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Sustainability, Volume 13, Issue 24 (December-2 2021) – 573 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The vast amount of food wastage has created a countermovement in German university canteens, where students choose to eat other consumers’ plate leftovers instead of buying fresh meals. This highlights two opposing narratives: leftovers as waste vs. edible food. Our study addresses this and analyzes what consumers associate with the consumption of other consumers’ plate leftovers in the public space. The analysis of online comments shows that the difference between waste and edibility begins in regulative, normative, and cultural-cognitive systems and is—whether perceived as collective or individual behavior—associated with different universal needs. Considering plate leftovers as valuable resources beyond industrial processing can open new perspectives for interventions and research. View this paper.
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Article
Is Green Credit a Good Tool to Achieve “Double Carbon” Goal? Based on Coupling Coordination Model and PVAR Model
Sustainability 2021, 13(24), 14074; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132414074 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1327
Abstract
China attaches importance to the combination of credit policy and environmental protection, tries to use credit policy tools to protect ecology and pollution prevention, and prevent environmental credit risk. With the proposal of the goal of “carbon peak and carbon neutralisation” (“double carbon”), [...] Read more.
China attaches importance to the combination of credit policy and environmental protection, tries to use credit policy tools to protect ecology and pollution prevention, and prevent environmental credit risk. With the proposal of the goal of “carbon peak and carbon neutralisation” (“double carbon”), green credit is also regarded as an important policy tool to achieve this goal. Firstly, this paper selects the time series data of green credit at the national level from 2013 to 2019 according to the official statistics and evaluates the coupling and coordinated development of credit system and environmental system based on the coupling coordination model. The results show that the two systems show well-coordinated development, but the interaction has annual fluctuations. Secondly, by calculating the provincial carbon emissions and green credit panel data from 2005 to 2019, the dynamic internal mechanism is analysed based on Panel Vector Autoregression (PVAR) model. It is found that green credit has a significant inhibitory effect on carbon emissions. The research results of this paper provide an overall evaluation of the quantity and quality of green credit for China’s banking industry. It also provides reasonable and effective support for green credit as a policy tool to promote realising the “double carbon” goal. In addition, China should maintain the consistency, stability and durability of green credit policy and continue to contribute to the low-carbon transformation of the economy and society. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
Numerical Analysis of Aeroacoustic Phenomena Generated by Truck Platoons
Sustainability 2021, 13(24), 14073; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132414073 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1000
Abstract
In recent years there has been dynamic progress in the development of fully autonomous trucks and their combination and coordination into sets of vehicles moving behind each other within short distances, i.e., platooning. Numerous reports from around the world present significant benefits of [...] Read more.
In recent years there has been dynamic progress in the development of fully autonomous trucks and their combination and coordination into sets of vehicles moving behind each other within short distances, i.e., platooning. Numerous reports from around the world present significant benefits of platooning for the environment due to reduced emissions, reduced fuel costs, and improved logistics in the transport industry. This paper presents original aerodynamic and aeroacoustic studies of identical truck column models. They are divided into four main stages. In the first, a truck model and three columns of identical trucks with different distances between the vehicles was made and tested using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Two turbulence models were used in the study: kω shear stress transport (SST) and large eddy simulation (LES). The aim of the work was to determine the drag coefficients for each set of vehicles. The second stage of work included determination of sound field distributions generated by moving vehicles. Using the Ffowcs Williams–Hawkings (FW-H) analogy, the sound pressure levels were determined, followed by the sound pressure levels A. In order to verify the correctness of the work carried out, field tests were also performed and additional acoustic calculations were carried out using the NMPB-Routes-2008 and ISO 9613-2 models. Calculations were performed using SoundPlan software. The performed tests showed good quality of the built aerodynamic and aeroacoustic models. The results presented in this paper have a universal character and can be used to build intelligent transport systems (ITSs) and intelligent environmental management systems (IEMSs) for municipalities, counties, cities, and urban agglomerations by taking into account the platooning process. Full article
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Article
Promoting a Pro-Ecological View: The Effects of Art on Engineering Students’ Perceptions of the Environment
Sustainability 2021, 13(24), 14072; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132414072 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 906
Abstract
In an effort to suggest an extended role that art could play in promoting a pro-ecological worldview, this study reviews a two-week artist-led workshop, organized as part of an undergraduate art course offered by a university specializing in engineering and the natural sciences. [...] Read more.
In an effort to suggest an extended role that art could play in promoting a pro-ecological worldview, this study reviews a two-week artist-led workshop, organized as part of an undergraduate art course offered by a university specializing in engineering and the natural sciences. To explore the potential impact of studio work on engineering student perceptions, we collected data from multiple sources, including field notes, participant observations, outcomes of the group projects, and participants’ responses to studio work during the workshop. In particular, to provide educational implications, our review focused on the findings from post-project surveys collected through online questionnaires and in-person interviews. In order to make suggestions on art courses that are specifically designed to cultivate engineering students’ perceptions of the environment, we carried out online surveys based on the New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) scale. The results of the NEP-based surveys indicated that engineering students’ anti-anthropocentrism, rejection of human exceptionalism, and acknowledgement of the possibility of an eco-crisis were significantly correlated with a belief in public welfare. By comparison, respondents’ stronger public welfare beliefs were not associated with beliefs in limits to growth and the fragility of nature’s balance. This study responds to today’s complex socio-environmental issues by contributing to the discussion about the need to integrate interdisciplinary approaches into engineering education on environmental sustainability. Full article
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Article
Indoor Nanoparticle Characterization in Construction Waste Recycling Companies over Time
Sustainability 2021, 13(24), 14071; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132414071 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 986
Abstract
Building activity is a significant source of atmospheric contamination by ultrafine dust. Cognizant of this fact, those active in the use and recycling of construction materials must be aware of the risks associated with exposure to nanoparticles (NPs) and ultra-fine particles (UFPs), as [...] Read more.
