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World Electr. Veh. J., Volume 10, Issue 4 (December 2019) – 34 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) A highly integrated electric drivetrain module is presented which incorporates novel technologies [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
New Operating Strategies for an On-the-Road Modular, Electric and Autonomous Vehicle Concept in Urban Transportation
World Electr. Veh. J. 2019, 10(4), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj10040091 - 13 Dec 2019
Viewed by 720
Abstract
Today commercial transport in urban areas faces major challenges. These include making optimal use of limited space, avoiding empty trips, meeting driver shortages as well as reducing costs and emissions such as CO2, particulate matter and noise. The mutual acceleration and [...] Read more.
Today commercial transport in urban areas faces major challenges. These include making optimal use of limited space, avoiding empty trips, meeting driver shortages as well as reducing costs and emissions such as CO2, particulate matter and noise. The mutual acceleration and reinforcement of technological trends such as electrification, digitization and automation may enable new vehicle and mobility concepts that can meet these challenges. One possible vehicle concept is presented in this article. It is based on on-the-road modularization, i.e., a vehicle that can change different transport capsules during operation. The vehicle is divided into an electrically propelled autonomous drive unit and a transport unit. Standardized interfaces between these units enable the easy design of capsules for different uses, while the drive unit can be used universally. Business models and operating strategies that allow optimal use of this vehicle concept are discussed in depth in the article. First, the current situation is analyzed followed by a detailed description of an exemplary business model using a business model canvas. The operating strategies and logistics concepts are illustrated and compared with conventional concepts. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
How to Improve the Total Cost of Ownership of Electric Vehicles: An Analysis of the Light Commercial Vehicle Segment
World Electr. Veh. J. 2019, 10(4), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj10040090 - 13 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1059
Abstract
This paper analyses how the total cost of ownership (TCO) of electric light commercial vehicles change with the number of kilometers driven, the period of ownership, the residual value of the battery, and different fiscal incentives, as well as a kilometer charging scheme. [...] Read more.
This paper analyses how the total cost of ownership (TCO) of electric light commercial vehicles change with the number of kilometers driven, the period of ownership, the residual value of the battery, and different fiscal incentives, as well as a kilometer charging scheme. This paper demonstrates that a kilometer-based charge and reduced fiscal incentives for conventional vans can drastically improve the TCO of electric commercial light duty vehicles. Second life applications for batteries could also have a strong impact on the TCO of electric vans as they could retrieve a better residual value. Finally, the paper shows that the TCO of electric vans can be optimized based on its usage. These are important findings given the ambitious objective of carbon free city logistics by 2030. Adoption of electric vans remains very low and this paper offers an up to date analysis to stimulate the electrification of light commercial vehicles, a segment that is growing fast in city logistics. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Innovative and Highly Integrated Modular Electric Drivetrain
World Electr. Veh. J. 2019, 10(4), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj10040089 - 11 Dec 2019
Viewed by 1444
Abstract
A highly integrated electric drivetrain module with 157 kW peak power is presented, which incorporates novel technologies in the field of electric machines, power electronics and transmissions: 1. High-speed electric machine with six phases and injection mould polymer-bonded magnets; 2. High-ratio dual-speed transmission [...] Read more.
A highly integrated electric drivetrain module with 157 kW peak power is presented, which incorporates novel technologies in the field of electric machines, power electronics and transmissions: 1. High-speed electric machine with six phases and injection mould polymer-bonded magnets; 2. High-ratio dual-speed transmission with double planetary gear set (Ravigneaux gear set); 3. Gallium nitride (GaN) power electronics with winding reconfiguration feature.The combination of these components in one single housing makes the drive module flexible to integrate and to combine with conventional or alternative propulsion technologies, thus allowing various hybrid and electric drivetrain topologies. All technologies are selected in accordance with mass production potential and can therefore have a high impact on the automotive market in the future. Currently, the drive module is under development; the first models will be assembled in winter 2019. The integration into a demonstrator vehicle in 2020 will prove the potential of many new technologies and the suitability for the automotive market. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Electric Vehicle Charging on Low Voltage Grids with Characteristics Typical for Germany
World Electr. Veh. J. 2019, 10(4), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj10040088 - 10 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 915
Abstract
The increasing number of electric vehicles poses new challenges to the power grid. Their charging process stresses the power system, as additional energy has to be supplied, especially during peak load periods. This additional load can result in critical network situations depending on [...] Read more.
The increasing number of electric vehicles poses new challenges to the power grid. Their charging process stresses the power system, as additional energy has to be supplied, especially during peak load periods. This additional load can result in critical network situations depending on various parameters. These impacts may vary based on market penetration, the energy demand, the plug-in time, the charging rate, and the grid topology and the associated operational equipment. Hence, the impact of electric vehicles (EVs) on the power grid was analysed for twelve typical German low voltage grids by applying power flow calculations. One main result was that thermal and voltage-related network overloads were highly dependent on market penetration and grid topology. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Motivations and Barriers for Using Speed Pedelecs for Daily Commuting
World Electr. Veh. J. 2019, 10(4), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj10040087 - 03 Dec 2019
Viewed by 791
Abstract
Speed pedelecs, electric bicycles that can provide pedal assistance up to 45 km/h, have seen rapid uptake over the past ten years in Flanders, Belgium, yet perceptions around motivators and barriers have not been studied and understood in detail. This paper reports on [...] Read more.
