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The Western Diet–Microbiome-Host Interaction and Its Role in Metabolic Disease

1
Department of Nutrition, Bjørknes University College, Lovisenberggata 13, 0456 Oslo, Norway
2
Balderklinikken, Munchsgate 7, 0165 Oslo, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 365; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030365
Received: 7 February 2018 / Revised: 6 March 2018 / Accepted: 14 March 2018 / Published: 17 March 2018
The dietary pattern that characterizes the Western diet is strongly associated with obesity and related metabolic diseases, but biological mechanisms supporting these associations remain largely unknown. We argue that the Western diet promotes inflammation that arises from both structural and behavioral changes in the resident microbiome. The environment created in the gut by ultra-processed foods, a hallmark of the Western diet, is an evolutionarily unique selection ground for microbes that can promote diverse forms of inflammatory disease. Recognizing the importance of the microbiome in the development of diet-related disease has implications for future research, public dietary advice as well as food production practices. Research into food patterns suggests that whole foods are a common denominator of diets associated with a low level of diet-related disease. Hence, by studying how ultra-processing changes the properties of whole foods and how these foods affect the gut microbiome, more useful dietary guidelines can be made. Innovations in food production should be focusing on enabling health in the super-organism of man and microbe, and stronger regulation of potentially hazardous components of food products is warranted. View Full-Text
Keywords: western diet; metabolic disease; ultra-processed food; microbiome; inflammation; additives; acellular nutrients; whole foods; food industry; dietary guidelines western diet; metabolic disease; ultra-processed food; microbiome; inflammation; additives; acellular nutrients; whole foods; food industry; dietary guidelines
MDPI and ACS Style

Zinöcker, M.K.; Lindseth, I.A. The Western Diet–Microbiome-Host Interaction and Its Role in Metabolic Disease. Nutrients 2018, 10, 365.

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