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Sustainability, Volume 10, Issue 11 (November 2018)

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Open AccessArticle An Asymmetric Nash Bargaining Model for Carbon Emission Quota Allocation among Industries: Evidence from Guangdong Province, China
Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 4210; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10114210 (registering DOI)
Received: 2 October 2018 / Revised: 24 October 2018 / Accepted: 9 November 2018 / Published: 15 November 2018
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Abstract
As the most cost-effective mechanism, an emissions trading scheme (ETS) plays an important role in mitigating global warming, whilst any such scheme requires the initial allocation of quotas. Current allocation methods, however, pay little attention to the interests of abatement entities, which will
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As the most cost-effective mechanism, an emissions trading scheme (ETS) plays an important role in mitigating global warming, whilst any such scheme requires the initial allocation of quotas. Current allocation methods, however, pay little attention to the interests of abatement entities, which will hinder the long-term sustainable goals. To mobilize the enthusiasm of different abatement entities, this study proposes a multiplayer asymmetric Nash bargaining model, ensuring that all entities can obtain more quotas after negotiation. To demonstrate the advantages of the proposed method, this study selects Guangdong where the principal allocation method is the grandfathering approach as an illustrative case and develops three preference cases including balanced weighting, economic-oriented weighting, and emission-oriented weighting. The empirical results show that the proposed method not only reflects the “polluter pays principle”, but also helps to save emission reduction costs. In further analysis, this study considers both free allocation ratio and ETS coverage, providing inspirations for policy makers to develop new ETS regulations. In general, the proposed method not only assists policy makers of Guangdong in improving the current ETS deficiencies but also can be generalized into other regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Use of the Environment and Resources)
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Open AccessArticle Vegetation Cover Drives Arthropod Communities in Mediterranean/Subtropical Green Roof Habitats
Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 4209; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10114209 (registering DOI)
Received: 24 October 2018 / Revised: 9 November 2018 / Accepted: 13 November 2018 / Published: 15 November 2018
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Abstract
Worldwide, urban areas are expanding both in size and number, which results in a decline in habitats suitable for urban flora and fauna. The construction of urban green features, such as green roofs, may provide suitable habitat patches for many species in urban
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Worldwide, urban areas are expanding both in size and number, which results in a decline in habitats suitable for urban flora and fauna. The construction of urban green features, such as green roofs, may provide suitable habitat patches for many species in urban areas. On green roofs, two approaches have been used to select plants—i.e., matching similar habitat to green roofs (habitat template approach) or identifying plants with suitable traits (plant trait approach). While both approaches may result in suitable habitats for arthropods, how arthropods respond to different combinations of plants is an open question. The aim of this study was to investigate how the structural complexity of different plant forms can affect the abundance and richness of arthropods on green roofs. The experimental design crossed the presence and absence of annuals with three Sedum sediforme (Jacq.) Pau (common name: stonecrops) treatments—i.e., uniformly disrupted Sedum, clumped disrupted Sedum, and no Sedum. We hypothesized that an increased structural diversity due to the coexistence of different life forms of plants on roofs is positively related to the abundance and richness of arthropods. We found that arthropod abundance and richness were positively associated with the percent of vegetation cover and negatively associated with substrate temperature. Neither arthropod abundance nor richness was influenced by the relative moisture of substrate. We also found that arthropod abundance and richness varied by green roof setups (treatments) and by seasonality. Arthropod abundance on green roofs was the highest in treatments with annuals only, while species richness was slightly similar between treatments containing annuals but varied between sampling periods. This study suggests that adding annuals to traditional Sedum roofs has positive effects on arthropods. This finding can support the development of biodiverse cities because most extensive green roofs are inaccessible to the public and can provide undisturbed habitat for several plant and arthropod species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Urban and Rural Development)
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Open AccessArticle MNEs Subsidiary Training and Development and Firm Innovative Performance: The Moderating Effects of Tacit and Explicit Knowledge Received from Headquarters
Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 4208; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10114208
Received: 12 October 2018 / Revised: 6 November 2018 / Accepted: 7 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
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Abstract
This paper set out to investigate the ways training and development impacts on firm innovative performance as well as the moderating role of knowledge transfer received on training and development and firm innovative performance, using a sample of 229 foreign subsidiaries of multinational
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This paper set out to investigate the ways training and development impacts on firm innovative performance as well as the moderating role of knowledge transfer received on training and development and firm innovative performance, using a sample of 229 foreign subsidiaries of multinational enterprises (MNEs) operating in China. We adopt hierarchical linear modeling, and the results of the study reveal that both on-the-job training and development and off-the-job training and development have an influence on the firm innovative performance. Also, the empirical results of the study demonstrate that the moderating effect of tacit and explicit knowledge received on the relationship between both on-the-job training and development and off-the-job training and development and firm innovative performance are stronger. This paper shows that continues updating of skills, ability and knowledge of the workforce through on-the job training and development and off-the job training development programs might boost creativity and innovation of business organizations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle An Integrated Environment–Cost–Time Optimisation Method for Construction Contractors Considering Global Warming
Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 4207; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10114207
Received: 22 October 2018 / Revised: 8 November 2018 / Accepted: 10 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
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Abstract
Construction contractors play a vital role in reducing the environmental impacts during the construction phase. To mitigate these impacts, contractors need to develop environmentally friendly plans that have optimal equipment, materials and labour configurations. However, construction plans with optimal environment may negatively affect