Speed pedelecs, electric bicycles that can provide pedal assistance up to 45 km/h, have seen rapid uptake over the past ten years in Flanders, Belgium, yet perceptions around motivators and barriers have not been studied and understood in detail. This paper reports on the qualitative experiences of 100 participants from 10 Flemish companies who replaced their commuting vehicle by a speed pedelec for up to three weeks. Focus groups provided data in the identification of the motivators and the barriers towards speed pedelecs in comparison to those for bicycles and pedelecs classified in nine categories. The results from the focus groups show notable differences in motivators for using speed pedelecs compared to bicycles and pedelecs—the higher available speed and range within a given timeframe, which provides the possibility of better time management. The mental benefits and the competitive aspect of commuting with a speed pedelec were identified as new motivators. The purchase cost and the perception of safety as barriers remain, with reliability, flexibility, and planning identified as new barriers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Electric Trolley Trucks—A Techno-Economic Assessment for Germany
World Electr. Veh. J. 2019, 10(4), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj10040086 - 29 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 856
Abstract
Road freight transport is responsible for about one-third of road transport emissions and it is still growing. One solution to decarbonize this sector are electric trolley trucks powered by overhead lines. We compare electric trolley trucks to conventional diesel vehicles from a techno-economic [...] Read more.
Road freight transport is responsible for about one-third of road transport emissions and it is still growing. One solution to decarbonize this sector are electric trolley trucks powered by overhead lines. We compare electric trolley trucks to conventional diesel vehicles from a techno-economic perspective in Germany up to 2030. We find that an infrastructure set-up ordered by utilization of roads can be financed up to 2700 km with higher savings than cost. The impact on the energy system is lower than expected and the largest impacts are found in rural areas with highway intersections. Further fields of research are discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Quo Vadis Smart Charging? A Literature Review and Expert Survey on Technical Potentials and User Acceptance of Smart Charging Systems
World Electr. Veh. J. 2019, 10(4), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj10040085 - 28 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1036
Abstract
Uncontrolled charging of plug-in Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV) represents a challenge for the energy system. As a solution, recent studies propose smart charging to avoid grid congestion and to integrate renewable energy. While financial benefits for smart charging schemes are currently quite low, [...] Read more.
Uncontrolled charging of plug-in Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV) represents a challenge for the energy system. As a solution, recent studies propose smart charging to avoid grid congestion and to integrate renewable energy. While financial benefits for smart charging schemes are currently quite low, there are other objectives for smart charging. However, it is unclear for which objectives smart charging can be used most effectively and which arguments are most likely to convince end users of BEVs to use smart charging schemes. To fill this gap, we conducted a literature review of the premises and the objectives of smart charging and how they fit the end-user’s motivation to use such smart charging systems. To evaluate the results, we present findings of 16 domain experts who evaluated various statements on smart charging according to their technical correctness and their persuasiveness towards end users. The results show that experts consider those smart charging objectives as most persuasive towards end users which they consider technically correct. Moreover, cost savings and integration of renewable energies are rated highest on both scales. On the contrary, experts do not expect a positive impact of smart charging systems on battery life and rate it as not very convincing. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Dynamic Wireless Power Transfer Charging Infrastructure for Future EVs: From Experimental Track to Real Circulated Roads Demonstrations
World Electr. Veh. J. 2019, 10(4), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj10040084 - 24 Nov 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 979
Abstract
In a context of growing electrification of road transport, Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) appears as an appealing alternative technology as it enables Electric Vehicles (EVs) to charge while driving and without any mechanical contact (with overhead cables or rails in the ground). Although [...] Read more.
In a context of growing electrification of road transport, Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) appears as an appealing alternative technology as it enables Electric Vehicles (EVs) to charge while driving and without any mechanical contact (with overhead cables or rails in the ground). Although the WPT technology background dates from the end of 20th century, recent advances in semiconductor technologies have enabled the first real demonstrations. Within the FABRIC European project, the French research Institute VEDECOM and its partners implemented a whole prototype wireless power transfer charging infrastructure. The first demonstrations of Inductive WPT in different real driving conditions (up to 20 kW, from 0 to 100 km/h, with one or two serial vehicles) were provided. This paper describes the prototype equipment and its instrumentation and provides the system characterization results. The future of the Inductive WPT technology is further discussed considering its different technical and economic challenges. In parallel, how this technology could be part of future generation road infrastructures is discussed. Future research and demonstration steps are presented in the conclusion. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Connected and Shared X-in-the-Loop Technologies for Electric Vehicle Design
World Electr. Veh. J. 2019, 10(4), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj10040083 - 21 Nov 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 841
Abstract
The presented paper introduces a new methodology of experimental testing procedures required by the complex systems of electric vehicles (EV). This methodology is based on real-time connection of test setups and platforms, which may be situated in different geographical locations, belong to various [...] Read more.