Building activity is a significant source of atmospheric contamination by ultrafine dust. Cognizant of this fact, those active in the use and recycling of construction materials must be aware of the risks associated with exposure to nanoparticles (NPs) and ultra-fine particles (UFPs), as well as the associated health impacts. This work analyzed NPs and UFPs generated in a small building-material recycling company using high-resolution electron microscopes and X-ray Diffraction. A self-made passive sampler (LSPS) that can obtain particulate samples without physical and morphological changes, especially where there is a suspension of particulate material, was used in this study. A total of 96 particulate samples, using the LSPS for three months in four seasons, were collected during the study. Thus, the dry deposition of the particles, which are considered highly harmful to human health, was found in each of the four seasons of the year. It is suggested that for future research, the toxicological evaluations of the particulates in the construction industry should be investigated through the consideration of measures to control and mitigate the health risks of workers regarding exposure to NPs and UFPs. Full article
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Article
Relating Knowledge and Perception of Sustainable Landscape Practices to the Adoption Intention of Environmentally Friendly Landscapes
Sustainability 2021, 13(24), 14070; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132414070 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 896
Abstract
The influence of traditional residential landscapes on humans and the environment has provoked a discussion on maintaining landscapes in a sustainable way and conserving water resources. Traditional American landscapes require water-intensive management. Previous research has discussed potential negative impacts on the environment from [...] Read more.
The influence of traditional residential landscapes on humans and the environment has provoked a discussion on maintaining landscapes in a sustainable way and conserving water resources. Traditional American landscapes require water-intensive management. Previous research has discussed potential negative impacts on the environment from prevalent improper landscaping maintenance techniques. To mitigate long-term consequences, sustainable landscape management programs aim at protecting the environment from harmful inputs and conserving water. Among alternative practices, converting fully turfgrass lawns to sustainable landscapes is recommended. The Florida Friendly Landscaping (FFLTM) initiative is one such program designed to minimize negative impacts while maintaining and improving landscapes’ aesthetic characteristics. Although technological advancements in lawn care services have rapidly developed in the past few decades (e.g., smart irrigation systems), the level of homeowners’ knowledge and perceptions regarding sustainable practices are still at the forefront of potential factors that influence the widespread adoption of sustainable lawn management. Relatively few studies have investigated how homeowners’ knowledge and perceptions of sustainable landscapes affect adoption decisions. This study adapted Ajzen’s theory of planned behavior as a framework to examine how individuals’ knowledge and perceptions of sustainable landscapes influence their adoption intention, and to predict their pro-environmental behavior. We found that homeowners’ knowledge about lawns and landscapes (more knowledgeable) is positively correlated with their sustainable landscape adoption intention. Additionally, homeowners’ perceptions of landscape conservation practices (more agreeable with sustainable landscape practices) are positively correlated with sustainable landscape adoption intentions. The implications for policymakers and water conservation programs are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Identification of Sustainable Consumer Behaviors)
Article
Towards a Trusted and Unified Consortium-Blockchain-Based Data Sharing Infrastructure for Open Learning—TolFob Architecture and Implementation
Sustainability 2021, 13(24), 14069; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132414069 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 979
Abstract
Open learning is now facing a complex higher education ecosystem that involves a variety of heterogeneous information systems and comprises decentralized stakeholders, such as universities, professors, students, and software vendors. Authentic, non-repudiable, and fast available data sharing among open learning information systems and [...] Read more.
Open learning is now facing a complex higher education ecosystem that involves a variety of heterogeneous information systems and comprises decentralized stakeholders, such as universities, professors, students, and software vendors. Authentic, non-repudiable, and fast available data sharing among open learning information systems and stakeholders is a key issue that remains unresolved. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a consortium blockchain extended architecture featuring integration and cross-chain functions to provide a unified and trusted data-sharing infrastructure for open learning. The overall architecture consists of three elements: a blockchain-integrated open learning scenario schema; a blockchain-integrated open learning application model; and a pragmatic blockchain integration framework. The proposed blockchain integration framework is implemented based on Hyperledger Fabric 1.4. A trusted open-learning behavior and achievement management application is developed as a proof-of-concept which integrates two educational institutions’ four productional learning systems into a blockchain network and has stably run over six months. A suite of experiments is designed and executed to verify our blockchain system’s viability and scalability. The test result shows the implementation of the blockchain system is competent for the production environment and outperforms related works investigated. However, it does have limitations and optimization potential, which will be studied in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blockchain in Distance Learning Education)
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Article
Long-Term Urbanization Dynamics and the Evolution of Green/Blue Areas in Eastern Europe: Insights from Romania
Sustainability 2021, 13(24), 14068; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132414068 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 853
Abstract
Urbanization is a dynamic process performed at the expense of natural and/or semi-natural areas, with direct impacts on the ecosystem services provided to human society. The increasing population density in urban areas and the associated demand for housing and public services have led [...] Read more.
Urbanization is a dynamic process performed at the expense of natural and/or semi-natural areas, with direct impacts on the ecosystem services provided to human society. The increasing population density in urban areas and the associated demand for housing and public services have led to progressive changes in the structure, architecture, and design of urban areas. The present study analyzes long-term urban development in Western Romania, focusing on green/blue areas’ strategies in Timisoara over centuries. The empirical results of a literature review carried out with a historical perspective have delineated the time periods that favored “urban green development” (1716–1918 and 1918–1940) and those restricting their development (1940–2000), as well as the factors that influenced long-term urbanization dynamics and the evolution of green/blue areas. These factors can be generalized to other socioeconomic contexts in Eastern Europe. Characteristic issues of this geographical area impacting the evolution of urban green/blue areas include (i) common historical aspects (e.g., the influence of geo-political and strategic dimensions, the dominations of former great empires such as the Turkish empire and the communist period) and (ii) population migration after 1990. Full article
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Article
Indoor Environmental Quality Survey in Research Institute: A Floor-by-Floor Analysis
Sustainability 2021, 13(24), 14067; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132414067 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 948
Abstract
Comprehensively monitoring indoor environmental quality (IEQ) parameters and their dynamic relations is essential to ensure improved productivity and a healthy environment for building occupants. Although IEQ significantly influences working efficiency, studies addressing this aspect with researchers in institutes as the focal point are [...] Read more.