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Construction contractors play a vital role in reducing the environmental impacts during the construction phase. To mitigate these impacts, contractors need to develop environmentally friendly plans that have optimal equipment, materials and labour configurations. However, construction plans with optimal environment may negatively affect the project cost and duration, resulting in dilemma for contractors on adopting low impacts plans. Moreover, the enumeration method that is usually used needs to assess and compare the performances of a great deal of scenarios, which seems to be time consuming for complicated projects with numerous scenarios. This study therefore developed an integrated method to efficiently provide contractors with plans having optimal environment–cost–time performances. Discrete-event simulation (DES) and particle swarm optimisation algorithms (PSO) are integrated through an iterative loop, which remarkably reduces the efforts on optimal scenarios searching. In the integrated method, the simulation module can model the construction equipment and materials consumption; the assessment module can evaluate multi-objective performances; and the optimisation module fast converges on optimal solutions. A prototype is developed and implemented in a hotel building construction. Results show that the proposed method greatly reduced the times of simulation compared with enumeration method. It provides the contractor with a trade-off solution that can average reduce 26.9% of environmental impact, 19.7% of construction cost, and 10.2% of project duration. The method provides contractors with an efficient and practical decision support tool for environmentally friendly planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Construction and Building Materials)
Open AccessArticle Different Ways to Access Knowledge for Sustainability-Oriented Innovation. The Effect of Foreign Direct Investment
Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 4206; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10114206
Received: 5 October 2018 / Revised: 7 November 2018 / Accepted: 8 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
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Abstract
Sustainability-oriented innovation (SOI), which displays an intention to develop a product or service that contributes to economic, environmental, and social sustainability, has drawn growing institutional and academic attention, due to the general consideration that innovation is an essential part of achieving sustainability. For
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Sustainability-oriented innovation (SOI), which displays an intention to develop a product or service that contributes to economic, environmental, and social sustainability, has drawn growing institutional and academic attention, due to the general consideration that innovation is an essential part of achieving sustainability. For developments of this nature, it is considered that foreign direct investment (FDI) helps companies to meet the requirements demanded by SOI, however, they show different cooperation patterns, and so it is not known what path they must take to achieve it. In this context, this paper uses comparative analysis to try to shed light on the possible differences in the paths taken to achieve SOI by companies with and without FDI, taking into account their different form of knowledge management. To achieve this objective, it has been necessary to build new sustainability indicators (economic, environmental, and social) that allow the evaluation of the sustainability of these processes, considering the sustainability objectives that guided companies towards innovation. Using a logit model for 5897 Spanish companies during the period 2009–2014, this paper contributes both theoretically and empirically to emerging research into the opening of sustainable innovation. It provides a better understanding of the different channels for accessing knowledge for SOI, and examining these channels through absorptive capacity and cooperation, according to its age and size. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Firm Size and Sustainable Innovation Management)
Open AccessArticle Promoting Green and Sustainability: A Multi-Objective Optimization Method for the Job-Shop Scheduling Problem
Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 4205; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10114205
Received: 25 October 2018 / Revised: 9 November 2018 / Accepted: 11 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
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Abstract
As a result of increasingly serious environmental pollution, it is vital to reduce carbon emissions to achieve green and sustainable development for manufacturing processes. Customer satisfaction, as an important factor affecting enterprise profits, is of great importance in the promotion of sustainable development.
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As a result of increasingly serious environmental pollution, it is vital to reduce carbon emissions to achieve green and sustainable development for manufacturing processes. Customer satisfaction, as an important factor affecting enterprise profits, is of great importance in the promotion of sustainable development. Because an accurate delivery time and high delivery rate improve customer satisfaction and enhance an enterprise’s competitive advantage in the market, this paper proposes a new optimization method for achieving low carbon emissions, a high delivery rate, and a low cost for a job-shop scheduling problem. The computational results show the negative correlation between assembly cost and carbon emissions, and the positive correlation between assembly cost and delivery time by Pareto optimization. The proposed method, which takes into consideration carbon emissions, greatly supports the objective of achieving a green and sustainable development. Full article
Open AccessReview Is Governmentality the Missing Link for Greening the Economic Growth?
Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 4204; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10114204
Received: 28 September 2018 / Revised: 2 November 2018 / Accepted: 7 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
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Abstract
The new concept of “green growth” appears to be an economic growth model, which balances environment sustainability and fostering of economic growth. Yet, much of the green growth research has failed to address the real extent of interconnections and complexity of the relationship
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The new concept of “green growth” appears to be an economic growth model, which balances environment sustainability and fostering of economic growth. Yet, much of the green growth research has failed to address the real extent of interconnections and complexity of the relationship between governance and economic, social, and environmental structures. Furthermore, current green growth research tends to focus on the country level, such as the Millennium Development Goals and sustainable development indices, which risks ignoring the additional impacts on micro industrial economies. The lack of connection between green growth and good governance—known as environmental governance—is a crucial gap in practical adoption. Therefore, this study uses Foucault’s governmentality lens to view green growth as a technique of government, seeking an environmentally focused eco-governmentality. We examine the transformation, differential definitions, and critical dimensions of green growth in relation to particular case studies taken from China and South Korea and frame them for future sustainable studies. The findings of this study highlight the significant role of interdisciplinary research, as well both bottom-up and top-down initiatives, on enabling the transition to green growth. The proposed research framework and implementation strategy also identifies new avenues for future research and practices in the field of sustainable development, making it one of the study’s key contributions to the literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle Energy Consumption Optimization in Irrigation Networks Supplied by a Standalone Direct Pumping Photovoltaic System
Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 4203; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10114203
Received: 17 October 2018 / Revised: 9 November 2018 / Accepted: 10 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
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Abstract
Due to the fact that irrigation networks are water and energy hungry and that both resources are scarce, many strategies have been developed to reduce this consumption. Solar energy sources have emerged as a green alternative with lower energy costs and, consequently, lower