The presented paper introduces a new methodology of experimental testing procedures required by the complex systems of electric vehicles (EV). This methodology is based on real-time connection of test setups and platforms, which may be situated in different geographical locations, belong to various cyber-physical domains, and are united in a global X-in-the-loop (XIL) experimental environment. The proposed concept, called XILforEV, allows exploring interdependencies between various physical processes that can be identified or investigated in the process of EV development. The paper discusses the following relevant topics: global XILforEV architecture; realization of required high-confidence models using dynamic data driven application systems (DDDAS) and multi fidelity models (MFM) approaches; and formulation of case studies to illustrate XILforEV applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Design, Production, and Verification of a Switched-Reluctance Wheel Hub Drive Train for Battery Electric Vehicles
World Electr. Veh. J. 2019, 10(4), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj10040082 - 21 Nov 2019
Viewed by 734
Abstract
This contribution deals with the topic of the consistent further development of a wheel hub motor for battery electric vehicles (BEV) based on the principle of an outer rotor switched reluctance machine (SRM). The research work presented in this paper was founded by [...] Read more.
This contribution deals with the topic of the consistent further development of a wheel hub motor for battery electric vehicles (BEV) based on the principle of an outer rotor switched reluctance machine (SRM). The research work presented in this paper was founded by the ERDF.NRW program, Investment for Growth and Employment and the European Regional Development Fund. The R&D project was named Switched-Reluctance fo(u)r wheel (SR4Wheel). Based on the experience made by first prototype Evolution 0 (EVO 0), developed in the Laboratory for Automation Engineering, Power Electronics and Electrical Drives of the Cologne University of Applied Sciences (CUAS), the test results of EVO 1, as well as the redesign, EVO 2 is presented in this paper. The prototype EVO 0, a first proof of concept leads to several optimizations and lessons learned for the predecessor model EVO 1. The overall target of developing such a gearless outer rotor wheel hub motor is the full integration of the complete machine including its power electronics into the given space between the original friction brake and the rim. Furthermore, due to the additional integration of the power electronics, great opportunities in terms of new vehicle design as well as retrofitting capabilities of already existing vehicle platforms can be achieved. Thereby, further drive train assembly space like the engine compartment is no longer necessary. The SRM does not require magnets for torque production which leads to independence from the changeable commodity prices on the rare earth element markets. This paper presents the developing process, testing, and verification of the innovative drive train concept starting with the final CAD of EVO 1. During the testing and verification process a machine characteristic mapping is performed on a drive train test bench and subsequently the results of a finite element analysis (FEA) are plausibility checked by the test bench results. The process continues with energy conversion test scenarios of the project demonstrator vehicle on a roller test bench focused on noise vibration harshness (NVH) behavior and efficiency. As a conclusion, the gained knowledge by evaluating two EVO 1 prototypes on the rear axle of the test vehicle, and the design for the front axle drive train EVO 2 will be presented. As a major task on the front axle, the limited space due to the large disc brake can be identified and solved. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Electric Mobility and Smart Mobility Concepts—Restrained Uptake in German Cities
World Electr. Veh. J. 2019, 10(4), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj10040081 - 19 Nov 2019
Viewed by 746
Abstract
Ninety German cities exceeded the European threshold on NO2 in 2016, 65 of those cities developed countermeasures and strategies that were published in Green City Plans (GCP). In the scope of this study, 55 publicly available GCPs were evaluated in order to [...] Read more.
Ninety German cities exceeded the European threshold on NO2 in 2016, 65 of those cities developed countermeasures and strategies that were published in Green City Plans (GCP). In the scope of this study, 55 publicly available GCPs were evaluated in order to assess their potential for traffic turnaround at a municipal level. All GCPs were analyzed to determine in which of the mentioned five to seven fields of action the respective city had planned measures and which fields of action were prioritized. A more in-depth qualitative analysis of the main topics: Electric mobility, public transport, and mobility concepts was carried out. To get a better understanding of the potential impact of the measures elaborated in the GCPs, complementary information on municipal fleet vehicle stocks, requirements of charging infrastructure for public buses and results of the European roadmap on mobility concepts are given. The evaluation of the GCPs showed that to this day, city administrations mainly optimize the current system by measures of electrification and digitization. Electrification of municipal fleets, car-sharing fleets, and public transport buses is in the focus of the strategies. Instruments to increase non-motorised transport, sustainable commercial transport, and/or mobility concepts are mentioned, but play a minor role. However, there still has been no system change in Germany. Therefore, a substantial turnaround of the transport system (“Verkehrswende”) is necessary. This applies to integrated urban and transport planning, flexible, strong, fast PT, non-motorised and flexible operating systems. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Smart EV Charging: A Global Review of Promising Practices
World Electr. Veh. J. 2019, 10(4), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj10040080 - 18 Nov 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1260
Abstract
The electrification of transport in Europe is in the early stages of a market transformation that has the potential to significantly cut emissions in both the transportation and energy sectors, while generating wider benefits for society. The research underpinning this study finds that [...] Read more.
