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Microbiol. Res., Volume 13, Issue 4 (December 2022) – 26 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Biocontrol bacteria can be a sustainable technology to prevent phytopathogenic diseases. In blueberry plantations, the fungus Macrophomina phaseolina causes charcoal rot disease, producing plant death and a reduction in yields. Biocontrol bacteria were applied to blueberry crops to study changes in the microbiota associated with their rhizosphere using metabarcoding. The bacteria community was modulated by these treatments and, to a lesser extent, the fungi. Another common phytopathogen, Fusarium, positively correlated with dead plants, likely favoring the infection by M. phaseolina. Other taxa found in healthy plants deserve further study as targets for biocontrol strategies. View this paper
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9 pages, 711 KiB  
Article
Effect of a Diet Based on Biotransformed Sorghum on Rabbit Intestinal Morphology and Fecal Fiber Composition
by Carlos A. Hernández-Martínez, Laura Levin, Griselda Treviño-Cabrera, Carlos E. Hernández-Luna, Hugo Bernal-Barragán, Uziel Castillo-Velázquez, Luis Edgar Rodríguez-Tovar, Cesar Dávila-Martínez, Armando Trejo-Chávez, Gerardo Méndez-Zamora and Guadalupe Gutiérrez-Soto
Microbiol. Res. 2022, 13(4), 1018-1026; https://doi.org/10.3390/microbiolres13040074 - 18 Dec 2022
Viewed by 2046
Abstract
Some of the goals of meat production systems are to improve feed efficiency, reduce costs, provide proper nutrition and avoid metabolic disorders. Hence, the aim of this work was to compare a rabbit diet based on untreated sorghum (T1) with a second one [...] Read more.
Some of the goals of meat production systems are to improve feed efficiency, reduce costs, provide proper nutrition and avoid metabolic disorders. Hence, the aim of this work was to compare a rabbit diet based on untreated sorghum (T1) with a second one that included the cereal biotransformed by the co-cultivation of two basidiomycetes (T2). Their effects on the cereal, diets, and fecal structural fiber composition, as well as on rabbit intestinal morphology, were evaluated. A completely randomized design was applied, employing 24 New Zealand rabbits (21 days old). The fiber chemical composition results indicated that the sorghum treated with the co-culture had lower amounts of neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose, as did rabbits fed the T2 diet. Decreases in the NDF, ADF and cellulose contents were detected in T2-nourished rabbit excrements at day 21 (p ≤ 0.05), while lignin percentages diminished at days 35 and 49 (p ≤ 0.05). These rabbits also showed longer jejunal and cecal villi (p ≤ 0.05). The results obtained suggest a positive effect on the bioavailability of structural fibers after sorghum fungal co-fermentation, as their content decreased in rabbit fecal matter without damaging the intestinal morphology. Full article
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11 pages, 1274 KiB  
Article
Removal of Pb (II) from Aqueous Solution by a Pectin-Producing Alga, Penium margaritaceum, Immobilized on Filter Paper
by Tsogjargal Byamba, Kazutoshi Hasegawa and Isamu Maeda
Microbiol. Res. 2022, 13(4), 1007-1017; https://doi.org/10.3390/microbiolres13040073 - 10 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2420
Abstract
Lead (Pb) pollution from local mines and industrial use increases risks for human, animal, and plant health. Pectin is an effective chelator of Pb, and it has been shown that a unicellular green alga, Penium margaritaceum, synthesizes pectin in the cell wall. [...] Read more.
Lead (Pb) pollution from local mines and industrial use increases risks for human, animal, and plant health. Pectin is an effective chelator of Pb, and it has been shown that a unicellular green alga, Penium margaritaceum, synthesizes pectin in the cell wall. In this study, the ability of P. margaritaceum to remove Pb from an aqueous solution was investigated. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed that two strains of P. margaritaceum accumulated Pb on the cell surface. Hence, P. margaritaceum cells were immobilized on cellulose filter paper. The immobilized algal cells were soaked in 1.0 mg/L Pb solution with gentle shaking for 8 h, and Pb in the solution and on the filter paper was measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The immobilized algal cells continuously decreased the Pb concentration to less than 0.5 mg/L and recovered 31.8–32.7% of added Pb. The specific decrease in Pb and increase in Ca were observed in the presence of 1.0 mg/L each of Ca, Mg, Na, and K. Fourier transform infrared spectra suggested that the carboxylic acid group would be responsible for the adsorption of Pb. This study is the first to demonstrate the effectiveness of the immobilized P. margaritaceum cell in removing Pb from aqueous solutions with simple solid–liquid separation. Full article
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12 pages, 2566 KiB  
Article
Potential for Microbial Cross Contamination of Laundry from Public Washing Machines
by Kelly Whitehead, Jake Eppinger, Vanita Srinivasan, M. Khalid Ijaz, Raymond W. Nims and Julie McKinney
Microbiol. Res. 2022, 13(4), 995-1006; https://doi.org/10.3390/microbiolres13040072 - 9 Dec 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 5884
Abstract
Although clothes washing machines remove dirt, microorganisms are not reliably removed by modern cold-water machine-washing practices. Microbial bioburden on clothing originates from the wearer’s skin, the environment (indoor and outdoor), and the washing machine itself. While most clothing microbes are commensals, microbes causing [...] Read more.