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Due to the fact that irrigation networks are water and energy hungry and that both resources are scarce, many strategies have been developed to reduce this consumption. Solar energy sources have emerged as a green alternative with lower energy costs and, consequently, lower environmental impacts. In this work, a new methodology is proposed to select a scheduled program for irrigation which minimizes the number of photovoltaic solar panels to be installed and which better fits energy consumption (calculated for discrete potential combinations, assisted by programming software) to available energy obtained by panels without any power conditioning unit. Thus, the irrigation hours available to satisfy the water demands are limited by sunlight, the schedule type of irrigation has to be rigid (rotation predetermined), and the pressure at any node has to be above the minimum pressure required by standards. A case study was undertaken and, after running the software 105 times, the best result was an irrigation schedule which satisfied all the requirements, involving the installation of 651 solar panels and energy consumption of 428.74 kWh per day, to deliver water to orchards of different varieties of citrus fruit spread over 167.7 ha. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Wildlife)
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Open AccessArticle Critical Barriers to Implementation of Reverse Logistics in the Manufacturing Industry: A Case Study of a Developing Country
Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 4202; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10114202
Received: 25 September 2018 / Revised: 28 October 2018 / Accepted: 7 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
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Abstract
Globalization policies are encouraging manufacturing companies to produce environment-friendly products that offer a sustainable competitive advantage. Currently, product recovery and zero-waste supply chains have caught the attention of manufacturers and professionals. Reverse logistics (RL) is considered as the most significant part of supply
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Globalization policies are encouraging manufacturing companies to produce environment-friendly products that offer a sustainable competitive advantage. Currently, product recovery and zero-waste supply chains have caught the attention of manufacturers and professionals. Reverse logistics (RL) is considered as the most significant part of supply chain management in developed countries; unfortunately, its implementation in developing countries is in the initial stages due to certain barriers. This study aims to identify and verify the barriers to implementation of reverse logistics using a two-stage methodology: the Delphi Method and Structural Equation Modeling. A comprehensive literature review was considered to identify a primary set of barriers. Using the Delphi Method, a team of experts screened out barriers after performing three iterations. A survey-based questionnaire was then sent out to supply chain and logistics employees in the manufacturing industry and relevant government authorities. Five hundred and forty-seven useful responses were analyzed in the Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) & AMOS 21 softwares using Structural Equation Modeling to verify barriers, and ranked according to their severity. The most critical barriers with respect to each category are: high cost of reverse logistics adoption (finance and economics), lack of skilled professionals (knowledge and experience), lack of government supportive policies (law and regulation), poor organizational culture (management), lack of human resources (infrastructure and technology), lack of environmental law awareness (environment), lack of community pressure (market) and company policies (reverse logistics in policy). Overall, the top five barriers found in this study include lack of initial capital, lack of skilled professional in RL, companies’ policies against RL, lack of new technologies and information systems, and lack of community pressure. Knowledge about barriers to reverse logistics allows manufacturing companies to prepare a priority list of actions for better implementation of the reverse logistics system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Spatial Evolutionary Study of Technological Innovation Talents’ Sticky Wages and Technological Innovation Efficiency Based on the Perspective of Sustainable Development
Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 4201; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10114201
Received: 23 October 2018 / Revised: 6 November 2018 / Accepted: 12 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
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Abstract
In China, with the deepening of the reform of industrial structures, the improvement of technological innovation has become a key issue. This is not only related to whether the strategic development of Chinese science and technology can be achieved, but also whether the
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In China, with the deepening of the reform of industrial structures, the improvement of technological innovation has become a key issue. This is not only related to whether the strategic development of Chinese science and technology can be achieved, but also whether the Chinese economy and high-quality human capital can develop sustainably. Based on the theoretical boundary of sustainable development—free transfer of information—we see that sticky wages are the embodiment of information dissemination. Under the dual effects of profit-seeking behavior and information barriers, the relationship between the sticky wages of technological innovation talents (TIT), as the most profitable labor force, and technological innovation efficiency (TIE) has become more complex, and so far we still have a limited understanding of it. We explore this issue in an empirical study by using a two-stage chain Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) of TIE followed by modifying the wages of TIT; finally, we build a collaborative evolution model with spatial effects on a large dataset (from 2007 to 2016). The results show that the overall Chinese TIE is relatively low, and in the central and western regions the TIE has been seriously reversed; there are also divergences in the TIE at different stages in the regions we focus on. As the output of technological innovation, except for initial results (such as patents), the more important value is whether it has an ability to transform the initial results into production, and the core of it is whether it can match the market environment and technology transfer system (for example, market mechanism, transformation incentive mechanism, and institutional mechanism). So, considering these aspects, the central and west of China are obviously insufficient, while the east has obvious advantages; this can also explain the results of spatial diffusion, namely, in the eastern region it is higher than in other areas, but the gap between them is gradually narrowing; lastly, from the perspective of synergy, the wage stickiness of TIT in the central region is larger than that of the eastern and western regions, and the evolutionary relationship in the former is “extruding” while in the latter it is “cooperative.” Mainly due to the popularity of the eastern innovation network and the initial state of the west, the barriers of information transmission are relatively low, while the central part is undergoing economic transformation, so its extreme demand for TIT has pushed up the cost of information transmission. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Asymmetrical Development across Transboundary Regions: The Case of the Torres Strait Treaty Region (Australia and Papua New Guinea)
Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 4200; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10114200
Received: 19 September 2018 / Revised: 9 November 2018 / Accepted: 12 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
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Abstract
While there is much theoretical study of the evolution of border disparities, there is little empirical analysis of development asymmetries across border regions, and their causes or solutions. Often disparities among countries hinder the ability of transboundary agreements and other development initiatives to