The electrification of transport in Europe is in the early stages of a market transformation that has the potential to significantly cut emissions in both the transportation and energy sectors, while generating wider benefits for society. The research underpinning this study finds that the greatest value from integrating electric vehicles (EVs) into the power grid can be generated by charging them when and where it is most beneficial for the power system, while ensuring consumers’ mobility needs are met at an affordable cost. An emerging body of research on electric vehicle grid integration focuses on modeling the cost of integration under various scenarios, but few studies look at the existing promising practices that are based on policy tools in use today. The authors of this study conducted a qualitative review of policies for EV grid integration in the EU and U.S. markets. We found that, in order to unlock the environmental and economic opportunities associated with market uptake, three policy strategies are most effective: cost-reflective pricing, intelligent technology, and integrated infrastructure planning. The study also explores the implications of these practices for policymakers and regulators in the EU (A short version of this paper was presented at the 32nd Electric Vehicles Symposium in Lyon, France, in May 2019). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Understanding the Thermal Runaway of Ni-Rich Lithium-Ion Batteries
World Electr. Veh. J. 2019, 10(4), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj10040079 - 15 Nov 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1452
Abstract
The main safety issue pertaining to operating lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) relates to their sensitivity to thermal runaway. This complex multiphysics phenomenon was observed in two commercial 18650 Ni-rich LIBs, namely a Panasonic NCR GA and a LG HG2, which were based on L [...] Read more.
The main safety issue pertaining to operating lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) relates to their sensitivity to thermal runaway. This complex multiphysics phenomenon was observed in two commercial 18650 Ni-rich LIBs, namely a Panasonic NCR GA and a LG HG2, which were based on L i ( N i 0.8 C o 0.15 A l 0.05 ) O 2 (NCA) and L i ( N i 0.8 M n 0.1 C o 0.1 ) O 2 (NMC811), respectively, for positive electrodes, in combination with graphite-SiOx composite negative electrodes. At pristine state, the batteries were charged to different levels of state of charge (SOC) (100% and 50%) and were investigated through thermal abuse tests in quasi-adiabatic conditions of accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC). The results confirmed the proposed complete thermal runaway of exothermic chain reactions. The different factors impacting the thermal runaway kinetics were also studied by considering the intertwined impacts of SOC and the related properties of these highly reactive Ni-rich technologies. All tested cells started their accelerated thermal runaway stage at the same self-heating temperature rate of ~48 °C/min. Regardless of technology, cells at reduced SOC are less reactive. Regardless of SOC levels, the Panasonic NCR GA battery technology had a wider safe region than that of the LG HG2 battery. This technology also delayed the hard internal short circuit and shifted the final venting to a higher temperature. However, above this critical temperature, it exhibited the most severe irreversible self-heating stage, with the highest self-heating temperature rate over the longest duration. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of the Economic and Environmental Performance of V2H and Residential Stationary Battery: Development of a Multi-Objective Optimization Method for Homes of EV Owners
World Electr. Veh. J. 2019, 10(4), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj10040078 - 15 Nov 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 673
Abstract
The use of batteries of electric vehicles (EVs) for home electricity applications using a bidirectional charger, a process called vehicle-to-home (V2H), is attracting the attention of EV owners as a valuable additional benefit of EVs. To motivate owners to invest in V2H, a [...] Read more.
The use of batteries of electric vehicles (EVs) for home electricity applications using a bidirectional charger, a process called vehicle-to-home (V2H), is attracting the attention of EV owners as a valuable additional benefit of EVs. To motivate owners to invest in V2H, a quantitative evaluation to compare the performance of EV batteries with that of residential stationary batteries (SBs) is required. In this study, we developed a multi-objective optimization method for the household of EV owners using energy costs including investment and CO2 emissions as indices and compared the performances of V2H and SB. As a case study, a typical detached house in Japan was assumed, and we evaluated the economic and environmental aspects of solar power self-consumption using V2H or SB. The results showed that non-commuting EV owners should invest in V2H if the investment cost of a bidirectional charger is one third of the current cost as compared with inexpensive SB, in 2030. In contrast, our results showed that there were no advantages for commuting EV owners. The results of this study contribute to the rational setting of investment costs to increase the use of V2H by EV owners. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Methodical Comparison of Alternative Powertrain Technologies for Long-Distance Mobility Using Germany as an Example
World Electr. Veh. J. 2019, 10(4), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj10040077 - 15 Nov 2019
Viewed by 714
Abstract
The main barriers to the wide acceptance of electric vehicles, such as the limited driving range or the high acquisition costs, are to be countered by various technology alternatives for the powertrain of the future. Promising developments include improved battery technologies, fuel cell [...] Read more.