Comprehensively monitoring indoor environmental quality (IEQ) parameters and their dynamic relations is essential to ensure improved productivity and a healthy environment for building occupants. Although IEQ significantly influences working efficiency, studies addressing this aspect with researchers in institutes as the focal point are limited. Thus, this study employed drill-down analyses, such as floor-by-floor and building-by-building examinations and used an occupant IEQ survey approach to evaluate working conditions in research buildings. This study systematically and objectively assessed IEQ using the Korea building occupant survey system. The results indicate that acoustic qualities affect the work productivity and satisfaction of the building occupants. The floor-by-floor analysis is necessary to identify IEQ factors and the reasons for the satisfaction of occupants. Additionally, it is important to improve the user-friendliness of the system, implement frequent survey distribution systems, and empirically analyze data associations among building, spatial, and demographical characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy-Building-Indoor Environment for Long-Term Sustainability)
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Article
Relationship between Marriage Immigrant Mothers’ Acculturative Stress and Their Adolescent Children’s Career Decidedness in South Korea: Mediating Roles of Parenting and School Adjustment
Sustainability 2021, 13(24), 14066; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132414066 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 905
Abstract
International marriages between Korean men and foreign women from other Asian countries have been increasing since the late 1990s in Korea. This study examines the mediating effects of parenting self-efficacy, career-specific parenting behaviors, and school adjustment on the relationship between immigrant mothers’ acculturative [...] Read more.
International marriages between Korean men and foreign women from other Asian countries have been increasing since the late 1990s in Korea. This study examines the mediating effects of parenting self-efficacy, career-specific parenting behaviors, and school adjustment on the relationship between immigrant mothers’ acculturative stress and their adolescent children’s career decidedness. Data were collected from 1181 third grade students (583 boys, 598 girls) in Korean middle schools and their foreign mothers who participated in the Multicultural Adolescents Panel Study. A structural equation modeling analysis revealed the following multiple mediation process: immigrant mothers’ acculturative stress is indirectly related to their adolescent children’s career decidedness through (1) the dual mediation of parenting self-efficacy and career-specific parenting behaviors; (2) the serial mediation of parenting self-efficacy, career-specific parenting behaviors, and adolescents’ school adjustment; (3) the dual mediation of parenting self-efficacy and adolescents’ school adjustment; and (4) the mediation of adolescents’ school adjustment. This study provides directions for parent education and career counseling to enhance immigrant mothers’ parenting competence and support the positive career development of adolescents from multicultural families. The study, therefore, helps them grow into well-adjusted adults in Korean society, which, in turn, contributes to the well-being of immigrant mothers and their adolescent children. Full article
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Article
The Spatial Effect of Shared Mobility on Urban Traffic Congestion: Evidence from Chinese Cities
Sustainability 2021, 13(24), 14065; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132414065 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 922
Abstract
This paper explores the spatial spillover effect of shared mobility on urban traffic congestion by constructing spatial econometric models. Based on panel data of 94 Chinese cities from 2016 to 2019, this study analyses the spatial correlation of shared mobility enterprise layout and [...] Read more.
This paper explores the spatial spillover effect of shared mobility on urban traffic congestion by constructing spatial econometric models. Based on panel data of 94 Chinese cities from 2016 to 2019, this study analyses the spatial correlation of shared mobility enterprise layout and geographical correlation of urban transport infrastructure and examines their influence mechanism. From the perspective of geographic spatial distribution, congestion has positive spatial correlation among Chinese cities, and it has different directions and centripetal forces across regions. The shared mobility enterprises in a region have same direction distribution with traffic congestion, but the centripetal forces of the aggregation effect are different. The econometric results include the fact that bike-sharing has reduced congestion significantly, but the overall impact of car-sharing is not clear. Neither bike-sharing nor car-sharing can offset the traffic congestion caused by economic activities and income growth. From the perspective of spillover effects, congestion has been influenced by bike-sharing, economic development, population, and public passengers in surrounding areas. In terms of spatial heterogeneity, bike-sharing relieves congestion in the Pearl River Delta region while having no significant effect in other regions. Meanwhile, car-sharing has aggravated congestion in the Yangtze River Delta but eased traffic jams in the Pearl River Delta. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shared Mobility and Sustainable Transportation)
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Article
Role of Augmented Reality in Changing Consumer Behavior and Decision Making: Case of Pakistan
Sustainability 2021, 13(24), 14064; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132414064 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1842
Abstract
Marketers and advertisers ignore new technology and diverse marketing tactics when attempting to increase product exposure, customer engagement, customer behavior and buying intention in fashion accessory marketplaces in developing countries. This research sought to discover how the Augmented Reality (AR) experience influenced consumer [...] Read more.
Marketers and advertisers ignore new technology and diverse marketing tactics when attempting to increase product exposure, customer engagement, customer behavior and buying intention in fashion accessory marketplaces in developing countries. This research sought to discover how the Augmented Reality (AR) experience influenced consumer behavior, buying intention and pleasure when purchasing a fashion item in developing countries. This study employs positivist ideas to investigate the connections between various factors, believing that reality is unwavering, stable, and static. Experiential marketing following stimulus exposure will gather cross-sectional data. The undertaken study has developed proper experimental design (within group) from business innovation models, for instance, uses and gratification and user experience models. User experience is disclosed by its four defining characteristics: hedonic quality (identification and simulation), aesthetic quality, and pragmatic quality. After encountering an enhanced user experience, users have a more favorable attitude about purchasing; in contrast, pleasure from using the application directly impacts buying intention. It was also shown that knowledge of AR apps impacts user experience and attitude. The novelty of this research is multifarious, for instance, the smart lab was used as a marketing technology to explore a virtual mirror of the Ray-Ban products. Secondly, the augmented reality experiential marketing activities have been developed by the developers as bearing in mind the four different aspects of the user experience—haptic, hedonic, aesthetic, and pragmatic. It should be functional, simple to learn and use, symmetrical, pleasant, and appealing, while fulfilling the unconscious emotional elements of a customer’s purchase. The research is the first known study in Pakistan to evaluate the influence of augmented reality on consumer proficiency and its consequent effects on attitude and satisfaction for fashion accessory brands. The research also advances the notion that application familiarity is the most important moderator between attitude and an augmented reality-enriched user experience, contradicting the prior studies, which focus on gender and age. This research has important theoretical implications for future researchers, who may wish to replicate the proposed final model in developed and developing countries’ fashion brands. This research also has imperative managerial implications for brand managers and marketing managers, who could include the recommendations of this study in their marketing strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marketing of Innovation, Science and Technological Change)
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Article
A Study on Transboundary Marine Governance of Floating Marine Debris—Taking Kinmen–Xiamen Waters between China and Taiwan as an Example
Sustainability 2021, 13(24), 14063; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132414063 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 974
Abstract
Mainland China’s economy has been developing rapidly. Unfortunately, it has led to an increase in municipal and industrial waste, including in Xiamen, in which is has greatly increased. Kinmen is located outside the estuary of the Jiulong River in Fujian, Mainland China, opposite [...] Read more.