Although clothes washing machines remove dirt, microorganisms are not reliably removed by modern cold-water machine-washing practices. Microbial bioburden on clothing originates from the wearer’s skin, the environment (indoor and outdoor), and the washing machine itself. While most clothing microbes are commensals, microbes causing odors and opportunistic pathogens may also be present. Understanding the extent of microbial transfer from washing machines to clothes may inform strategies for odor control and for mitigating the transmission of microbes through the laundering process. This study was designed to quantify and identify bacteria/fungi transferred from laundromat machines to sentinel cotton washcloths under standard cold-water conditions. Bacterial 16S rRNA and fungal ITS sequencing enabled identification of microorganisms in the washcloths following laundering. Total plate-based enumeration of viable microorganisms also was performed, using growth media appropriate for bacteria and fungi. Opportunistic human bacterial pathogens, including Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter spp., were recovered. The fungal bioburden was ~two-fold lower than the bacterial bioburden. Most sequences recovered were assigned to non-pathogenic fungi, such as those from genera Malassezia and Ascomycota. These results suggest that public washing machines represent a source of non-pathogenic and pathogenic microbial contamination of laundered garments. Full article
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10 pages, 1338 KiB  
Article
Semi-Synthetic Ecdysteroid 6-Oxime Derivatives of 20-Hydroxyecdysone Possess Anti-Cryptococcal Activity
by Bettina Szerencsés, Mónika Vörös, Kristóf Bagi, Márton B. Háznagy, Attila Hunyadi, Csaba Vágvölgyi, Ilona Pfeiffer and Máté Vágvölgyi
Microbiol. Res. 2022, 13(4), 985-994; https://doi.org/10.3390/microbiolres13040071 - 8 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1623
Abstract
Cryptococcosis, a life-threatening fungal infection, frequently occurs in patients suffering from AIDS. The treatment of the disease is hampered by the limited number of the effective drugs and the increasing resistance; therefore, to find new active substances is needed. As meningitis is the [...] Read more.
Cryptococcosis, a life-threatening fungal infection, frequently occurs in patients suffering from AIDS. The treatment of the disease is hampered by the limited number of the effective drugs and the increasing resistance; therefore, to find new active substances is needed. As meningitis is the most serious infection affecting the AIDS patients, effective drugs have to be capable of entering to the central nervous system. Ecdysteroids are natural bioactive molecules with considerable anabolic activity and without toxic side effects on humans. The aim of this work was to study the anti-cryptococcal activity of a natural ecdysteroid, 20E, and its three semi-synthetic derivatives obtained by structural modification of the original molecule. We established the minimum inhibitory concentration of the compounds with microdilution method and demonstrated their fungicidal activity by flow cytometry and cultivation of the drug-treated cells. The interaction of the compounds with each other and efflux transporter inhibitors was assessed by checkerboard titration method. Two derivatives, 20E-EOx and 20E-ZOx, inhibited the growth of Cryptococcus neoformans with minimum inhibitory concentration 2 mg/mL and 1 mg/mL, respectively; both compounds possess fungicidal effect. A combination of the ecdysteroids with each other and verapamil resulted in additive interaction. This study confirmed that structural modification of an originally non-antimicrobial molecule can enhance its effectiveness. Full article
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13 pages, 1458 KiB  
Review
Bacillus Metabolites: Compounds, Identification and Anti-Candida albicans Mechanisms
by Weichen Wang, Jin Zhao and Zhizi Zhang
Microbiol. Res. 2022, 13(4), 972-984; https://doi.org/10.3390/microbiolres13040070 - 5 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3973
Abstract
Candida albicans seriously threatens human health, especially for immunosuppressed groups. The antifungal agents mainly include azoles, polyenes and echinocandins. However, the few types of existing antifungal drugs and their resistance make it necessary to develop new antifungal drugs. Bacillus and its metabolites has [...] Read more.
Candida albicans seriously threatens human health, especially for immunosuppressed groups. The antifungal agents mainly include azoles, polyenes and echinocandins. However, the few types of existing antifungal drugs and their resistance make it necessary to develop new antifungal drugs. Bacillus and its metabolites has antifungal activity against pathogenic fungi. This review introduces the application of Bacillus metabolites in the control of C. albicans in recent years. Firstly, several compounds produced by Bacillus spp. are listed. Then the isolation and identification techniques of Bacillus metabolites in recent years are described, including high-precision separation technology and omics technology for the separation of similar components of Bacillus metabolites. The mechanisms of Bacillus metabolites against C. albicans are distinguished from the inhibition of pathogenic fungi and inhibition of the fungal virulence factors. The purpose of this review is to systematically summarize the recent studies on the inhibition of pathogenic fungi by Bacillus metabolites. The review is expected to become the reference for the control of pathogenic fungi such as C. albicans and the application of Bacillus metabolites in the future. Full article
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9 pages, 671 KiB  
Opinion
Lactobacillus crispatus M247: Characteristics of a Precision Probiotic Instrument for Gynecological and Urinary Well-Being
by Alexander Bertuccioli, Marco Cardinali, Giordano Zonzini, Massimiliano Cazzaniga and Francesco Di Pierro
Microbiol. Res. 2022, 13(4), 963-971; https://doi.org/10.3390/microbiolres13040069 - 24 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4786
Abstract
The altered patterns of a microbial population colonizing an organ are increasingly recognized as a relevant item in human disease pathogenesis. The female urogenital tract is no exception, as some vaginal microbiota patterns, named community state types (CSTs), and urinary tract microbiota patterns, [...] Read more.
The altered patterns of a microbial population colonizing an organ are increasingly recognized as a relevant item in human disease pathogenesis. The female urogenital tract is no exception, as some vaginal microbiota patterns, named community state types (CSTs), and urinary tract microbiota patterns, named urotypes (UTs), have been linked to viral, inflammatory, and gestational diseases. Treating these conditions is an issue, as antibiotic therapies alone are not always effective. Lactobacillus crispatus M247 is a strain with good intestinal and vaginal adhesion capability, combined with local antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties; this strain also has proven nontransferable resistance to antibiotics commonly used in female genital tract infections, such as metronidazole. Lactobacillus crispatus M247 could, therefore, be considered as a potential add-on therapy to antibiotics in vaginal tract infections, with the aim to restore a favorable microbiota pattern. Full article
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9 pages, 946 KiB  
Article
Frequency and Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns of Streptococcus agalactiae Strains Isolated from Women in Yaounde, Cameroon
by Cécile Ingrid Djuikoue, Paule Dana Djouela Djoulako, Rodrigue Kamga Wouambo, Rosine Yemetio Foutsa, Dorine Ekeu Ngatcheu and Teke Apalata
Microbiol. Res. 2022, 13(4), 954-962; https://doi.org/10.3390/microbiolres13040068 - 24 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3426
Abstract
Group B Streptococcus (GBS), a commensal in the body, causes a wide range of infectious diseases. This bacterium is dangerous for pregnant women and their babies, in whom it is responsible for early neonatal bacterial sepsis (EOS). The colonisation levels of GBS and [...] Read more.