The main barriers to the wide acceptance of electric vehicles, such as the limited driving range or the high acquisition costs, are to be countered by various technology alternatives for the powertrain of the future. Promising developments include improved battery technologies, fuel cell technologies or a constant power supply of the vehicle while driving, for example through dynamic inductive charging. In this context, a holistic technology comparison would contribute to a comprehensive and understandable information situation by making the heterogeneous technological concepts comparable with regard to different evaluation criteria. Therefore, this work describes the basic assumptions of the proposed holistic comparison of alternative powertrain technologies for long-distance mobility. Relevant framework conditions are structured and a procedure for the evaluation of infrastructure expenditures is shown. Building on this, a selection of key performance indicators is defined and explained. The proposed KPI framework is applied to a passenger car in the economic area Germany. The results show that by using electrified roadways, ecological as well as economic advantages against other alternative powertrain designs can be derived. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wireless Power Transfer for EVs)
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Open AccessArticle
Innovation Needs for the Integration of Electric Vehicles into the Energy System
World Electr. Veh. J. 2019, 10(4), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj10040076 - 12 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 695
Abstract
The mitigation of climate change and the substitution of fossil energy sources is one of the greatest tasks of our time. Electric mobility is the most promising solution to decarbonize the transport sector. As the market for electric vehicles is quickly gaining momentum, [...] Read more.
The mitigation of climate change and the substitution of fossil energy sources is one of the greatest tasks of our time. Electric mobility is the most promising solution to decarbonize the transport sector. As the market for electric vehicles is quickly gaining momentum, an urgent need for an intelligent integration of the energy and mobility system arises. This integration leads to a multitude of technical, economic and social challenges. Through a validated road-mapping process, the needs for future research, development, standardisation and regulation have been identified and visualised. Recommendations for action for decision-makers in politics and industry have been derived from those innovation needs. In summary, the most promising innovation path is the consequent application of smart and flexible charging concepts as well as an adaption of the regulations and roles in combination with the consequent usage of renewable energies. In five to ten years, also synergies through the exploitation of autonomous electric vehicles will gain momentum. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Optimal Battery State-of-Charge Trajectory for Blended Regime of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle
World Electr. Veh. J. 2019, 10(4), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj10040075 - 08 Nov 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 892
Abstract
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) typically combine several power sources, which call for the use of optimal control strategy design techniques. The PHEV powertrain efficiency can be improved if the battery is gradually discharged by blending fully electric and hybrid driving modes during [...] Read more.
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) typically combine several power sources, which call for the use of optimal control strategy design techniques. The PHEV powertrain efficiency can be improved if the battery is gradually discharged by blending fully electric and hybrid driving modes during the whole trip. Here, the battery state-of-charge (SoC) trajectory profile is of particular importance to achieving near-optimal powertrain operation. In order to reveal optimal patterns of SoC trajectory profiles, numerical optimizations of PHEV control variables based on the dynamic programing (DP) algorithm are conducted in the paper. The obtained optimal SoC trajectories are found to form linear-like profiles of minimum length when expressed with respect to travelled distance. Detailed analyses of the DP results point out that the SoC trajectory length is minimized in order to minimize electric losses, which is then reflected in reduced total fuel consumption. This finding is further justified by analyzing the problem of optimal discharging for the simplified battery-only system and for the powertrain as a whole. The impact of engine specific fuel consumption characteristic on the optimal SoC trajectory profile under simplified driving conditions is analyzed, as well. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Governance in Maritime Passenger Transport: Green Public Procurement of Ferry Services
World Electr. Veh. J. 2019, 10(4), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj10040074 - 06 Nov 2019
Viewed by 597
Abstract
Governance is central for sustainability transitions in maritime transport. Norwegian authorities can directly influence developments in maritime transport through green public procurement, and low- or zero-emission technologies have been or are being considered for more than 250 operational ferry and high-speed vessel connections. [...] Read more.
Governance is central for sustainability transitions in maritime transport. Norwegian authorities can directly influence developments in maritime transport through green public procurement, and low- or zero-emission technologies have been or are being considered for more than 250 operational ferry and high-speed vessel connections. This study explores practices of green public procurement and investigates procuring authorities and operators’ perspectives on the efficiency of green public procurement in accelerating sustainability transitions. Through review of calls for tender and interviews with procuring authorities and operators, the study identifies critical issues for green public procurement to accelerate maritime passenger transport toward sustainability. The critical issues are related to either procedural or service delivery issues. Procedural issues refer to timelines with multiple calls on the same time and different views of procurers and operators on the ideal duration of contracts. The most demanding service delivery issues are infrastructure for charging and energy capacity in remote areas where operators have to pre-book energy needs based on rough estimations which in turn increase the tender price. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Simulating Electric Vehicle Diffusion and Charging Activities in France and Germany
World Electr. Veh. J. 2019, 10(4), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj10040073 - 01 Nov 2019
Viewed by 974
Abstract
Plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) are considered to reduce oil dependency, noise, and local air pollution as well as greenhouse gas emissions caused by road transportation. Today, the early market penetration phase has started and can be observed in many countries. But how could [...] Read more.
Plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) are considered to reduce oil dependency, noise, and local air pollution as well as greenhouse gas emissions caused by road transportation. Today, the early market penetration phase has started and can be observed in many countries. But how could the diffusion and adoption of PEV be modeled to create consistent scenarios? With which PEV driving and charging behavior can these scenarios be associated and what load-shifting potentials can be derived? This work provides an answer to these questions by describing a hybrid modeling approach of a PEV diffusion scenario consisting of a top-down macro-econometric Bass model, answering the question as to at what point in time how many PEV will be on the market, and a bottom-up micro-econometric binary logistic PEV adoption model answering who is likely to adopt. This set of methods is applied to representative mobility data sets available for France and Germany in order to simulate driving and charging behaviors of potential French and German PEV adopters. In addition, a sampling method is presented, which reduces computational times while intending to remain representative of the population of PEV adopters considered. This approach enables the consideration of PEV at a detailed level in an agent-based energy system model focusing on European day-ahead markets. Results show that PEV diffusion dynamics are slightly higher in France than in Germany. Furthermore, average plug-in times, average active charging periods, average load-shifting potentials, and average energy charged per PEV differ slightly between France and Germany. Computational times can be reduced by our approach, resulting in the ability to better integrate PEV diffusion, adoption, and representative charging demand in bottom-up energy system models that simulate European wholesale electricity markets. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Obstacle Avoidance of Semi-Trailers Based on Nonlinear Model Predictive Control
World Electr. Veh. J. 2019, 10(4), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj10040072 - 01 Nov 2019
Viewed by 550
Abstract
Obstacle avoidance is a core part of the autonomous driving of off-road vehicles, such as semi-trailers. Due to the long length of semi-trailers, the traditional obstacle avoidance controller based on the circumcircle model can ensure that there is no collision between the semi-trailer [...] Read more.
Obstacle avoidance is a core part of the autonomous driving of off-road vehicles, such as semi-trailers. Due to the long length of semi-trailers, the traditional obstacle avoidance controller based on the circumcircle model can ensure that there is no collision between the semi-trailer and the obstacle, but it also greatly reduces the passable area. To solve this problem, we propose a new obstacle avoidance model. In this model, the distance between the obstacle and the middle line of semi-trailers is used as the indicator of obstacle avoidance. Based on this model, we design a new obstacle avoidance controller for semi-trailers. The simulation results show that the proposed controller can ensure that no collision occurs between the semi-trailer and the obstacle. The minimum distance between the obstacle center and the semi-trailer body trajectory is greater than the sum of the obstacle radius and the safety margin. Compared with the traditional obstacle avoidance controller based on the circumcircle model, the proposed controller greatly reduces the error between the semi-trailer and the reference path during obstacle avoidance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Autonomous Driving of EVs)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Concept Study of Passive Hybrid Energy Storage Systems in 48 V Mild Hybrid Vehicles Varying Lithium-Ion Battery and Supercapacitor Technologies
World Electr. Veh. J. 2019, 10(4), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj10040071 - 01 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 907
Abstract
A single energy storage technology will deliver either high power or high energy density. In high cycle applications like 48 V mild hybrid electric vehicles, lithium-ion batteries or supercapacitors have to be oversized to meet power, energy and cycle life requirements. However, a [...] Read more.
A single energy storage technology will deliver either high power or high energy density. In high cycle applications like 48 V mild hybrid electric vehicles, lithium-ion batteries or supercapacitors have to be oversized to meet power, energy and cycle life requirements. However, a passive hybrid energy storage system is able to meet those challenges, but its performance depends on several factors. In this study, simulations and experimental investigations show how the design and operation conditions influence the performance of a passive hybridized system. In a comparative study for 48 V systems, consequences on performance are discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Optimal Incentives for Electric Vehicles at e-Park & Ride Hub with Renewable Energy Source
World Electr. Veh. J. 2019, 10(4), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj10040070 - 31 Oct 2019
Viewed by 566
Abstract
As electric vehicles’ penetration increases, more impacts on urban systems are observed and related to both driving (e.g., on traffic congestion and reduced pollution) and charging (e.g., on the electrical grid). Therefore, there is a need to design coupled incentive mechanisms. To propose [...] Read more.
As electric vehicles’ penetration increases, more impacts on urban systems are observed and related to both driving (e.g., on traffic congestion and reduced pollution) and charging (e.g., on the electrical grid). Therefore, there is a need to design coupled incentive mechanisms. To propose and numerically evaluate such incentives, a game theory model is adopted. Its originality comes from the coupling between the charging cost and the driving decisions: to drive downtown or to charge at an e-Park & Ride hub with solar panels and then take public transport, in order to reach destination. Optimal ticket fares and solar park’s size are computed using real photovoltaic production data. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Material Characterization and Analysis on the Effect of Vibration and Nail Penetration on Lithium Ion Battery
World Electr. Veh. J. 2019, 10(4), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj10040069 - 30 Oct 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 649
Abstract
Battery packaging in a vehicle depends on the cell chemistry being used and its behavior plays an important role in the safety of the entire battery pack. Chemical degradation of various parts of a cell such as the cathode or anode is a [...] Read more.