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While there is much theoretical study of the evolution of border disparities, there is little empirical analysis of development asymmetries across border regions, and their causes or solutions. Often disparities among countries hinder the ability of transboundary agreements and other development initiatives to generate sustainable development. This study quantifies development progress amongst communities in Australia and Papua New Guinea (PNG) covered by the Torres Strait Treaty, 26 years after its inception. Using regional census data from 2011 we found contrasting patterns of human development, with markedly poorer education levels in PNG. This asymmetry was confirmed by a Human Development Index of 0.735 for the Torres Strait and 0.270 for the neighbouring province in PNG. From a survey of 1089 PNG households in 2012–2013 we calculated that 63% of people in the villages were multidimensional poor, and 28% were ‘vulnerable to poverty’. Poverty was positively correlated with poor health, which has implications for the control of tuberculosis in the region. While Treaty provisions may have reduced poverty amongst some PNG villages closest to Australian communities, development initiatives by Ok Tedi mine in compensation for its environmental impacts have not. Our study highlights the causes of the sustainable development gap between PNG and Australian communities, and the necessity for transboundary agreements and institutions to have the capacity to adapt to their unintended consequences and rapid global change. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Sustainable Entrepreneurship Team Scale Development: A Complex Systems Perspective
Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 4199; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10114199
Received: 6 October 2018 / Revised: 23 October 2018 / Accepted: 3 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
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Abstract
This paper primarily focuses on two questions: (1) “How is a sustainable entrepreneurship team (SET) formed?”; and (2) “What factors contribute to effective SET?”. Based on the model of Baron and Henry (2011), we adopt a process view of SET development and propose
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This paper primarily focuses on two questions: (1) “How is a sustainable entrepreneurship team (SET) formed?”; and (2) “What factors contribute to effective SET?”. Based on the model of Baron and Henry (2011), we adopt a process view of SET development and propose a conceptual model of a SET work that includes four key elements: (1) Sustainable entrepreneurial motivation; (2) sustainable entrepreneurial opportunity recognition; (3) knowledge resources acquirement; and (4) sustainable entrepreneurial outcome. Furthermore, based on complex systems theory, we elaborate on how individual entrepreneurs form a SET. We also develop a SET scale and provide some initial empirical support for our conceptual model. Finally, based on our qualitative and quantitative results, we offer suggestions for Research Question 2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Asian Emerging Markets)
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Open AccessArticle Cooperation between Two Micro-Grids Considering Power Exchange: An Optimal Sizing Approach Based on Collaborative Operation
Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 4198; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10114198
Received: 25 September 2018 / Revised: 3 November 2018 / Accepted: 5 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
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Abstract
Optimal sizing of single micro-grid faces problems such as high life cycle cost, low self-consumption of power generated by renewable energy, and disturbances of intermittent renewable energy. Interconnecting single micro-grids as a cooperative system to reach a proper size of renewable energy generations
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Optimal sizing of single micro-grid faces problems such as high life cycle cost, low self-consumption of power generated by renewable energy, and disturbances of intermittent renewable energy. Interconnecting single micro-grids as a cooperative system to reach a proper size of renewable energy generations and batteries is a credible method to promote performance in reliability and economy. However, to guarantee the optimal collaborative sizing of two micro-grids is a challenging task, particularly with power exchange. In this paper, the optimal sizing of economic and collaborative for two micro-grids and the tie line is modelled as a unit commitment problem to express the influence of power exchange between micro-grids on each life cycle cost, meanwhile guaranteeing certain degree of power supply reliability, which is calculated by Loss of Power Supply Probability in the simulation. A specified collaborative operation of power exchange between two micro-grids is constructed as the scheduling scheme to optimize the life cycle cost of two micro-grids using genetic algorithm. The case study verifies the validity of the method proposed and reveal the advantages of power exchange in the two micro-grids system. The results demonstrate that the proposed optimal sizing means based on collaborative operation can minimize the life cycle cost of two micro-grids respectively considering different renewable energy sources. Compared to the sizing of single micro-grid, the suggested method can not only improve the economic performance for each micro-grid but also form a strong support between interconnected micro-grids. In addition, a proper price of power exchanges will balance the cost saving between micro-grids, making the corresponding stake-holders prefer to be interconnected. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Knowledge Management in Healthcare Sustainability: A Smart Healthy Diet Assistant in Traditional Chinese Medicine Culture
Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 4197; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10114197
Received: 28 September 2018 / Revised: 7 November 2018 / Accepted: 9 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
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Abstract
In the past 40 years, with the changes to dietary structure and the dramatic increase in the consumption of meat products in developing countries, especially in China, encouraging populations to maintain their previous healthy eating patterns will have health, environmental, and economic co-benefits.
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In the past 40 years, with the changes to dietary structure and the dramatic increase in the consumption of meat products in developing countries, especially in China, encouraging populations to maintain their previous healthy eating patterns will have health, environmental, and economic co-benefits. Healthy diet education plays an important role in the promotion of people’s healthy behavior. However, in the modern age, the data regarding healthy diets available on the internet is increasing rapidly and is distributed on multiple sources. It is time-consuming for users to learn about healthy diets on the internet: they need to search data on multiple platforms, choose and integrate information, and then understand what they have learned. To help people retrieve and learn healthy diet knowledge more efficiently and comprehensively, this paper designs a knowledge graph to integrate healthy diet information on the internet and provides a semantic retrieval system. In the knowledge graph, five main concepts are defined, including food material, dish, nutritional element, symptom, and crowd, as well as the relationships among them. In addition, Chinese dietary culture elements and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory are also contained in the knowledge graph. The preliminary results show that by using the system, users learn healthy diet knowledge more quickly and comprehensively and they are more inclined to have balanced diets. This work could be regarded as a retrieval and education tool, which can assist healthcare and national sustainable development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability for Healthcare)
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Open AccessArticle Barriers to Implementing Pro-Cycling Policies: A Case Study of Hamburg
Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 4196; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10114196
Received: 25 October 2018 / Revised: 4 November 2018 / Accepted: 12 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
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Abstract
Cycling is gaining increasing attention as a convenient, environmentally friendly, and fitness-improving mode of transport. While many policy interventions have been made to promote cycling, not enough research has focused on the barriers to implementing pro-cycling policies. For effective policy implementation, identifying major