Group B Streptococcus (GBS), a commensal in the body, causes a wide range of infectious diseases. This bacterium is dangerous for pregnant women and their babies, in whom it is responsible for early neonatal bacterial sepsis (EOS). The colonisation levels of GBS and its resistance profile to antibiotics provide important information that is useful for orienting prevention strategies. There are few data available on the subject on the determination of resistance phenotypes in Cameroon. We therefore aimed to determine the prevalence of colonisation and antibiotic resistance, including patterns of inducible resistance to clindamycin, of GBS in the city of Yaounde. To achieve this goal, a prospective cross-sectional study with an analytical component was carried out from 28 June to 29 August 2020 at the BIOSANTE laboratory and the Yaounde Gynaeco-Obstetrics and Paediatrics hospital. Vaginal swabs and urine were collected from 163 women. This samples were analysed using 5% defibrinated sheep blood agar and chocolate plus polyvitex agar. The isolates were identified using the morphology of the colony, Gram staining, haemolysis, catalase tests and latex grouping tests. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was carried out by disk diffusion method following the recommendations of the ACFSM 2019. The double disk diffusion method was used to identify isolates with clindamycin-inducible resistance. Our data were analysed with SPSS version 2.1. The results obtained showed that the overall prevalence of colonisation by GBS was 37% (57/163), or 40.3% in non-pregnant women and 59.7% in pregnant women. Pregnancy (p-value = 0.019) and earlier (from the second semester of pregnancy) gestational age (p-value = 0.025) constituted the risk factors of maternal colonisation by GBS. In addition, the strains of GBS were resistant to all 16 antibiotics tested. A D test showed that 64.7% of GBS strains were constitutively resistant to clindamycin. We also note the presence of M phenotypes. As a whole, our results demonstrated that the rate of GBS colonisation in this study was similar to or higher than those in previous reports in Cameroon. All these results indicate that attention should be paid to this bacterium in the monitoring of antimicrobial resistance and in the care of pregnant women and newborns. Full article
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1 pages, 487 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Uwamahoro et al. An Assessment of the Lactic Acid-Producing Potential of Bacterial Strains Isolated from Food Waste. Microbiol. Res. 2022, 13, 278–291
by Henriette Peace Uwamahoro, Fuyu Li, Arbindra Timilsina, Binbin Liu, Xinzhen Wang and Yinping Tian
Microbiol. Res. 2022, 13(4), 953; https://doi.org/10.3390/microbiolres13040067 - 22 Nov 2022
Viewed by 955
Abstract
The authors wish to make the following correction to this paper [...] Full article
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16 pages, 695 KiB  
Article
Omicron BA.2.75 Sublineage (Centaurus) Follows the Expectations of the Evolution Theory: Less Negative Gibbs Energy of Biosynthesis Indicates Decreased Pathogenicity
by Marko Popovic
Microbiol. Res. 2022, 13(4), 937-952; https://doi.org/10.3390/microbiolres13040066 - 14 Nov 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1616
Abstract
SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the group of RNA viruses with a pronounced tendency to mutate. Omicron BA.2.75 is a subvariant believed to be able to suppress the currently dominant BA.5 and cause a new winter wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Omicron BA.2.75 is characterized [...] Read more.
SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the group of RNA viruses with a pronounced tendency to mutate. Omicron BA.2.75 is a subvariant believed to be able to suppress the currently dominant BA.5 and cause a new winter wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Omicron BA.2.75 is characterized by a greater infectivity compared to earlier Omicron variants. However, the Gibbs energy of the biosynthesis of virus particles is slightly less negative compared to those of other variants. Thus, the multiplication rate of Omicron BA.2.75 is lower than that of other SARS-CoV-2 variants. This leads to slower accumulation of newly formed virions and less damage to host cells, indicating evolution of SARS-CoV-2 toward decreasing pathogenicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Host–Parasite Interactions)
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9 pages, 596 KiB  
Article
Different Patterns of Virulence Genes in Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus Originating from Estonian Toddlers—Mothers Cohort
by Greete Maasi, Jelena Štšepetova, Merike Jõesaar, Jana Olak and Reet Mändar
Microbiol. Res. 2022, 13(4), 928-936; https://doi.org/10.3390/microbiolres13040065 - 8 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2045
Abstract
Aims: Mutans streptococci include Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus, which can cause tooth decay. The current study aimed to compare their virulence genes with each other and to correlate them with the clinical data of patients. Materials and methods: Altogether 21 S. mutans [...] Read more.
Aims: Mutans streptococci include Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus, which can cause tooth decay. The current study aimed to compare their virulence genes with each other and to correlate them with the clinical data of patients. Materials and methods: Altogether 21 S. mutans and 19 S. sobrinus strains were investigated, originating from 24 children (age 2.7 ± 0.4 years) and 13 mothers (27.3 ± 3.7). The PCR method was applied to detect 11 virulence genes. Caries indices (dmf, decayed/missing/filled; DMFT, decayed/missing/filled teeth) and SM score (Mutans streptococci amount in saliva) were recorded. Results: Most of the S. mutans strains harbored all the virulence genes studied, while S. sobrinus had significantly fewer genes. The genes gbpA, gbpB, wapA and ftf were present in all isolates of S. sobrinus, the spaP, gtfB, vicR, SMU.1037c and SMU.105 genes were present in 41–88% of the isolates, while gtfD and SMU.104 genes were absent in S. sobrinus strains studied. A positive correlation appeared between the biofilm-related vicR and polysaccharide-production-related gtfD genes. In contrast, another polysaccharide-production-related gtfB gene was present in some cases in strains lacking the vicR or gtfD gene. Positive association was found between the presence of adhesion-related spaP gene in pediatric-derived S. sobrinus strains and an increase in SM score. Conclusions: Differences exist between the two common species of mutans streptococci: strains of S. mutans have more virulence genes than that of S. sobrinus, both crucial and virulence enhancing. Deeper research is needed to clarify the mechanisms behind the increased cariogenicity in cohabitation. Full article
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19 pages, 2492 KiB  
Article
The Morphological and Functional Properties of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum B411 Subjected to Acid, Bile and Heat Multi-Stress Adaptation Process and Subsequent Long-Term Freezing
by Thobeka N. Dlangalala, Moloko G. Mathipa-Mdakane and Mapitsi S. Thantsha
Microbiol. Res. 2022, 13(4), 909-927; https://doi.org/10.3390/microbiolres13040064 - 7 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1640
Abstract
The preadaptation of probiotics to sub-lethal levels of multiple stress factors boosts their survival and stability. However, little is known about how long-term cold storage affects the properties of such preadapted probiotics. This study examined the impact of long-term freezing on structural and [...] Read more.