Battery packaging in a vehicle depends on the cell chemistry being used and its behavior plays an important role in the safety of the entire battery pack. Chemical degradation of various parts of a cell such as the cathode or anode is a concern as it adversely affects performance and safety. A cell in its battery pack once assembled can have two different mechanical abuse condition. One is the vibration generated from the vehicle and the second is the intrusion of external elements in case of accident. In this paper, a commercially available 32,700 lithium ion cell with lithium iron phosphate (LFP) chemistry is studied for its response to both the abuse conditions at two different states of charge (SoC). The primary aim of this study is to understand their effect on the surface morphology of the cathode and the anode. The cells are also characterized to study impedance behavior before and after being abused mechanically. The cells tested for vibration were also analyzed for dynamic stiffness. A microscopy technique such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study the surface morphology and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) characterization was carried out to study the internal resistance of the cell. It was observed that there was a drop in internal resistance and increase in the stiffness after the cells subjected to mechanical abuse. The study also revealed different morphology at the center and at the corner of the cell subjected to nail penetration at 50% SoC. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Corridor-Based Approach to Estimating the Costs of Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure on Highways
World Electr. Veh. J. 2019, 10(4), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj10040068 - 28 Oct 2019
Viewed by 635
Abstract
One of the barriers holding back the large-scale development of electric vehicles is underdeveloped charging infrastructure. The optimal location of charging stations has received much attention, whereas the development of charging infrastructure over time and its economic implications remain a less explored topic, [...] Read more.
One of the barriers holding back the large-scale development of electric vehicles is underdeveloped charging infrastructure. The optimal location of charging stations has received much attention, whereas the development of charging infrastructure over time and its economic implications remain a less explored topic, especially in the context of dynamic inductive charging. This work compares the infrastructure costs for two electric vehicle charging solutions deployed on highways: fast-charging stations and a dynamic charging lane based on wireless inductive charging technology. The deployment costs are estimated using a simplified infrastructure model for a highway corridor. The model first defines the required charging capacity based on projected future demand, sizes the charging infrastructure, and then determines the related costs, revenues, and net present value. A numerical example based on the French highway context is also presented. The results show that the payback period is much longer for dynamic charging lanes that for charging stations. In addition, the charging lane infrastructure cannot be installed gradually over time but requires a major investment from the start while bringing in little revenue early on. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Charging Infrastructure for Electric Vehicles)
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Open AccessArticle
Application Design Aiming to Minimize Drivers’ Trip Duration through Intermediate Charging at Public Station Deployed in Smart Cities
World Electr. Veh. J. 2019, 10(4), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj10040067 - 26 Oct 2019
Viewed by 630
Abstract
Today, smart cities are turning to electric transport, carpooling and zero emission zones. The growing number of electric vehicles on the roads makes it increasingly necessary to have a public charging infrastructure. On the other hand, the main limitations of electric vehicles are [...] Read more.
Today, smart cities are turning to electric transport, carpooling and zero emission zones. The growing number of electric vehicles on the roads makes it increasingly necessary to have a public charging infrastructure. On the other hand, the main limitations of electric vehicles are the limited range of their batteries and their relatively long charging times. To avoid having problems to recharge, electric vehicle drivers must plan their journeys more thoroughly than others. At the goal of optimizing trip time, drivers need to automate their travel plans based on a smart charging solution, which will require the development of new Vehicle-to-Grid applications that will allow at the charging stations to dynamically interact with the vehicles. In this paper, we propose an architecture based on an algorithm allowing the management of charging plans for electric vehicles traveling on the road to their destination, in order to minimize the duration of the drivers’ journey including waiting and charging times. The decision taken by the algorithm based on the exploration of the data of each public supply station according to its location, number of vehicles in the queue, number of charging sockets, and rates of service. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Charging Infrastructure for Electric Vehicles)
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Open AccessArticle
The Parker Project: Cross-Brand Service Testing Using V2G
World Electr. Veh. J. 2019, 10(4), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj10040066 - 26 Oct 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 520
Abstract
The Parker project sought to experimentally validate that contemporary series-produced electric vehicles (EVs), capable of V2G, are ready to participate in a number of advanced grid services. In such services, the timing, size and direction of power and energy exchanged between the EV [...] Read more.