Mainland China’s economy has been developing rapidly. Unfortunately, it has led to an increase in municipal and industrial waste, including in Xiamen, in which is has greatly increased. Kinmen is located outside the estuary of the Jiulong River in Fujian, Mainland China, opposite to Xiamen Bay. Whenever there is heavy rainfall, the waste that flows along the Jiulong River is incredible. Kinmen unavoidably has to bear the invasion of floating marine debris due to the effect of ocean currents, tides and monsoons. It does not only pollute the Kinmen sea area, but it also affects the scenery of the beaches in Kinmen. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the data of Kinmen and Xiamen governments regarding the cleaning of floating marine debris, and the differences in distribution areas according to the monsoon, ocean current and tides. In-depth interviews, field investigation, and collection of expert opinions were applied in order to determine the research implication. The results of this study provide information on the marine issues encountered in the governance of the countries surrounding the sea. The study suggests that the transboundary marine governance mechanism should be established in order to effectively solve the problem of floating marine debris in Kinmen–Xiamen Waters. For the welfare of the people, it is expected that the governments of Mainland China and Taiwan will uphold the principle of “pragmatism and reciprocity” by working together to maintain the marine environment in Kinmen–Xiamen waters. Full article
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Article
Fine-Granularity Urban Microclimate Monitoring Using Wearable Multi-Source Sensors
Sustainability 2021, 13(24), 14062; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132414062 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 860
Abstract
With the development of urbanization, the environment is the key to the safety of residents’ life and health and the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Urban environmental changes and microclimate problems have attracted widespread attention. For the SDGs, monitoring the urban microclimate [...] Read more.
With the development of urbanization, the environment is the key to the safety of residents’ life and health and the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Urban environmental changes and microclimate problems have attracted widespread attention. For the SDGs, monitoring the urban microclimate more accurately and effectively and ensuring residents’ environmental health and safety is particularly important when designing applications that can replace the traditional fixed-point urban environment or pollution monitoring. Based on the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System platform, this paper proposes a fine-granularity urban microclimate monitoring method using wearable multi-source (PM2.5, PM10, and other air pollutants) sensors innovatively, which includes the satellite position function by adopting the satellite pseudo-range differential positioning technology, environmental data perception through the embedded system and wireless transmission, as well as the GIS data processing and analysis system. The wearable sensor acquires position and service information data through the satellite positioning system and acquires environmental parameters through integrated mobile multi-source sensors. The data are cached and wirelessly transmitted to the cloud server for digital processing. The urban microclimate is evaluated and visualized through algorithm and map API. Mobile monitoring can be flexibly applied to complex and diverse urban spaces, effectively realizing all-weather, all-directional, and accurate microclimate monitoring of urban environmental quality. Full article
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Article
The Role of Civil Society Sector in the Development of Art-Driven Regional Social Innovation: The Case of Benesse Art Site Naoshima and Art Setouchi
by
Sustainability 2021, 13(24), 14061; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132414061 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 942
Abstract
Recently art is increasing its presence as an “creative industry” to sustain local communities, by generating socio-economic values. Still, whether art can be a tool for social innovation to regenerate communities, especially in rural areas in aging societies, is an unanswered question. In [...] Read more.
Recently art is increasing its presence as an “creative industry” to sustain local communities, by generating socio-economic values. Still, whether art can be a tool for social innovation to regenerate communities, especially in rural areas in aging societies, is an unanswered question. In this paper, we take the example of Benesse Art Site Naoshima and Art Setouchi in the island area of Western Japan, viewing how it transformed from a corporate-established museum to a regional initiative involving various stakeholders, including local residents and thus creating the process of dialogues and collaboration. By reconstructing the existing evidence with supplementary fieldwork and interviews and applying a tri-sectoral analysis of the processes, we present how the art sites developed to become a social innovation. We then illustrate the role of two key individuals, Soichiro Fukutake and Fram Kitagawa, and shed light on the different values and methodologies they brought into these art sites. We argue that such contributions from the civil society and philanthropy sector made a critical contribution to characterize BASN and Art Setouchi, in addition to the well-documented and recognized efforts from local government and business sectors. Finally, we propose that such values, methodologies, and persons who can embody and implement such values are crucial if other countries and areas are to replicate the model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Addressing Sustainability at a Community Scale)
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Article
Willingness to Pay for Public Benefit Functions of Daecheong Dam Operation: Moderating Effects of Climate Change Perceptions
Sustainability 2021, 13(24), 14060; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132414060 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 765
Abstract
This study estimates the economic value of the Daecheong Dam for the public function of responding to climate change. It examines the moderating effect of climate change perceptions on value estimates by applying choice experiments (CE). The study specifies three dam function attributes—drought [...] Read more.
This study estimates the economic value of the Daecheong Dam for the public function of responding to climate change. It examines the moderating effect of climate change perceptions on value estimates by applying choice experiments (CE). The study specifies three dam function attributes—drought management (DM), flood control (FC), and water quality monitoring (WM)—subdivided into three levels to improve the existing conditions. Survey data from 603 households living in Daejeon, Chungbuk, and Chungnam have been collected to perform the CE. Subsequently, two clusters—high-involvement and low-involvement groups—have been extracted, based on the climate change perception index. The main results of comparing the marginal willingness-to-pay between the two clusters are as follows. The attributes and price variable significantly affected the choice probability to benefit from improvements in the rational signs of the coefficients. This does not violate the independence of the irrelevant alternatives assumption. The improvement values of high-involvement and low-involvement groups are estimated as KRW 21,570 and KRW 14,572 a year per household, respectively. Both show the same value intensities in the order of WM, DM, and FC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Article
Evaluating Urban Green Public Spaces: The Case Study of Krasnodar Region Cities, Russia
Sustainability 2021, 13(24), 14059; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132414059 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 672
Abstract
The 21st century challenges, in particular those of climate change, population growth, air pollution and the COVID-19 pandemic global health crisis, demand greater emphasis on infrastructure facilities capable of keeping pace with population needs in well-being, health and economic prosperity. Green infrastructure aimed [...] Read more.