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Cycling is gaining increasing attention as a convenient, environmentally friendly, and fitness-improving mode of transport. While many policy interventions have been made to promote cycling, not enough research has focused on the barriers to implementing pro-cycling policies. For effective policy implementation, identifying major barriers and removing them is critical. This study took an in-depth look at Hamburg which started a major cycling promotion in 2008. According to expert interviews and literature surveys, the author found that the major barriers are physical, political and institutional, and social and cultural. Specifically, the city lacks enough physical space, political support, and the evaluation of travel behavior and demand. Also, some private stakeholders are reluctant to give up on-street car parking space for cycling lanes, and the negotiation process is difficult and time-consuming. To overcome these barriers, Hamburg requires cycling-oriented urban design, a strategic and integrated cycling action plan, strong political support, and target group-oriented communication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Transportation)
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Open AccessArticle The Chinese Socio-Cultural Sustainability Approach: The Impact of Conservation Planning on Local Population and Residential Mobility
Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 4195; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10114195
Received: 23 September 2018 / Revised: 8 November 2018 / Accepted: 11 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
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Abstract
Retaining indigenous populations is vital to the sustainable development and conservation of historic urban areas. However, little attention has been paid to Chinese conservation planning in an effort to safeguard indigenous people. This paper investigates population change and residential mobility in Chinese historic
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Retaining indigenous populations is vital to the sustainable development and conservation of historic urban areas. However, little attention has been paid to Chinese conservation planning in an effort to safeguard indigenous people. This paper investigates population change and residential mobility in Chinese historic urban areas by applying demographic analysis and regression models to survey data collected in the Ping-Jiang Historic Quarter. Results indicate that few relocation behaviors are a result of the welfare housing policy and property ownership. However, residents’ intentions to move have increased, due to declining living conditions and tourism development in recent years. Classified by property ownership, public housing tenants and rented housing migrants were more willing to move, while private housing owners preferred to stay. Accordingly, there have been increasing trends of aging, poverty growth and population displacement, epitomized by the public housing population. Assessing planning impacts, welfare policy reduced residential mobility while undermining residents’ self-reliance to maintain their own houses. Without substantial social participation and community support, top-down conservation planning could only slow, rather than reverse, the trend of socio-cultural decline. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainability of Culture and Heritage)
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Open AccessConcept Paper Defeating Fluorosis in the East African Rift Valley: Transforming the Kilimanjaro into a Rainwater Harvesting Park
Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 4194; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10114194
Received: 23 October 2018 / Revised: 10 November 2018 / Accepted: 12 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
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Abstract
The high availability of fluoride in surface and groundwater in the East African Rift Valley was documented during the colonial period. Since the early 1960s, many studies have been conducted to solve the fluorosis crisis in this region. At present, no cost-effective solution
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The high availability of fluoride in surface and groundwater in the East African Rift Valley was documented during the colonial period. Since the early 1960s, many studies have been conducted to solve the fluorosis crisis in this region. At present, no cost-effective solution to mitigate fluoride contamination is available for the large majority of the population. This situation prompted a process analysis of commonly used technologies. Results revealed that the geochemistry of fluoride is the main problem. Fluoride is very difficult to remove from the aqueous phase. Thus, eliminating the need for technical water defluoridation is an excellent way out of the fluorosis crisis. This goal can be achieved by harvesting fluoride-free rainwater. Harvested rainwater can be mixed with naturally polluted waters in calculated proportions to obtain safe drinking water (blending). This paper presents a concept to transform the Kilimanjaro Mountains into a huge rainwater harvesting park for drinking water supply for the whole East African Rift Valley. However, blended water may contain other pollutants including pathogens that are easy to treat using low-cost methods such as metallic iron based-filters (Fe0 filters). The proposed concept is transferable to other parts of the world still enduring fluoride pollution. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Consequences of Electronic Waste Post-Disaster: A Case Study of Flooding in Bonn, Germany
Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 4193; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10114193
Received: 30 September 2018 / Revised: 30 October 2018 / Accepted: 7 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
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Abstract
Within the response and recovery phases of the disaster management cycle, debris clean-up is a well-researched topic, around which numerous policies have been developed. However, the subcategory of electronic waste is an issue that is overlooked by existing studies. A theoretical case study
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Within the response and recovery phases of the disaster management cycle, debris clean-up is a well-researched topic, around which numerous policies have been developed. However, the subcategory of electronic waste is an issue that is overlooked by existing studies. A theoretical case study of a flood of the Rhine river in Bonn, Germany is used to demonstrate that while electronic waste may be a small portion of the debris generated during a disaster (by volume), it can have disproportionately large health, economic, and environmental consequences if not effectively planned for and handled. A spatial analysis of a flooding disaster scenario in Bonn was conducted to estimate the quantity of electronic waste that could be generated from residential buildings. Further modeling was done to calculate the greenhouse gas savings, energy savings, and economic impacts that can be realized through proper recovery and recycling of the electronic waste created by the flood. One key finding is that while implementation may be difficult, ensuring that effective policy is in place prior to a disaster can enable this waste stream to be managed in a manner that mitigates negative impacts on the environment and human health and keeps valuable materials in circulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Disasters, Crisis, Hazards, Emergencies and Sustainable Development)
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Open AccessArticle Combination of Tree Configuration with Street Configuration for Thermal Comfort Optimization under Extreme Summer Conditions in the Urban Center of Shantou City, China
Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 4192; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10114192
Received: 5 October 2018 / Revised: 8 November 2018 / Accepted: 11 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
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Abstract
Along with global climate change and the worldwide heat island phenomenon, developing climatic methods and planning practices for the benefit of thermal comfort is of increasing interest. Studies have focused on urban streets, studying the aspect ratio, the orientation, street vegetation patterns, etc.