The Parker project sought to experimentally validate that contemporary series-produced electric vehicles (EVs), capable of V2G, are ready to participate in a number of advanced grid services. In such services, the timing, size and direction of power and energy exchanged between the EV battery and grid is controlled as to support either a single building, the local neighborhood or the regional power system. Vehicles purposely designed for such services are referred to as grid integrated electric vehicles (GIVs). The field of research, describing how GIVs may be used to actively support the power system, is called Vehicle–Grid Integration (VGI). The purpose of this paper is to present how the Danish Parker project has systematically categorized a range of grid services, collected in a service catalog, and then illustrate state-of-the-art EVs ability to support such services through experimental validation. Results are presented for three different tests performed in Parker; marginal emission factor charging, frequency containment reserves and a performance test for controlling power setpoints. The ultimate aim of this paper, and the Parker project, is to promote the GIV concept so that it may inform the design and capabilities of present and future EVs, EV supply equipment (EVSE) and communication standards. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Verification of Fault Tolerant Operation Focusing on DC-Bus Battery Failure in Dual Inverter Motor Drive
World Electr. Veh. J. 2019, 10(4), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj10040065 - 18 Oct 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 673
Abstract
Recently, a dual inverter motor drive feeding an open-end winding permanent magnet (PM) motor has been studied, aiming for the improvement of total efficiency and a fault tolerant function of hybrid and electric vehicles. The authors have studied the fault tolerant operation of [...] Read more.
Recently, a dual inverter motor drive feeding an open-end winding permanent magnet (PM) motor has been studied, aiming for the improvement of total efficiency and a fault tolerant function of hybrid and electric vehicles. The authors have studied the fault tolerant operation of the DC-bus battery, where the failed inverter is operated only with a capacitor across the DC-bus and a space vector modulation (SVM) is employed to regulate the capacitor voltage. In our previous research, the SVM techniques for the fault tolerant operation in a low-modulation-index have been proposed. However, it was difficult to have fault tolerance in a high-modulation-index case. The voltage margin in the fault situation is limited because the failed inverter is operated with the capacitor. In this paper, the SVM technique to achieve the fault tolerant operation in the high-modulation-index state is investigated. The novel point of this paper is that the proposed technique introduces a field-weakening control in order to reduce the command voltage vector within the controllable voltage region. The proposed technique was verified through experimental tests and its operational characteristics were compared with the normal operation, from the viewpoints of the total harmonic distortion (THD) and the efficiencies of the inverters and the motor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Electronics Subsystems)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Reducing Electric Car Purchase Incentives in the European Union
World Electr. Veh. J. 2019, 10(4), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj10040064 - 16 Oct 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 924
Abstract
The importance of electric car purchase incentives is starting to be questioned. The objective of this paper is to explore the potential effect of reducing or removing electric car purchase public subsidies in the European Union. To this end, the system dynamics Powertrain [...] Read more.
The importance of electric car purchase incentives is starting to be questioned. The objective of this paper is to explore the potential effect of reducing or removing electric car purchase public subsidies in the European Union. To this end, the system dynamics Powertrain Technology Transition Market Agent Model is used. The size and timing of purchase incentives for this technology in European countries are investigated under eight scenarios and sensitivity analysis performed. The simulations suggest that, in the short-run, the electric car market share is higher when the subsidies remain in place. In the medium-run, a purchase subsidy scheme granting €3000 for plug-in hybrid electric cars and €4000 for battery electric cars over the period 2020–2024 yields the fastest electric car market uptake of all the scenarios considered. We conclude that, though the current evolution of the battery price is favorable, electric car purchase subsidies remain an effective policy measure to support electro-mobility in the next years. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of the End-of-Life of Electric Vehicle Batteries According to the State-of-Health
World Electr. Veh. J. 2019, 10(4), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj10040063 - 08 Oct 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 985
Abstract
As a result of monitoring thousands of electric vehicle charges around Europe, this study builds statistical distributions that model the amount of energy necessary for trips between charges, showing that most of trips are within the range of electric vehicle even when the [...] Read more.
As a result of monitoring thousands of electric vehicle charges around Europe, this study builds statistical distributions that model the amount of energy necessary for trips between charges, showing that most of trips are within the range of electric vehicle even when the battery degradation reaches the end-of-life, commonly accepted to be 80% State of Health. According to these results, this study analyses how far this End-of-Life can be pushed forward using statistical methods and indicating the provability of failing to fulfill the electric vehicle (EV) owners’ daily trip needs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Rotor Field Oriented Control of Resonant Wireless Electrically Excited Synchronous Motor
World Electr. Veh. J. 2019, 10(4), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj10040062 - 05 Oct 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 593
Abstract
In order to solve the problems of wear and spark of the brush and slip ring in an electrically excited synchronous motor (EESM), based on the principle of magnetic resonance coupling wireless power transfer (MRC-WPT), a resonant wireless excitation system of EESM is [...] Read more.
In order to solve the problems of wear and spark of the brush and slip ring in an electrically excited synchronous motor (EESM), based on the principle of magnetic resonance coupling wireless power transfer (MRC-WPT), a resonant wireless excitation system of EESM is designed. By modeling the EESM and analyzing the rotor field oriented control (RFOC) method, a control system of the resonant wireless EESM (RW-EESM) is established. Furthermore, the stator current distribution strategy is analyzed. Finally, a test of the RE-EESM prototype is carried out. The test results show that the motor can realize no-load stable operation, and the test speed is maintained at 85 r/min. The results show that the wireless excitation scheme of EESM is feasible, and the RFOC of RW-EESM motor is reasonable. Full article
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