The 21st century challenges, in particular those of climate change, population growth, air pollution and the COVID-19 pandemic global health crisis, demand greater emphasis on infrastructure facilities capable of keeping pace with population needs in well-being, health and economic prosperity. Green infrastructure aimed to intensify ecological processes in built-up areas and deliver vital ecosystem services is of a key significance for Russia, one of the most urbanized countries in the world. The article is dedicated to the issue of providing cities sustainability through creating a basic element of the urban green infrastructure—a public green network—by incorporating and linking a variety of already existing urban environmental components, both spatial and linear, such as natural areas, squares, parks, streets, boulevards, embankments and others. The territory of the case study is Krasnodar region located in the southwestern part of the North Caucasus, the warmest region of Russia characterized by highly varied urban areas. The authors propose the multiple criteria method for evaluating the existing GreenPS and creating a GreenPS framework for six cities located in Krasnodar region both on the southern seaward part and on the northern steppe part. This approach is focused on the sustainable development of the cities, adaptation to climate change and the prevention of local risks with respect to the preservation of ecosystem functions and cultural heritage. The methodology includes three stages: investigating and evaluating the present state of the existing urban GreenPS; defining sustainability potential; and the submission of master plan proposals for the improvement and further development and management of the GreenPS network implementing nature-based solutions. In addition, it follows seven main integral criteria, namely, Accessibility, Density, Sufficiency, Continuity, Diversity, Value and Clean and Sanitary, illustrated by ray diagrams. The results of the study show good potential for construction in Krasnodar region cities of an efficient GreenPS network integrating ecological and social city components. The flexibility of the method proposed makes it replicable for any other city aimed at creating a GreenPS network in sustainable, climate-change-adapted cities. Full article
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Article
Determining Hydrological Variability Using a Multi-Catchment Model Approach for the Western Cape, South Africa
Sustainability 2021, 13(24), 14058; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132414058 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 522
Abstract
Understanding the impacts of climate change requires the development of hydrological modelling tools. However, data scarcity hinders model application, performance, process simulation and uncertainty, especially for Sub-Saharan Africa. In this study, a multi-catchment approach was used to assess hydrological process variability in the [...] Read more.
Understanding the impacts of climate change requires the development of hydrological modelling tools. However, data scarcity hinders model application, performance, process simulation and uncertainty, especially for Sub-Saharan Africa. In this study, a multi-catchment approach was used to assess hydrological process variability in the Western Cape (WC) of South Africa using the JAMS/J2000 rainfall–runoff model and a Monte Carlo analysis (MCA). Due to much steeper slopes and lower evapotranspiration, the models suggest that WC is dominated by surface runoff from mountainous regions and regional groundwater flow. The results highlight the impact of the catchment size, availability and position of hydroclimatic and anthropogenic factors and the frequency of the signal-to-noise ratio (water balance). For large catchments (>5000 km2), the calibration was able to achieve a Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) of 0.61 to 0.88. For small catchments (<2000 km2), NSE was between 0.23 to 0.39. The large catchments had an overall surface runoff, interflow and baseflow contribution of 44, 19 and 37%, respectively, and lower overall uncertainty. The simulated flow components for the small catchments were variable and these results are less certain. The use of a multi-catchment approach allows for identifying the specific factors impacting parameter sensitivities and in turn provides a means to improve hydrological process simulation. Full article
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Article
The SDGs, Ecosystem Services and Cities: A Network Analysis of Current Research Innovation for Implementing Urban Sustainability
Sustainability 2021, 13(24), 14057; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132414057 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 952
Abstract
Ecosystem services are essential for cities and are key factors in achieving many of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Such services are best delivered through green infrastructure, which works in resourceful, multifunctional, synergistic, and environmentally sensitive ways to deliver ecosystem services and provide [...] Read more.
Ecosystem services are essential for cities and are key factors in achieving many of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Such services are best delivered through green infrastructure, which works in resourceful, multifunctional, synergistic, and environmentally sensitive ways to deliver ecosystem services and provide alternative cleaner pathways for the delivery of multiple urban services. It is unclear if current research supports the necessary linkages between ecosystem services, cities, and green infrastructure in order to achieve the SDGs. To answer this question, we conducted a systematic review analysing 3392 studies on the SDGs from the WoS database. The contents of 66 of those with relevance to ecosystem services and urban research were reviewed in depth. We applied network-analytic methods to map the relationships of different knowledge clusters of SDGs research (1) across time, (2) across disciplines, and (3) in relation to ecosystem services and cities. The results of our analysis show that research on the SDGs have developed stronger networks from 2010–2018, but this research has not been sustained. Further, whilst research on cities now occupies a central place in the SDGs literature, research on ecosystem services only shows tentative links to both green-infrastructure research and SDGs research. Such literature on urban green infrastructure remains peripheral to the central challenge of sustainable urban transitions. We conclude that when it comes to the SDGs, research articles typically consider urban services independently of green infrastructure. Further, it suggests that green infrastructure is not generally considered as a sustainable alternative to conventional urban infrastructures. To address this serious shortcoming, we recommend transdisciplinary approaches to link urban ecosystem and urban green infrastructure research to the 2030 global sustainability agenda. Full article
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Article
Towards Good Governance on Dual-Use Biotechnology for Global Sustainable Development
Sustainability 2021, 13(24), 14056; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132414056 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 657
Abstract
Dual-use biotechnology faces the risks of availability, novel biological agents, knowledge, normative, and other dual-use risks. If left unchecked, these may destroy human living conditions and social order. Despite the benefits of dual-use technology, good governance is needed to mitigate its risks. The [...] Read more.