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Along with global climate change and the worldwide heat island phenomenon, developing climatic methods and planning practices for the benefit of thermal comfort is of increasing interest. Studies have focused on urban streets, studying the aspect ratio, the orientation, street vegetation patterns, etc. and how they affect thermal comfort. While the role of vegetation is undeniable, this paper asks the question whether the effects of a tree configuration does not vary under different street configurations, and if yes, how to select tree species and determine their appropriate layout. Here, an analytical framework is proposed to test the different tree configurations (changing one variable at a time) with the least favorable street configuration. It is confirmed that the east–west oriented streets are the least favorable cases and denser tree canopies are better for cooling. The interval between the trees are observed to have an optimal effect when it is equal to the crown width at maturity. Furthermore, the results show that the heat mitigation rate of a tree configuration is not linearly improved by the Aspect Ratio (AR). In the case of Shantou city, the improvement of thermal comfort slows down when the AR reaches 1.5 while Mangifera indica planted with 10 m intervals is recommended among the common street-tree species. Other species could be used also, but should meet the requirements of the canopy density and the interval of layout. The paper does not consider other configuration options such as asymmetrical cases of street geometry and one-side or axial tree planting, etc., but the framework allows for adding such options and simulating thermal comfort for a greater number of scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Green Infrastructure and Climate Adaptation)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluating the Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Craft Beer Industry: An Assessment of Challenges and Benefits of Greenhouse Gas Accounting
Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 4191; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10114191
Received: 22 October 2018 / Revised: 6 November 2018 / Accepted: 11 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
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Abstract
A growing number of companies in the brewery industry have made commitments to measure and reduce their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, many brewers, particularly craft brewers with relatively low rates of production, have not made such commitments. The purpose of this research
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A growing number of companies in the brewery industry have made commitments to measure and reduce their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, many brewers, particularly craft brewers with relatively low rates of production, have not made such commitments. The purpose of this research was to investigate the challenges and benefits of measuring and reducing GHG emissions in the craft brewery industry. The research was conducted in Ontario, Canada, which has seen strong recent growth in the craft brewery industry. A case study and semi-structured interviews among Ontario Craft Brewers were conducted. The case study found that indirect (scope 3 GHGs under the WBCSD & WRI GHG Protocol) GHG sources accounted for 46.4% of total GHGs, with major sources from barley agriculture, malted barley transportation, and bottle production. Direct emissions (scope 1) accounted for only 14.9% of GHGs, while scope 2 emissions, comprised mainly of energy consumption, accounted for 38.7% of GHGs. The case study used case company primary data, and secondary data such as emission factors from external sources. The case study and interviews found that the main challenges in calculating brewery GHGs are secondary data availability, technical knowledge, and finances. The semi-structured interviews, which used prepared interview questions and probes to encourage follow-up answers, also found that the main benefits for Ontario breweries to measure their GHGs include sustainability marketing and preserving the environment. The interviews also found a poor understanding of carbon regulation among Ontario Craft Brewers, which is interesting considering that Ontario implemented a provincial cap and trade program in 2017. Full article
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Open AccessReview Changing Consumption Patterns—Drivers and the Environmental Impact
Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 4190; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10114190
Received: 4 September 2018 / Revised: 7 November 2018 / Accepted: 9 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
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Abstract
Economic growth coupled with population increase and globalization have engendered structural changes in consumption patterns around the world. Contingent on their composition, these changes can be demanding on natural resources and pose unsustainable challenges for the environment. The paper aims to provide a
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Economic growth coupled with population increase and globalization have engendered structural changes in consumption patterns around the world. Contingent on their composition, these changes can be demanding on natural resources and pose unsustainable challenges for the environment. The paper aims to provide a general framework to assess the link between changing consumption patterns and their environmental impact by focusing on the rising beef demand in Vietnam. It draws from secondary literature and data to find that the increased beef demand in Vietnam is mostly met domestically, but there is a major dependency on imports. Within Vietnam, the rising demand has contributed substantially to the carbon footprint and land use and raised waste disposal concerns. To understand the impact of Vietnamese beef demand at the global level, the paper looks at Australia. Carbon footprint and land use are estimated to provide a perspective on the plausible scale of environmental damage that can be ensued in the future. Changes in consumption patterns are an integral part of our world and will play a significant role in determining the sustainable future of our planet. Therefore, it is important to attain a better understanding of the theme and its possible impact on the environment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Methodological Framework for Assessing Practicability of the Urban Space: The Survey on Conditions of Practicable Environments (SCOPE) Procedure Applied in the Case Study of Cagliari (Italy)
Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 4189; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10114189
Received: 8 October 2018 / Revised: 26 October 2018 / Accepted: 11 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
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Abstract
Children’s independent activities within public spaces emerge as a fundamental condition for their development considered in the context of their needs: socialization, movement, autonomy, and enrichment of their creative, imaginative, and cognitive potential. The promotion of their independence represents a relevant issue for
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Children’s independent activities within public spaces emerge as a fundamental condition for their development considered in the context of their needs: socialization, movement, autonomy, and enrichment of their creative, imaginative, and cognitive potential. The promotion of their independence represents a relevant issue for implementing the smart city paradigm. This paradigm calls for a methodological framework where the urban fabric’s performance is evaluated via comprehensive analytic protocols. The proposed study presents an audit tool for evaluating the quality of urban spaces in terms of their practicability by children: the Survey on Conditions of Practicable Environments (SCOPE). The practicability of this research is establishing the quality of urban spaces’ usability, and it is expressed in terms of compositional, configurational, functional, and social factors of the built environment organized within a framework articulated in seven key dimensions (connectivity, convenience, comfort, commitment, conviviality, conspicuousness, and coexistence). The introduction of the concept of practicability and of indicators incorporating the demand for a children-sensitive perspective in the project of public spaces determine the novelty of the SCOPE procedure. This methodology was applied to an area in Central Cagliari, Italy, to evaluate the usability of public spaces. The results reveal that the proposed methodology is relevant for implementing the smart city paradigm because it addresses children’s autonomy and their rights to the city by selecting and defining indicators to clarify and assess conditions of the built environment conducive to children’s autonomy and independent social activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Walkable living environments)
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Open AccessArticle Enhancing Road Network Resilience by Considering the Performance Loss and Asset Value
Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 4188; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10114188
Received: 27 August 2018 / Revised: 9 November 2018 / Accepted: 11 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
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Abstract
In this study, we focus on resilience as the ability of specific infrastructure systems at the regional scale to absorb the shocks of extreme events, such as earthquakes. The occurrence of a disaster such as an earthquake leads to a rapid decrease in
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In this study, we focus on resilience as the ability of specific infrastructure systems at the regional scale to absorb the shocks of extreme events, such as earthquakes. The occurrence of a disaster such as an earthquake leads to a rapid decrease in infrastructure performance. In the case of road networks, performance might refer to the number of drivers using the road within a certain period of time. The objective of this study is to propose a quantitative evaluation method to analyze road network performance (or performance loss) when natural disasters occur. Furthermore, we use cluster analysis and consider the performance loss and asset value in an attempt to propose a method to determine the critical path that should be prioritized for maintenance. This study aimed at analyzing hazard resilience from the network aspect through a scenario analysis depending on damage recovery after disaster occurrence. This study compared the hazard resilience speed to recover existing performance according to the scenario for damage recovery targeting the selected road network. It was found that the total increase in the utility (e.g., total travel time saved) gradually diminished as the restoration cost increased. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Benchmarking Internet Promotion of Renewable Energy Enterprises: Is Sustainability Present?
Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 4187; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10114187
Received: 24 September 2018 / Revised: 9 November 2018 / Accepted: 9 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
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Abstract
Sustainability constitutes a broad discipline that focuses on the social, economic and environmental impact of human activities. Many policies and strategies have been developed for the pursuit of environmental sustainability and the guidance to a green society. Many enterprises have taken meaningful steps
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Sustainability constitutes a broad discipline that focuses on the social, economic and environmental impact of human activities. Many policies and strategies have been developed for the pursuit of environmental sustainability and the guidance to a green society. Many enterprises have taken meaningful steps to improve their own environmental performance through corporate sustainability and environmental management. Environmental management contributes to significant improvements to environmental performance of the enterprises. This paper aims to evaluate the Renewable Energy Enterprises performance in the Internet in Thessaloniki Prefecture regarding the characteristics of sustainability using Multi-criteria Decision Analysis. TOPSIS method was used to provide a ranking of the Renewable Energy Enterprises according to their sustainability and finally conclude to a benchmark. According to the results of the research, the Renewable Energy Enterprises achieve a good level of sustainability but not the optimum. However, the entrepreneurs should adopt modern environmental policy, sustainable marketing, green network framework and certified environmental management system in order to consider their enterprise sustainable. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Exploratory Study on Local Brand Value Development for Outlying Island Agriculture: Local Food System and Actor–Network Theory Perspectives
Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 4186; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10114186
Received: 8 October 2018 / Revised: 11 November 2018 / Accepted: 12 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
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Abstract
Due to the sweeping influence of capitalism, most food processing is now done through standardized production workflows in order to quickly replicate and churn out a large quantity of products. This has led to an increasing number of homogenized and delocalized products flooding
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Due to the sweeping influence of capitalism, most food processing is now done through standardized production workflows in order to quickly replicate and churn out a large quantity of products. This has led to an increasing number of homogenized and delocalized products flooding the market and a disconnection between consumers and local food producers. Penghu outlying island is rich in unique local agricultural products but seriously lacks brand images and channel strategies, as manifested in an unstable demand and supply, a high degree of homogeneity (in products) and the majority of farmers producing and selling their products autonomously. This study applies the local food system and actor–network theory as the basis of theoretical frameworks as well as agricultural practices in Penghu as the research object. We used field investigation, in-depth interview and the means–end chain method to examine important contextual factors’ influence on the local agricultural food system, important actors and challenges and key influential factors for local brand value that affect the development of the local agricultural food system in Penghu outlying island. The actor–network perceptual map of local brand value proposed in this study can help agricultural practitioners when making decisions and can formulate strategies for their products to increase the product visibility and recognition. This perceptual map can also facilitate the expansion of the target customers and channel distributions suitable for individual agricultural products. Our study presents the following recommendations: increase the manpower of agricultural practices through the working holiday approach; local government should provide support enabling agriculture producers to gain professional knowledge in marketing; and agriculture producers should form cooperatives which focus on the unique local agricultural products that are produced and marketed locally in Penghu. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marketing and Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle The Hazardous Status of High Density Sludge from Acid Mine Drainage Neutralization
Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 4185; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10114185
Received: 2 October 2018 / Revised: 6 November 2018 / Accepted: 8 November 2018 / Published: 13 November 2018
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Abstract
Classification of waste is an essential part of waste management to limit potential environmental pollution; however, global systems vary. The objective was to understand the waste classification of high density sludge (HDS) from acid mine drainage (AMD) treatment, according to selected global systems.