The preadaptation of probiotics to sub-lethal levels of multiple stress factors boosts their survival and stability. However, little is known about how long-term cold storage affects the properties of such preadapted probiotics. This study examined the impact of long-term freezing on structural and functional properties of multi-stress (acid, bile and heat) adapted Lactiplantibacillus plantarum B411. Cell morphology was investigated using scanning electron microscopy, and then their selected functional (bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity, surface hydrophobicity, auto-aggregative and antimicrobial) properties were evaluated. Furthermore, the survival of L. plantarum B411 cells in yoghurt and juices during storage and under simulated gastrointestinal (GIT) conditions was evaluated. Long-term freezing negatively affected the morphology, auto-aggregation ability, BSH and antimicrobial activities of L. plantarum B411. The viability of freshly adapted and old adapted L. plantarum B411 cells in foods was similar. Under simulated GIT conditions, the viability of the stress adapted cells from the freezer diminished more than that of freshly adapted cells. Prolonged freezing compromised some functional properties of stress adapted cells and their stability under simulated GIT conditions. Care should thus be taken to ensure that a method used to preserve stress adapted cells does not cause them to lose beneficial properties, nor revert to their pre-adaptation status. Full article
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11 pages, 1113 KiB  
Article
Thrombolytic Potential of Micromycetes from the Genus Tolypocladium, Obtained from White Sea Soils: Screening of Producers and Exoproteinases Properties
by N. S. Fokichev, L. Yu. Kokaeva, E. A. Popova, A. V. Kurakov and A. A. Osmolovskiy
Microbiol. Res. 2022, 13(4), 898-908; https://doi.org/10.3390/microbiolres13040063 - 7 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1508
Abstract
Thrombotherapy is an important approach in treatment of various diseases associated with pathologies of the cardiovascular and human hemostasis systems. Screening for producers of modern, specific, and safe thrombolytic substances is an important task for medicine and biotechnology. The aim of this study [...] Read more.
Thrombotherapy is an important approach in treatment of various diseases associated with pathologies of the cardiovascular and human hemostasis systems. Screening for producers of modern, specific, and safe thrombolytic substances is an important task for medicine and biotechnology. The aim of this study was to characterize thrombolytic potential of seven strains of micromycete belonging to the genus Tolypocladium, which was obtained from White Sea soils. The Tolypocladium inflatum 62a strain was considered the most promising producer of thrombolytic agent activities suitable for possible use in thrombotherapy or diagnostics of hemostasis pathologies. It demonstrated a high radial growth rate and was characterized not only by a sufficiently high value of enzymatic index in media with fibrin and fibrinogen but also by the highest specificity for fibrillar proteins among all strains. The preparation obtained from it demonstrated pronounced thrombolytic effectiveness and substrate specificity. Full article
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16 pages, 9799 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Virulence and Inflammatory Markers Elicited by Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli Isolated from Clinical and Non-Clinical Sources in an Experimental Infection Model, India
by Vinay Modgil, Chandradeo Narayan, Harpreet Kaur, Vivek Kumar Yadav, Naveen Chaudhary, Vishal Kant, Balvinder Mohan, Alka Bhatia and Neelam Taneja
Microbiol. Res. 2022, 13(4), 882-897; https://doi.org/10.3390/microbiolres13040062 - 4 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1849
Abstract
Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is highly heterogeneous in virulence; we wanted to understand the pathogenic potential of EAEC isolated from various clinical and non-clinical sources in an animal model. We infected male BALB/c mice in six mice/groups with 50 EAEC isolates isolated from [...] Read more.
Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is highly heterogeneous in virulence; we wanted to understand the pathogenic potential of EAEC isolated from various clinical and non-clinical sources in an animal model. We infected male BALB/c mice in six mice/groups with 50 EAEC isolates isolated from clinical and non-clinical sources. We studied colonization, weight loss, stool shedding, and inflammatory markers and their relationship with 21 virulence genes and phylogroups, EAEC organ burden, and histopathological changes. We detected significantly more inflammatory changes and fecal lactoferrin and calprotectin levels in mice infected with EAEC isolated from symptomatic cases. In clinical EAEC isolates, the presence of chromosomal genes (aap (46%), aaiC (23.3%), SPATEs (pet (13.3%), sat (20%), sigA, and pic (6.6%)), the adhesive variantsof EAEC (agg4A (53.3%), aggA (53.3%), aafA (36.6%), andagg3A (40%)), and the master regulator gene aggR (66.6%) were associated with higher levels of lactoferrin and calprotectin. Additionally, 70% (9/13) of EAEC isolated from acute diarrheal cases bearing chuA (70%) in our study were assigned to groups B2 (4 isolates) and D (5 isolates). Real-time PCR analysis revealed that colonization by EAEC strains from different clinical and non-clinical sources occurs up to 10–15 days of life. Even from non-diarrheal stools and non-clinical sources, EAEC strainshad the potential to cause prolonged colonization, weight loss, and inflammation in the intestine, though the degree varied. Moreover, a better understanding of EAEC pathogenic pathways is desperately needed in different clinical scenarios. Full article
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10 pages, 283 KiB  
Article
Screening for Escherichia coli in Chopping Board Meat Samples and Survey for Sanitary and Hygienic Practices in Retail Meat Shops of Bharatpur Metropolitan City, Nepal
by Sagar Regmi, Prem Lal Mahato, Sachin Upadhayaya, Hari Marasini, Raju Prasad Neupane, Janashrit Shrestha, Rebanta Kumar Bhattarai and Santosh Dhakal
Microbiol. Res. 2022, 13(4), 872-881; https://doi.org/10.3390/microbiolres13040061 - 28 Oct 2022
Viewed by 2420
Abstract
In this study, chopping board meat samples collected from meat shops of Bharatpur Metropolitan City, Nepal, were screened for the presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli), with a special emphasis on the identification of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing strains. Representatives from the [...] Read more.