Dual-use biotechnology faces the risks of availability, novel biological agents, knowledge, normative, and other dual-use risks. If left unchecked, these may destroy human living conditions and social order. Despite the benefits of dual-use technology, good governance is needed to mitigate its risks. The predicaments facing all governments in managing the dual-use risks of biotechnology deserve special attention. On the one hand, the information asymmetry risk of dual-use biotechnology prevents the traditional self-governance model in the field of biotechnology from playing its role. On the other hand, top-down public regulation often lags behind technological iteration due to the difficulty of predicting the human-made risks of dual-use biotechnology. Therefore, we argue that governance of the dual-use risks of biotechnology should avoid the traditional bottom-up or top-down modes. We suggest the governance for dual-use biotechnology could be improved if the four-stage experimentalist governance model is followed. The first stage is to achieve consensus on a broad governance framework with open-ended principles. The second stage is for countries to take action based on local conditions and the open-ended framework. The third stage is to establish a dynamic consultation mechanism for transnational information sharing and action review. The fourth and final stage is to evaluate and revise the global governance framework. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Governing for Sustainability in a Changing Global Order)
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Article
Using Machine Learning Algorithms Based on GF-6 and Google Earth Engine to Predict and Map the Spatial Distribution of Soil Organic Matter Content
Sustainability 2021, 13(24), 14055; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132414055 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 865
Abstract
The prediction of soil organic matter is important for measuring the soil’s environmental quality and the degree of degradation. In this study, we combined China’s GF-6 remote sensing data with the organic matter content data obtained from soil sampling points in the study [...] Read more.
The prediction of soil organic matter is important for measuring the soil’s environmental quality and the degree of degradation. In this study, we combined China’s GF-6 remote sensing data with the organic matter content data obtained from soil sampling points in the study area to predict soil organic matter content. To these data, we applied the random forest (RF), light gradient boosting machine (LightGBM), gradient boosting tree (GBDT), and extreme boosting machine (XGBoost) learning models. We used the coefficient of determination (R2), root mean square error (RMSE), and mean absolute error (MAE) to evaluate the prediction model. The results showed that XGBoost (R2 = 0.634), LightGBM (R2 = 0.627), and GBDT (R2 = 0.591) had better accuracy and faster computing time than that of RF (R2 = 0.551) during training. The regression model established by the XGBoost algorithm on the feature-optimized anthrosols dataset had the best accuracy, with an R2 of 0.771. The inversion of soil organic matter content based on GF-6 data combined with the XGBoost model has good application potential. Full article
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Article
Going beyond Cryptocurrencies: The Social Representation of Blockchain
Sustainability 2021, 13(24), 14054; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132414054 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 597
Abstract
This study investigates the social representation of Blockchain from the perspective of professionals in Brazil, herein considered as a proxy for emerging markets, and then compares the results found with the existing academic literature on the concept of Blockchain. To do that, the [...] Read more.
This study investigates the social representation of Blockchain from the perspective of professionals in Brazil, herein considered as a proxy for emerging markets, and then compares the results found with the existing academic literature on the concept of Blockchain. To do that, the social representation theory was applied, operationalized through the words evocation technique. Security, bitcoin and decentralization were the categories located in the central nucleus of the social representation of Blockchain, while innovation, data, network, cryptocurrency, and technology were the categories located in the peripheral system. Based on the results obtained, there was a perceived strong association of Blockchain with bitcoin, one of its applications, and a dissonance between the existing academic literature and the perception of Brazilian professionals about the concept of Blockchain, as the latter is a privilege of the technical and operational issues of Blockchain to the detriment of its strategic potential. This dissonance can cause Blockchain initiatives to have results below expectations. Finally, Brazilian professionals did not realize the potential for inclusion of Blockchain in an emerging market such as Brazil and did not notice the need and relevance of a specific legal governance for Blockchain, an issue also forgotten by academia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blockchain Technology)
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Article
Designing a Resilient and Sustainable Logistics Network under Epidemic Disruptions and Demand Uncertainty
Sustainability 2021, 13(24), 14053; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132414053 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1009
Abstract
To face the new challenges caused by modern industry, logistics operations managers need to focus more on integrating sustainability goals, adapt to unexpected disruptions and find new strategies and models for logistics management. The COVID-19 pandemic has proven that unforeseen fragilities, negatively affecting [...] Read more.
To face the new challenges caused by modern industry, logistics operations managers need to focus more on integrating sustainability goals, adapt to unexpected disruptions and find new strategies and models for logistics management. The COVID-19 pandemic has proven that unforeseen fragilities, negatively affecting the supply chain performance, can arise rapidly, and logistics systems may confront unprecedented vulnerabilities regarding network structure disruption and high demand fluctuations. The existing studies on a resilient logistics network design did not sufficiently consider sustainability aspects. In fact, they mainly addressed the independent planning of decision-making problems with economic objectives. To fill this research gap, this paper concentrates on the design of resilient and sustainable logistics networks under epidemic disruption and demand uncertainty. A two-stage stochastic mixed integer programming model is proposed to integrate key decisions of location–allocation, inventory and routing planning. Moreover, epidemic disruptions and demand uncertainty are incorporated through plausible scenarios using a Monte Carlo simulation. In addition, two resiliency strategies, namely, capacity augmentation and logistics collaboration, are included into the basic model in order to improve the resilience and the sustainability of a logistics chain network. Finally, numerical examples are presented to validate the proposed approach, evaluate the performance of the different design models and provide managerial insights. The obtained results show that the integration of two design strategies improves resilience and sustainability. Full article
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Article
Birds of a Feather Flocking Together: Sustainability of Tax Aggressiveness of Shared Directors from Coercive Isomorphism
Sustainability 2021, 13(24), 14052; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132414052 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 478
Abstract
The purpose of the study is to examine the sustainability of the tax aggressiveness of shared directors from coercive isomorphism and whether social networks of directors have an impact on their tax aggressiveness. Specifically, the study intends to examine how tax knowledge diffuses [...] Read more.