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Classification of waste is an essential part of waste management to limit potential environmental pollution; however, global systems vary. The objective was to understand the waste classification of high density sludge (HDS) from acid mine drainage (AMD) treatment, according to selected global systems. Three sludges from two limestone treatment plants, and three others from a limestone and lime treatment plant from the Mpumalanga coalfields of the Republic of South Africa (RSA) were evaluated. Systems for the RSA, Australia, Canada, China, and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) were considered. The USEPA system rated all six sludges non-hazardous, Canadian and Chinese systems allocated a hazardous status to one sludge from the limestone treatment plants based on Ni solubility. The RSA system considered two of the sludges from limestone treatment plants to be higher risk materials than did the other countries. This was due mainly to the RSA system’s inclusion of Mn and use of appreciably lower minimum soluble levels for As, Cd, Pb, Hg, and Se. None’s use of lime resulted in higher soluble Mn. Minimum leachable concentration thresholds for Cd, Hg, Pb, As, and Se in the RSA system were below method detection limits for Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) extracts, making the guidelines impractical, and revision is advised. Considering all the systems, the probability that the HDS from the coalfields of Mpumalanga, South Africa will be classified as hazardous waste increases if the material is only subjected to limestone treatment because of Ni solubility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Use of the Environment and Resources)
Open AccessArticle The Effects on Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Ecological Intensification of Meat Production with Rainfed Sown Biodiverse Pastures
Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 4184; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10114184
Received: 30 September 2018 / Revised: 27 October 2018 / Accepted: 8 November 2018 / Published: 13 November 2018
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Abstract
Feed production is an important contributor to the environmental impacts caused by livestock production. In Portugal, non-dairy cattle are commonly fed with a mixture of grazing and forages/concentrate feed. Sown biodiverse permanent pastures rich in legumes (SBP) were introduced to provide quality animal
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Feed production is an important contributor to the environmental impacts caused by livestock production. In Portugal, non-dairy cattle are commonly fed with a mixture of grazing and forages/concentrate feed. Sown biodiverse permanent pastures rich in legumes (SBP) were introduced to provide quality animal feed and offset concentrate consumption. SBP also sequester large amounts of carbon in soils. Here, we used a comparative life cycle assessment approach to test the substitution of concentrate through installation of high-yield SBP. Using field data for the Alentejo region in Portugal, we compare the global warming potential of a baseline scenario where cattle is fed in low-yield, semi-natural pastures supplemented with feeds that vary in the ratio of silage to concentrate, and a second scenario where the feed is substituted with high-yield SBP. Although SBP use more fertilizers and machinery, this replacement avoids the emission of about 3 t CO2eq/ha even after SBP stop sequestering carbon. Using crude fiber to establish the equivalence between scenarios leads to higher avoided impact, owing to the fact that the fiber content of SBP is also higher. SBP can avoid 25% emissions from beef production per kg of live animal weight. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Livestock Production and Industrial Ecology)
Open AccessArticle Influence of Personality Traits on Consumer Preferences: The Case of Office Chair Selection by Attractiveness
Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 4183; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10114183
Received: 16 July 2018 / Revised: 8 November 2018 / Accepted: 9 November 2018 / Published: 13 November 2018
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Abstract
With increasing living standards, a modern product is required to provide emotional links between a user’s personality and their work environment, in addition to satisfying functional and physiological needs. Since office workers in Taiwan have average daily working hours of over 8 h,
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With increasing living standards, a modern product is required to provide emotional links between a user’s personality and their work environment, in addition to satisfying functional and physiological needs. Since office workers in Taiwan have average daily working hours of over 8 h, they spend lots of time on office chairs, and nowadays more companies are willing to buy good chairs so that their employees can deliver higher efficiency under a more comfortable office environment. After interviewing a group of experts, office chairs are classified into 7 types, and the participants’ personality traits are classified into 4 categories. The influence of different personality traits on the evaluation of office chairs by attractiveness is analyzed by quantification theory type I. Design elements that can better deliver an office chair’s attractiveness are determined. The results allow future designers to improve their designs by identifying the preferences of target users under difference office scenarios. Full article
Open AccessArticle Analysis of Stability-To-Chaos in the Dynamic Evolution of Network Traffic Flows under a Dual Updating Mechanism
Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 4182; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10114182
Received: 4 October 2018 / Revised: 28 October 2018 / Accepted: 9 November 2018 / Published: 13 November 2018
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Abstract
This paper proposes a traffic-flow evolutionary model under a dual updating mechanism that describes the day-to-day (DTD) dynamics of traffic flow and travel cost. To illustrate the concept, a simple two-route network is considered. Based on the nonlinear dynamic theory, the equilibrium stability
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This paper proposes a traffic-flow evolutionary model under a dual updating mechanism that describes the day-to-day (DTD) dynamics of traffic flow and travel cost. To illustrate the concept, a simple two-route network is considered. Based on the nonlinear dynamic theory, the equilibrium stability condition of the system is derived and the condition for the division between the bifurcation and chaotic states of the system is determined. The characteristics of the DTD dynamic evolution of network traffic flow are investigated using numerical experiments. The results show that the system is absolutely stable when the sensitivity of travelers toward the route cost parameter (θ) is equal to or less than 0.923. The bifurcation appears in the system when θ is larger than 0.923. For values of θ equal to or larger than 4.402, the chaos appears in the evolution of the system. The results also show that with the appearance of chaos, the boundary and interior crises begin to appear in the system when θ is larger than 6.773 and 10.403, respectively. The evolution of network traffic flow is always stable when the proportion of travelers who do not change the route is 84% or greater. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Assessment of Ghana’s Comparative Advantage in Maize Production and the Role of Fertilizers
Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 4181; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10114181
Received: 19 August 2018 / Revised: 4 November 2018 / Accepted: 9 November 2018 / Published: 13 November 2018
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Abstract
Maize is one of the most important cereal crops produced and consumed in West Africa, but yields are far under their potential and the production gap leads to growing import bills. After the structural adjustment program, fertilizer subsidies again became a popular intervention
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Maize is one of the most important cereal crops produced and consumed in West Africa, but yields are far under their potential and the production gap leads to growing import bills. After the structural adjustment program, fertilizer subsidies again became a popular intervention to increase yields in most African countries. Ghana introduced fertilizer subsidies in 2008, with high government expenses. This study assesses the competitiveness of Ghanaian maize production and the significance of socio-economic and management variables in determining high yields in northern Ghana. Household survey data and secondary data were applied in a Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM) to test private and social profitability of the fertilizer subsidy policy. Additionally, a probit model is used to determine the characteristics that contribute to higher yields. The results suggest that production systems with Ghana’s above-average yields of 1.5 Mt/ha are profitable at household level and contribute to its economic growth, whereas production systems below this threshold report negative social profits and depend on government intervention. However, fertilizers did not increase the likelihood of a household to fall in the category of high-output production system, whereas the use of improved seeds and herbicides does. In conclusion, the analysis highlights the importance of additional measures, especially the use of supporting inputs as well as management practices, to increased maize productivity. Full article
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