In this study, chopping board meat samples collected from meat shops of Bharatpur Metropolitan City, Nepal, were screened for the presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli), with a special emphasis on the identification of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing strains. Representatives from the meat shops were also interviewed to understand the sanitary status and hygienic practices. E. coli bacteria were detected in one third (33/99) of the meat samples, while none of the samples had ESBL-producing strains. While 60.6% (60/99) of the meat shop personnel wore protective clothing, 15.15% (15/99) used gloves, and only 5.05% (5/99) had separate equipment for cleaning the viscera of animals. This study highlights the need for the regular screening of meat samples to identify pathogenic bacteria such as E. coli and for improvements in the sanitary status and hygienic practices of retail meat shops in Bharatpur Metropolitan City, Nepal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Public Health and Quality Aspects Related to Animal Productions)
0 pages, 4565 KiB  
Review
Heat Inactivation of Influenza Viruses—Analysis of Published Data and Estimations for Required Decimal Reduction Times for Different Temperatures and Media
by Martin Hessling, Nicole Fehler, Anna-Maria Gierke, Ben Sicks and Petra Vatter
Microbiol. Res. 2022, 13(4), 853-871; https://doi.org/10.3390/microbiolres13040060 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 8461
Abstract
(1) Background: Influenza is a viral infection that has claimed many millions of lives over the past 100 years, and there is always a risk that a new influenza virus will emerge and cause another pandemic. One way to reduce such a potential [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Influenza is a viral infection that has claimed many millions of lives over the past 100 years, and there is always a risk that a new influenza virus will emerge and cause another pandemic. One way to reduce such a potential new influenza virus will be heat inactivation. The question in this study is how much the heat sensitivities of previous influenza viruses differ. If they are very similar, it is expected that a new influenza virus can be inactivated with the same heat parameters as previous influenza viruses. (2) Methods: Through a literature search, published heat inactivation results are compiled and analyzed using Arrhenius models and regression equations for decimal reduction times for different temperatures and media determined. (3) Results: There are about 50 studies on heat inactivation of human and avian influenza viruses so far, showing large differences in heat sensitivity of influenza viruses in different media. However, within a single medium the differences between viruses are rather small. (4) Conclusions: At a temperature of 60 °C, previous influenza viruses can be reduced by 4 or more orders of magnitude within approximately 30 min in almost all media, and this is likely to be true for a potential new influenza virus. Further studies, especially on human influenza viruses, would be desirable. Full article
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17 pages, 641 KiB  
Review
Cutaneous/Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis Treatment for Wound Healing: Classical versus New Treatment Approaches
by Patrícia Severino, Wanessa Santana, Erika S. Lisboa, Victoria L. S. dos Santos, Erica T. dos Santos Lima, Juliana C. Cardoso, Ricardo L. C. de Albuquerque-Junior, Beatriz C. Naveros, Antonello Santini, Eliana B. Souto and Sona Jain
Microbiol. Res. 2022, 13(4), 836-852; https://doi.org/10.3390/microbiolres13040059 - 17 Oct 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4962
Abstract
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (ML) show clinical spectra that can range from a localized lesion (with a spontaneous healing process) to cases that progress to a generalized systemic disease with a risk of death. The treatment of leishmaniasis is complex since [...] Read more.
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (ML) show clinical spectra that can range from a localized lesion (with a spontaneous healing process) to cases that progress to a generalized systemic disease with a risk of death. The treatment of leishmaniasis is complex since most of the available drugs show high toxicity. The development of an effective topical drug formulation for CL and ML treatment offers advantages as it will improve patient’s compliance to the therapy given the possibility for self-administration, as well as overcoming the first pass metabolism and the high costs of currently available alternatives. The most common dosage forms include solid formulations, such as membranes and semi-solid formulations (e.g., ointments, creams, gels, and pastes). Topical treatment has been used as a new route of administration for conventional drugs against leishmaniasis and its combinations, as well as to exploit new substances. In this review, we discuss the advantages and limitations of using topical drug delivery for the treatment of these two forms of leishmaniasis and the relevance of combining this approach with other pharmaceutical dosage forms. Emphasis will also be given to the use of nanomaterials for site-specific delivery. Full article
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11 pages, 462 KiB  
Article
Escherichia coli Isolated from Vegans, Vegetarians and Omnivores: Antibiotic Resistance, Virulence Factors, Pathogenicity Islands and Phylogenetic Classification
by Ariane Tiemy Tizura, João Gabriel Material Soncini, Vanessa Lumi Koga, Renata Katsuko Takayama Kobayashi, Zuleica Naomi Tano and Eliana Carolina Vespero
Microbiol. Res. 2022, 13(4), 825-835; https://doi.org/10.3390/microbiolres13040058 - 14 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2104
Abstract
Pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli have acquired virulence factors, which confer an increased ability to cause a broad spectrum of enteric diseases and extraintestinal infections. The aim of this study was to analyze the antimicrobial resistance profile of and the presence of virulence-associated [...] Read more.
Pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli have acquired virulence factors, which confer an increased ability to cause a broad spectrum of enteric diseases and extraintestinal infections. The aim of this study was to analyze the antimicrobial resistance profile of and the presence of virulence-associated genes (VAGs) in E. coli fecal isolates from omnivores, vegetarians and vegans. A control group of 60 isolates from omnivores, as well as a study group with 41 isolates from vegetarians and 17 from vegans, were analyzed. Isolates from both groups showed a high rate of resistance to ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and nalidixic acid, and some of them were positive for the ESBL test (12% of isolates from vegetarians/vegans and 5% of isolates from omnivores). The most predominant VAGs detected in isolates from omnivores were fimH (70%), iutA (32%), fyuA (32%) and traT (32%), while among isolates from vegetarians or vegans, the most predominant were traT (62%), kpsMT k1 (28%) and iutA (22%). Most isolates from omnivores (55%) were positive for PAI I536, while most of those from vegetarians/vegans (59%) were positive for PAI IV536. Phylogenetic group A, composed of commensal non-pathogenic isolates that survive in the intestinal tract, was the most prevalent in both control and study groups. Some VAGs were found in only one of the groups, such as the pathogenicity island PAI III536, found in 12% of the isolates from omnivores, while the kpsMT III gene (15%) was detected only among isolates from vegetarians/vegans. Interestingly, this gene codes for a polysaccharide capsule found mainly in E. coli isolates causing intestinal infections, including EPEC, ETEC and EHEC. Finally, our results show that there were no advantages in vegetarian or vegan diets compared to the omnivorous diet, as in both groups we detected isolates harboring VAGs and displaying resistance to antibiotics, especially those most commonly used to treat urinary tract infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zoonotic Bacteria: Infection, Pathogenesis and Drugs)
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16 pages, 3148 KiB  
Article
Microbiota Modulation in Blueberry Rhizosphere by Biocontrol Bacteria
by Sara Rodriguez-Mena, María Camacho, Berta de los Santos, Luis Miranda and Miguel Camacho-Sanchez
Microbiol. Res. 2022, 13(4), 809-824; https://doi.org/10.3390/microbiolres13040057 - 12 Oct 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2281
Abstract
Microbial interactions in agricultural soils can play important roles in the control of soil-borne phytopathogenic diseases. Yields from blueberry plantations from southern Spain have been impacted by the pathogenic fungus, Macrophomina phaseolina. The use of chemical fungicides has been the common method [...] Read more.