The purpose of the study is to examine the sustainability of the tax aggressiveness of shared directors from coercive isomorphism and whether social networks of directors have an impact on their tax aggressiveness. Specifically, the study intends to examine how tax knowledge diffuses across firms and how this knowledge diffusion affects connected firms. To test the constructed hypothesis, the panel logistic regression model is estimated using a firm-level panel dataset for the US and Pakistan to analyze cross-country differences, as the USA holds more legislation and effective governance mechanisms. The study covers the period of 2007–2019. The data required for the empirical analysis was collected from the Thompson Reuters database. The results of panel logistic regression show a significant relationship between tax aggressiveness and director’s connections, suggesting that information diffuses by board interlocks. Specifically, the estimates suggest that there is a positive and significant influence of connected directors on the probability that the tax aggressiveness spreads through coercive isomorphism, inferring that the sustainability of the tax aggressiveness of shared directors from coercive isomorphism is strong. Findings reveal that Pakistani firms, when compared to the USA, are more likely involved in tax aggression because of fewer legislations and tax reforms. The results also reveal that coercive isomorphism significantly mediates the relationship between board interlocks and tax aggressiveness. These findings provide valuable insights into detecting the tax aggressiveness of firms and the channels through which this spread. The study contributes to the scarce research on the impact of board interlocks on tax aggressiveness and the influence of coercive isomorphism on these impacts. This study can help tax authorities in identifying tax-saving strategies through connected directors. Secondly, this study provides empirical evidence to support the diffusion of information regarding tax aggression and provides mechanisms with which to detect tax aggression. Third, our choice of empirical context also helps us contribute to the management practice of firms. CEOs and boards should be wary of interlocks with organizations, lest they inadvertently become reticent and hence prove to be of no good. Full article
Article
Forecast and Analysis of the Total Amount of Civil Buildings in China in the Future Based on Population Driven
Sustainability 2021, 13(24), 14051; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132414051 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 499
Abstract
Controlling the scale of civil buildings is of great significance for energy saving and emission reduction in the construction field. This paper analyzes and extracts the key index parameters for the calculation of various civil building areas, establishes a detailed calculation model of [...] Read more.
Controlling the scale of civil buildings is of great significance for energy saving and emission reduction in the construction field. This paper analyzes and extracts the key index parameters for the calculation of various civil building areas, establishes a detailed calculation model of the total civil building area, and constructs three different scenarios to predict various civil building areas in China from 2020 to 2060. Under the three scenarios, the total amount of civil buildings in China will reach a peak of 93.5, 84.6, and 76.3 billion m2 in 2040, 2035, and 2035, respectively. Under the constraints of energy consumption and carbon emission, this paper suggests that civil buildings develop according to the medium control scenario. In 2035, the urban per capita residential area will reach a peak of 42 m2, the urban residential area will reach 43 billion m2, the rural per capita residential area will reach the peak of 55 m2, the rural residential area will reach 20.6 billion m2, and the public building area will reach 21 billion m2. By 2060, the total area of civil buildings will drop to 76.5 billion m2, including 37.1 billion m2 of urban residential buildings, 18.5 billion m2 of rural residential buildings, and 20.9 billion m2 of public buildings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Smart Cities and Society Development)
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Article
The Cloud-Enabled Architecture of the Clinical Data Repository in Poland
Sustainability 2021, 13(24), 14050; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132414050 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 542
Abstract
In this article, the authors, using information-systems modeling techniques, and considering current national legal regulations, present the cloud-enabled architecture of a clinical data repository. The patient’s medical record is an important carrier of information necessary for accurate diagnosis and selection of the correct [...] Read more.
In this article, the authors, using information-systems modeling techniques, and considering current national legal regulations, present the cloud-enabled architecture of a clinical data repository. The patient’s medical record is an important carrier of information necessary for accurate diagnosis and selection of the correct treatment process. Therefore, it is not surprising that since the beginning of the development of computer technologies, databases have been built to enable the management of a patient’s medical records. These systems were most-often deployed locally at individual healthcare units, which carried certain limitations both in terms of the security and availability of the stored information, and the possibility of exchanging it with other clinics. However, recent developments in the standardization of medical information exchange in Poland, together with the revolution in cloud computing, have opened up completely new perspectives for clinical-data-repository implementations helping to make them far more sustainable. Although, the practical aspects of implementing clinical-documentation repositories are studied both in forums of European countries and also around the world; so far, no similar research was conducted with respect to Poland. This study tries to fill that gap by proposing a flexible multi-variant cloud-enabled architecture of the system providing the services of a clinical-data repository. The goal of the work was to propose such a system architecture that allows having a system that is either cloud-agnostic, that uses specifically selected cloud services, or that is even deployable locally. Thanks to the use of cloud computing services, the implemented system is characterized by high availability, scalability, and the possibility of exchanging data between medical institutions, which enables the improvement in the quality of medical processes for the whole Polish population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ICT Adoption for Sustainability)
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Article
Do Cross-Latitude and Local Studies Give Similar Predictions of Phytoplankton Responses to Warming? An Analysis of Monitoring Data from 504 Danish Lakes
Sustainability 2021, 13(24), 14049; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132414049 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 482
Abstract
Cross-latitude studies on lakes have a potential to predict how global warming may cause major changes in phytoplankton biomass and composition, e.g., the development of favourable conditions for cyanobacteria dominance. However, results from these studies may be influenced by biogeographical factors, and the [...] Read more.
Cross-latitude studies on lakes have a potential to predict how global warming may cause major changes in phytoplankton biomass and composition, e.g., the development of favourable conditions for cyanobacteria dominance. However, results from these studies may be influenced by biogeographical factors, and the conclusions may, therefore, not hold when considering local response patterns. We used monthly monitoring data from 504 lakes in Denmark—a small and homogeneous geographical region—to establish empirical relationships between key phytoplankton groups and a set of explanatory variables including total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), lake mean depth (DEP) and water temperature (TEMP). All variables had strong effects on phytoplankton biomass and composition, but their contributions varied over the seasons, with TEMP being particularly important in June–October. We found dominance of cyanobacteria in terms of biomass and also an increase in dinophytes biomass at higher TEMP, while diatoms and chlorophytes became less important. In May, however, the TEMP effect on total phytoplankton biomass was negative, likely reflecting intensified zooplankton grazing. Our results suggest that biogeographical effects are of minor importance for the response patterns of phytoplankton to temperature and that substantial concentration reductions of TN and TP are needed in eutrophic lakes to counteract the effect of the climate change-induced increase in TEMP. Full article
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Article
Participatory Mapping for Strengthening Environmental Governance on Socio-Ecological Impacts of Infrastructure in the Amazon: Lessons to Improve Tools and Strategies
Sustainability 2021, 13(24), 14048; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132414048 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 855
Abstract
The Amazon region has been viewed as a source of economic growth based on extractive industry and large-scale infrastructure development endeavors, such as roads, dams, oil and gas pipelines and mining. International and national policies advocating for the development of the Amazon often [...] Read more.
