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Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 4324; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10114324

Intensification and Upgrading Dynamics in Emerging Dairy Clusters in the East African Highlands

1
Wageningen UR Livestock Research, PO Box 338, 6700 AH Wageningen, The Netherlands
2
Knowledge, Technology and Innovation Group, Wageningen University, 6700 EW Wageningen, The Netherlands
3
Department of Animal Sciences, Egerton University; Njoro, 20115 Egerton, Kenya
4
College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture, Addis Ababa University, Bishoftu, Ethiopia
5
Department of Animal Science, Wageningen University; 6708 WD Wageningen, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 October 2018 / Revised: 12 November 2018 / Accepted: 14 November 2018 / Published: 21 November 2018
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Abstract

Based on farmer and value chain actor interviews, this comparative study of five emerging dairy clusters elaborates on the upgrading of farming systems, value chains, and context shapes transformations from semi-subsistent to market-oriented dairy farming. The main results show unequal cluster upgrading along two intensification dimensions: dairy feeding system and cash cropping. Intensive dairy is competing with other high-value cash crop options that resource-endowed farmers specialize in, given conducive support service arrangements and context conditions. A large number of drivers and co-dependencies between technical, value chain, and institutional upgrading build up to system jumps. Transformation may take decades when market and context conditions remain sub-optimal. Clusters can be expected to move further along initial intensification pathways, unless actors consciously redirect course. The main theoretical implications for debate about cluster upgrading are that co-dependencies between farming system, market, and context factors determine upgrading outcomes; the implications for the debate about intensification pathways are that they need to consider differences in farmer resource endowments, path dependency, concurrency, and upgrading investments. Sustainability issues for consideration include enabling a larger proportion of resource-poor farmers to participate in markets; enabling private input and service provision models; attention for food safety; and climate smartness. View Full-Text
Keywords: agribusiness cluster; commercialization; sustainable intensification; dairy value chain; farming system; service arrangements; Ethiopia; Kenya agribusiness cluster; commercialization; sustainable intensification; dairy value chain; farming system; service arrangements; Ethiopia; Kenya
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Van der Lee, J.; Klerkx, L.; Bebe, B.O.; Mengistu, A.; Oosting, S. Intensification and Upgrading Dynamics in Emerging Dairy Clusters in the East African Highlands. Sustainability 2018, 10, 4324.

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