Microbial interactions in agricultural soils can play important roles in the control of soil-borne phytopathogenic diseases. Yields from blueberry plantations from southern Spain have been impacted by the pathogenic fungus, Macrophomina phaseolina. The use of chemical fungicides has been the common method for preventing fungal infections, but due to their high environmental impact, legislation is increasingly restricting its use. Biocontrol alternatives based on the use of microorganisms is becoming increasingly important. Using the metabarcoding technique, fungi and bacteria were characterized (via 16S and ITS regions, respectively) from rhizosphere soils of healthy and dead blueberry plants infected by M. phaseolina, and which had undergone three different treatments: two biocontrol strategies—one of them a mix of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus velezensis and the other one with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens—and a third treatment consisting of the application of a nutrient solution. The treatments produced changes in the bacterial microbiota and, to a lesser extent, in the fungi. The abundance of Fusarium was correlated with dead plants, likely favoring the infection by M. phaseolina. The presence of other microorganisms in the soil, such as the fungi Archaeorhizomyces or the bacteria Actinospica, were correlated with healthy plants and could promote their survival. The different genera detected between dead and healthy plants opens the possibility of studying new targets that can act against infection and identify potential microorganisms that can be used in biocontrol strategies. Full article
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21 pages, 1844 KiB  
Article
Viral and Host Small RNA Response to SARS-CoV-2 Infection
by Guihua Sun, Qi Cui, Gustavo Garcia, Jr., Elizabeth M. Lizhar, Vaithilingaraja Arumugaswami, Yanhong Shi and Arthur D. Riggs
Microbiol. Res. 2022, 13(4), 788-808; https://doi.org/10.3390/microbiolres13040056 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2230
Abstract
After two years into the pandemic of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), it remains unclear how the host RNA interference (RNAi) pathway and host miRNAs regulate severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and impact the development of COVID-19. In this study, [...] Read more.
After two years into the pandemic of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), it remains unclear how the host RNA interference (RNAi) pathway and host miRNAs regulate severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and impact the development of COVID-19. In this study, we profiled small RNAs in SARS-CoV-2-infected human ACE2-expressing HEK293T cells and observed dysregulated host small RNA groups, including specific host miRNAs that are altered in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. By comparing dysregulated miRNAs in different SARS-CoV-2-infected samples, we identified miRNA-210-3p, miRNA-30-5p, and miR-146a/b as key host miRNAs that may be involved in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Furthermore, by comparing virally derived small RNAs (vsmRNAs) in different SARS-CoV-2-infected samples, we observed multiple hot spots in the viral genome that are prone to generating vsmRNAs, and their biogenesis can be dependent on the antiviral isoform of Dicer. Moreover, we investigated the biogenesis of a recently identified SARS-CoV-2 viral miRNA encoded by ORF7a and found that it is differentially expressed in different infected cell lines or in the same cell line with different viral doses. Our results demonstrate the involvement of both host small RNAs and vsmRNAs in SARS-CoV-2 infection and identify these small RNAs as potential targets for anti-COVID-19 therapeutic development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Host–Parasite Interactions)
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23 pages, 3800 KiB  
Article
Survey of Fungal Foliar and Panicle Diseases in Smallholder Sorghum Cropping Systems in Different Agro-Ecologies of Lower Eastern Kenya
by Irene Njeri Koima, Dora Chao Kilalo, Charles O. Orek, John Maina Wagacha and Evans N. Nyaboga
Microbiol. Res. 2022, 13(4), 765-787; https://doi.org/10.3390/microbiolres13040055 - 7 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2576
Abstract
Sorghum is a staple food crop and plays a critical role in subsistence farming in Kenya due to its adaptability to marginal agro-ecological zones. However, fungal diseases are among the major biotic constraints of sorghum production, causing over 70% yield loss in susceptible [...] Read more.
Sorghum is a staple food crop and plays a critical role in subsistence farming in Kenya due to its adaptability to marginal agro-ecological zones. However, fungal diseases are among the major biotic constraints of sorghum production, causing over 70% yield loss in susceptible cultivars. Information on the distribution and severity of fungal diseases is important to establish efficient and improved strategies for integrated disease management of sorghum fungal diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, incidence, severity and spatial distribution of fungal diseases on sorghum across agro-ecological zones of lower eastern Kenya. A total of 384 smallholder farmers’ fields were surveyed, and in each field, 30 plants were assessed for prevalence and incidence of fungal diseases using a W-shaped pattern to cover the whole field. Sorghum anthracnose was the most prevalent disease (71%), followed by leaf blight (70.18%), rust (68.41%), smut (63.02%), sorghum mildew (55.33%), Alternaria leaf spot (48.39%) and rough leaf spot (46.02%). Disease prevalence, incidence and severity varied among the investigated agro-ecological zones. There was a significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) in fungal disease severity across the investigated agro-ecological zones. Spatially interpolated disease maps showed a high variation in the distribution of various sorghum fungal diseases across the investigated agro-ecological zones of lower eastern Kenya. Morpho-cultural identification revealed the association of Colletotrichum sublineola with anthracnose, Curvularia lunata and Bipolaris cynodontis with leaf blight, Puccinia purpurea with rust, Peronosclerospora sorghi with downy mildew, Alternaria alternata with Alternaria leaf spot, Ascochyta sorghi with rough leaf spot and Sporisorium sorghi with covered kernel smut symptoms. Information obtained in this study will be useful to update knowledge on sorghum fungal diseases and provide a basis for the development of strategies for management and control of the investigated diseases. Full article
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12 pages, 542 KiB  
Article
The Molecular Characterization of Nosocomial Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Co-Harboring blaNDM and blaOXA-48 in Jeddah
by Wafaa Alhazmi, Ahmed Al-Jabri and Ibrahim Al-Zahrani
Microbiol. Res. 2022, 13(4), 753-764; https://doi.org/10.3390/microbiolres13040054 - 6 Oct 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2261
Abstract
Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP)-associated infections have become a major concern and life-threatening worldwide. Understanding the epidemiology of CRKP using a reliable molecular technology can help to develop an effective infection control policies. In the western region of Saudi Arabia, there are no sufficient [...] Read more.
Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP)-associated infections have become a major concern and life-threatening worldwide. Understanding the epidemiology of CRKP using a reliable molecular technology can help to develop an effective infection control policies. In the western region of Saudi Arabia, there are no sufficient data on the prevalence of CRKP and its carbapenem-resistant determinants. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the molecular epidemiology of CRKP and identify the most common carbapenemase genes. In the current study, a total of 191 CRKP isolates were collected and obtained from clinical specimens of patients at King Fahad Armed Forces Hospital (KFAFH), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. All isolates that were resistant or intermediately susceptible to either of the carbapenem antimicrobials (imipenem, meropenem, or ertapenem) were included. All CRKP showed resistance to ceftazidime, cefepime, and piperacillin/tazobactam, whereas low (14%) and moderate (37.7%) levels of resistance were reported against tigecycline and colistin, respectively. The most common carbapenemase genes identified were blaOXA-48 (n = 157 [82.2%]), followed by blaNDM in 27 (14%) isolates. The blaVIM and blaKPC were reported in only one isolate each and no blaIMP producers were detected among all tested isolates. The high prevalence of OXA-48 among K. pneumoniae isolates reported in the current study may reflect that OXA-48 has become an endemic in Saudi Arabian hospitals. The second major finding was that the identification of CRKP co-harbors both blaNDM and blaOXA-48, and such isolates can be threating for healthcare societies (patients and healthcare workers) due to their high level of resistance to carbapenems. These results suggest that the use of molecular diagnostic methods and proper surveillance programs are required to monitor and control the spread of all multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria, including CRKP. Therefore, further research is recommended to expand the study and further analyze the genotyping of the most common clones of CRKP in other hospitals in the western regions of Saudi Arabia. Full article
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13 pages, 1081 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Potable Water, Lactic and Acetic Acids on the Microbiology of Wound Areas on Impala (Aepyceros melampus) Carcasses
by Davies Veli Nkosi, Johan Leon Bekker, Pieter Andries Gouws and Louwrens Christiaan Hoffman
Microbiol. Res. 2022, 13(4), 740-752; https://doi.org/10.3390/microbiolres13040053 - 5 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1785
Abstract
Meat contamination by microorganisms could occur during numerous processes linked to game meat animal slaughter. These contaminants could pose a risk to product quality and consumer health. Contamination often occurs around the wound caused by shooting. Animal slaughter plants are given a responsibility [...] Read more.
Meat contamination by microorganisms could occur during numerous processes linked to game meat animal slaughter. These contaminants could pose a risk to product quality and consumer health. Contamination often occurs around the wound caused by shooting. Animal slaughter plants are given a responsibility to identify, evaluate and control the occurrence of hazards in their processing plant. To improve this control plan, the effectiveness of lactic (LA) and acetic acids (AA) for reducing the microbiological load directly around the wound was investigated. After killing by means of an aerial (helicopter) shotgun (n = 12) firing lead pellets and land-based rifle bullet shots (n = 36), samples of the flesh directly around the wounds of impala (Aepyceros melampus) were taken immediately after dressing (AD) before any treatment was conducted. Thereafter, at the step where carcasses are typically washed with potable water, the flesh directly around the wound was subjected to a wash with either ≈5 mL potable water (T1), 5% LA solution (T2) or 5% AA solution (T3) and then chilled overnight. Samples of the flesh directly around the wounds were also taken after chilling (AC). The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness of each organic acid in reducing the microbiological load (total plate count; E. coli; coliforms and Salmonella) present in the flesh directly around the wounds of impala carcasses. The study found that shotgun pellets caused less body damage with fewer microorganisms recorded compared to samples from rifle-killed carcasses. LA reduced the occurrence of Salmonella during slaughter. The results of the other microorganisms revealed inconclusive outcomes on whether the application of water, 5% LA or 5% AA was effective in the reduction of the microbial organisms on the flesh directly around the wounds. Full article
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19 pages, 3480 KiB  
Article
Xanthine Analogs Suppress Trypanosoma cruzi Infection In Vitro Using PDEs as Targets
by Amita R. Banga, Konjeti R. Sekhar, Kayla J. Rayford, Ashutosh Arun, Peace Odiase, Amar P. Garg, Maria F. Lima, Pius N. Nde, Fernando Villalta and Girish Rachakonda
Microbiol. Res. 2022, 13(4), 721-739; https://doi.org/10.3390/microbiolres13040052 - 30 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1774
Abstract
Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), the causative agent of Chagas disease, has infected 6 million people, putting 70 million people at risk worldwide. Presently, very limited drugs are available, and these have severe side effects. Hence, there is an urgency to delve [...] Read more.
Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), the causative agent of Chagas disease, has infected 6 million people, putting 70 million people at risk worldwide. Presently, very limited drugs are available, and these have severe side effects. Hence, there is an urgency to delve into other pathways and targets for novel drugs. Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) expresses a number of different cyclic AMP (cAMP)-specific phosphodiesterases (PDEs). cAMP is one of the key regulators of mammalian cell proliferation and differentiation, and it also plays an important role in T. cruzi growth. Very few studies have demonstrated the important role of cyclic nucleotide-specific PDEs in T. cruzi’s survival. T. cruzi phosphodiesterase C (TcrPDEC) has been proposed as a potential new drug target for treating Chagas disease. In the current study, we screen several analogs of xanthine for potency against trypomastigote and amastigote growth in vitro using three different strains of T. cruzi (Tulahuen, Y and CA-1/CL72). One of the potent analogs, GVK14, has been shown to inhibit all three strains of amastigotes in host cells as well as axenic cultures. In conclusion, xanthine analogs that inhibit T. cruzi PDE may provide novel alternative therapeutic options for Chagas disease. Full article
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15 pages, 933 KiB  
Article
Effects of Prolonged Storage Condition on the Physicochemical and Microbiological Quality of Sachet Water and Its Health Implications: A Case Study of Selected Water Brands Sold within Samaru Community, Northwest Nigeria
by Taiwo Adekanmi Adesakin, Abayomi Tolulope Oyewale, Ndagi Abubakar Mohammed, Umar Bayero, Adebukola Adenike Adedeji, Idowu Adedeji Aduwo, Adetolani Christianah Bolade and Maryam Adam
Microbiol. Res. 2022, 13(4), 706-720; https://doi.org/10.3390/microbiolres13040051 - 29 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2556
Abstract
The aim of this research is to investigate the effect of long-term storage conditions on the physicochemical and microbial quality of selected sachet water brands sold within the Samaru community and its health implication for consumers. Three brands of sachet water were subjected [...] Read more.
The aim of this research is to investigate the effect of long-term storage conditions on the physicochemical and microbial quality of selected sachet water brands sold within the Samaru community and its health implication for consumers. Three brands of sachet water were subjected to different storage conditions and were analyzed for microbial and physicochemical parameters at intervals of 3 weeks for a period of 3 months, based on procedures and standard methods of APHA (2005). The highest pH means concentration was recorded in sachet water samples used for control (7.14 ± 0.24) while EC, TDS, BOD, and calcium (336.67 ± 73.69 µS/cm, 168.33 ± 34.89 mg/L, 1.87 ± 0.39 mg/L and 2.97 ± 0.19 mg/L) were recorded in the sachet water samples stored on the floor. A total number of 15 fungal species and 4 bacteria species were identified from the three selected brands of sachet water examined. Aspergillus niger and Penicillium spp. have the highest species occurrence of 25% among the fungus identified while Proteus Sp. recorded the highest species occurrence (50%) among the bacteria isolated. Sachet water samples stored on the floor have the highest abundances of microbial species of five and six. All the physicochemical parameters were within the stipulated limits set by the World Health Organization and the Nigeria Standard for Drinking Water Quality, but fail microbial tests due to the presence of pathogens such as Aspergillus, Candida, Vibro, Yersinia, etc., that can cause a wide range of life-threatening system infections in a patient with mild immune-deficiency. Being under prolonged storage and the type of storage conditions can encourage the regrowth of microbial in packaged water under favorable environmental conditions, to levels that may be harmful to humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Functionality towards Environmental Pollution)
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15 pages, 344 KiB  
Review
Salmonella spp. in Chicken: Prevalence, Antimicrobial Resistance, and Detection Methods
by Si Jie Tan, Syamilah Nordin, Effarizah Mohd Esah and Norlia Mahror
Microbiol. Res. 2022, 13(4), 691-705; https://doi.org/10.3390/microbiolres13040050 - 26 Sep 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 6710
Abstract
Multidrug-resistant Salmonella spp. is one of the leading causes of worldwide foodborne disease outbreaks. Animal-derived foods, particularly chicken and poultry products, are the most likely source of Salmonella transmission to humans. The increasing demand for chicken meat has raised a global food safety [...] Read more.
Multidrug-resistant Salmonella spp. is one of the leading causes of worldwide foodborne disease outbreaks. Animal-derived foods, particularly chicken and poultry products, are the most likely source of Salmonella transmission to humans. The increasing demand for chicken meat has raised a global food safety issue. This review aims to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. in chickens from various countries in Asia. The methods for detecting Salmonella will also be discussed in this review. The prevalence of Salmonella spp. in chicken and poultry products is lower in developed countries than in developing countries. In addition, the incidence of Salmonella spp. in chicken and poultry products from fresh markets is higher than those from supermarkets. Furthermore, this review also reported the presence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella strains in various Asian countries. Rapid Salmonella detection based on immunological assays, molecular-based assays, and biosensors can provide more accurate results with high sensitivity and specificity. These methods also require a shorter time than the cultural-based Salmonella detection method. The use of suitable detection methods to determine the presence of Salmonella spp. in chicken and poultry products is important to ensure food safety. Full article
10 pages, 1464 KiB  
Article
The Spatial-Temporal Distribution of Chronic Lymphatic Filariasis in Indonesia: A 18-Year Registry-Based Analysis
by Dewi Nur Aisyah, Zisis Kozlakidis, Haniena Diva, Siti Nadia Trimizi, Lita Renata Sianipar, Eksi Wijayanti, Ajie Mulia Avicena and Wiku Adisasmito
Microbiol. Res. 2022, 13(4), 681-690; https://doi.org/10.3390/microbiolres13040049 - 25 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2565
Abstract
Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a vector-borne disease caused by parasitic helminths and constitutes a serious public health issue in tropical regions. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), infected cases in Southeast Asia constitute 50% of the estimated 120 million infections globally. In [...] Read more.
Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a vector-borne disease caused by parasitic helminths and constitutes a serious public health issue in tropical regions. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), infected cases in Southeast Asia constitute 50% of the estimated 120 million infections globally. In Indonesia, LF is caused by all filarial species, and in 2018, 236 districts of a total of 514 districts in the entire country were declared as endemic areas. The global program to eliminate filariasis has been running for the last 19 years and has been conducted as a full national initiative for the last eight years in Indonesia. The study describes the surveillance of LF cases and prevalence in Indonesia for the past 17 years (2001–2017)—during the global and national LF elimination programs—using national registry-based data. The data demonstrate that the national program has been largely effective in the areas it has been active the longest, while there are provinces lagging behind in the successful suppression of LF. The high geographical fragmentation of the country, with the associated ecological parameters relating to LF incidence, likely play an important role in maintaining the highly varied incidence rate across Indonesia. Full article
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