significantly change children’s anthropometric measures or had mixed results. Evidence was more convincing if interventions were multi-component, addressed physical activity and diet, targeted individual-level and environmental-level determinants and engaged parents. Positive outcomes were mostly facilitated by researchers/external experts and these results were not replicated when implemented in centres by ECEC providers without this support. The translation of expert-led interventions into practice warrants further exploration of implementation drivers and barriers. Based on the evidence reviewed, recommendations are made to inform child-health directed practices and policies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Solutions for a Changing World)
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