The Amazon region has been viewed as a source of economic growth based on extractive industry and large-scale infrastructure development endeavors, such as roads, dams, oil and gas pipelines and mining. International and national policies advocating for the development of the Amazon often conflict with the environmental sector tasked with conserving its unique ecosystems and peoples through a sustainable development agenda. New practices of environmental governance can help mitigate adverse socio-economic and ecological effects. For example, forming a “community of practice and learning” (CoP-L) is an approach for improving governance via collaboration and knowledge exchange. The Governance and Infrastructure in the Amazon (GIA) project, in which this study is embedded, has proposed that fostering a CoP-L on tools and strategies to improve infrastructure governance can serve as a mechanism to promote learning and action on factors related to governance effectiveness. A particular tool used by the GIA project for generating and sharing knowledge has been participatory mapping (Pmap). This study analyzes Pmap exercises conducted through workshops in four different Amazonian regions. The goal of Pmap was to capture different perspectives from stakeholders based on their experiences and interests to visualize and reflect on (1) areas of value, (2) areas of concern and (3) recommended actions related to reducing impacts of infrastructure development and improvement of governance processes. We used a mixed-methods approach to explore textual analysis, regional multi-iteration discussion with stakeholders, participatory mapping and integration with ancillary geospatial datasets. We believe that by sharing local-knowledge-driven data and strengthening multi-actor dialogue and collaboration, this novel approach can improve day to day practices of CoP-L members and, therefore, the transparency of infrastructure planning and good governance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services in Forest Ecosystems)
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Article
Characteristics and Driving Forces of Non-Grain Production of Cultivated Land from the Perspective of Food Security
Sustainability 2021, 13(24), 14047; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132414047 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 584
Abstract
A large proportion of the cultivated land in China has been used for non-grain production purposes. As food insecurity is worsening worldwide, this issue has attracted attention from the Chinese government. In order to curb this trend and to ensure food security, this [...] Read more.
A large proportion of the cultivated land in China has been used for non-grain production purposes. As food insecurity is worsening worldwide, this issue has attracted attention from the Chinese government. In order to curb this trend and to ensure food security, this paper explores the quantitative characteristics and spatial distribution of cultivated land used for non-grain purposes in Liyang City, Jiangsu Province, and discusses the clustering characteristics and mechanisms behind this based on spatial autocorrelation analysis and geographically weighted regression (GWR). The results show that most of the cultivated land in Liyang City has not been used for non-grain purposes, and the cultivated land reserve is abundant. Among all land types, irrigable land has the largest non-grain production rate of cultivated land. There is no significant spatial correlation of cultivated land for non-grain purposes in most towns in Liyang, among which Kunlun Street is in the High-High (HH) zone and Daibu Town in the Low-High (LH) zone. It is also found that the same factor has various impacts on the non-grain production of cultivated land in different towns, and the number of enterprises is the core factor that leads to the non-grain use of cultivated land in Liyang city. Low food prices lead some farmers to plant other crops with higher economic benefits, and also lead to the outflow of the rural labor force. This will not only accelerate the non-grain production of cultivated land, but also cause a large amount of cultivated land to be in a state of unmanned cultivation, further aggravating the proportion of non-grain production in cultivated land. Full article
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Article
Public Perception of Tourism Cities before and during the COVID-19 Pandemic through the Lens of User-Generated Content
Sustainability 2021, 13(24), 14046; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132414046 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 570
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic (coronavirus disease of 2019) sent the world into disarray and devastated the global tourism economy. In 2020 alone, the number of international tourists dropped by roughly 1.1 billion. This study examines user-generated content (UGC) on social media to elucidate the [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic (coronavirus disease of 2019) sent the world into disarray and devastated the global tourism economy. In 2020 alone, the number of international tourists dropped by roughly 1.1 billion. This study examines user-generated content (UGC) on social media to elucidate the shift in people’s perceptions of popular tourism cities from before the pandemic to during the pandemic. This paper analyzes the characteristics of the cues in tourism-city-related UGC (particularly those related to the pandemic) and identifies the cues that resonate most with the public. This paper collected the data using Instagram’s application programing interface and then sorted the UGC based on content, type, time, likes, share, and comments. Between 1 January 2019 and 31 December 2019, it collected a total of 207,752 pre-pandemic posts and 173,131 peri-pandemic posts. The findings reveal that, during the pandemic, the interactivity of city-related UGC dropped, and only pandemic-related keywords gained public attention. By comparison, pre-pandemic positive posts mentioned local features and contained calls to action that were generally well-received. The findings also validate that UGC effectively reflects and enhances overall public perceptions, suggesting that, in a future which is forced to co-exist with SARS-CoV-2 in the long term, it is important to understand the positive and negative influences of UGC on tourism cities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Data Science in Tourism and Hospitality)
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Article
Research on the Impact of High-End Ev Sales Business Model on Brand Competitiveness
Sustainability 2021, 13(24), 14045; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132414045 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 677
Abstract
Electric vehicles have many advantages compared with traditional fuel vehicles, whereas the immaturity of technologies and high manufacturing cost make it difficult for EV brands to be promoted in traditional business models. Thus, auto-mobile companies started to establish high-end sales business model to [...] Read more.
Electric vehicles have many advantages compared with traditional fuel vehicles, whereas the immaturity of technologies and high manufacturing cost make it difficult for EV brands to be promoted in traditional business models. Thus, auto-mobile companies started to establish high-end sales business model to promote the brand. This paper studies the influential mechanism of high-end EV sales business model on brand competitiveness and the mediation effect between high-end EV sales business model and brand competitiveness. A total of 624 consumers’ survey data were collected and the structural equation model (SEM) was analyzed to test the hypotheses by using a scale made up of indicators referring to high-end EV sales business model, brand competitiveness and customer perceived value. This paper contributes to the sustainable innovation literature by exploring the psychological perception of customer perceived value in strengthening brand competitiveness. The results show that both the value proposition and value creation of high-end EV sales business model have significant positive impacts on brand competitiveness. Moreover, customer perceived value fully mediates the relationships between the value proposition of high-end EV sales business model and brand competitiveness and between the value creation and brand competitiveness. Customer perceived value cannot mediate the relationship between the value capture of high-end EV sales business model and brand competitiveness. Our insights contribute to the business model research area from a customer-centric perspective. Full article
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