Special Issue "A World of E MOTION—Selected Papers from the 32nd International Electric Vehicles Symposium and Exhibition (Lyon, France)"

A special issue of World Electric Vehicle Journal (ISSN 2032-6653).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2019) | Viewed by 78700

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Joeri Van Mierlo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Mobility, Logistics and Automotive Technology Research Centre, Department of Electrical Engineering and Energy Technology, Faculty of Engineering Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, 1050 Brussel, Belgium
Interests: electric and hybrid vehicles (batteries, power converters, and energy management simulations); the environmental and economical comparison of vehicles with different drive trains and fuels (LCA, TCO)
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue gathers updated versions of a selection of best papers from EVS32—the 32nd International Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exhibition and the International Electric Vehicle Technology Conference, which will be held from 19 May to 22 May 2019 in Lyon, France.

EVS is the leading international event to address all these issues on e-mobility. The various components of electric mobility were on display, from markets to vehicle battery technology, from motorcycles to trucks, and from charging facilities to related services and public policy.

The authors of the best papers present at EVS32 will be invited to further extend their EVS32 paper, including their most recent research findings. After a second thorough round of peer review, these papers will be published in this Special Issue of the World Electric Vehicle Journal, WEVJ. The Article Processing Charges (APC) for those selected papers will be fully waived.

If you want to know more about the World Electric Vehicle Journal, feel free to read my Editorial at https://www.mdpi.com/2032-6653/9/1/1.

EVS32 is hosted by AVERE—The European Association for Electromobility, in collaboration with Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA), Electric Vehicle Association of Asia Pacific (EVAAP), and members of the World Electric Vehicle Association (WEVA). The local organisers were LIVE! and AVERE-France.

Prof. Dr. Joeri VAN Mierlo
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. World Electric Vehicle Journal is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. As selected papers, the original 300 CHF Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication will be paid by AVERE. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (40 papers)

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Research

Article
Battery Electric Vehicle Fast Charging–Evidence from the Norwegian Market
World Electr. Veh. J. 2020, 11(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj11020038 - 08 May 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2271
Abstract
Norway is the largest Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) market in the world per capita. The share of the passenger vehicle fleet passed 9.4% at the end of 2019, and users have access to 1500 Combined Charging System (CCS)/Chademo standard fast chargers located in [...] Read more.
Norway is the largest Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) market in the world per capita. The share of the passenger vehicle fleet passed 9.4% at the end of 2019, and users have access to 1500 Combined Charging System (CCS)/Chademo standard fast chargers located in more than 500 different locations. This paper analyses the usage pattern of these fast chargers using a dataset from two large operators covering most of their charging events between Q1 2016 and Q1 2018. The target of the analysis was to understand the fundamental factors that drive the demand for fast charging and influences the user experience, so that they can be taken into account when dimensioning charge facilities, and when designing vehicles. The data displays clear variations in charge power, charge time and charged energy between winter and summer, and a large spread of results due to the BEV models different technical characteristics. The charge power is clearly reduced in the winter compared to the summer, while the charge time is longer. Some charge events have a particularly low charge power which may be due to users fast charging a cold battery at a high State of Charge (SOC) in a vehicle with passive battery thermal management. Full article
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Article
Cloud-Based Big Data Platform for Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G)
World Electr. Veh. J. 2020, 11(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj11020030 - 25 Mar 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1700
Abstract
Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) have increasingly become prevalent over the past years. BEVs can be regarded as a grid load and as a way to support the grid (energy buffering), provided this extensive battery usage does not affect the BEV’s performance. Data from [...] Read more.
Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) have increasingly become prevalent over the past years. BEVs can be regarded as a grid load and as a way to support the grid (energy buffering), provided this extensive battery usage does not affect the BEV’s performance. Data from both the vehicle and the grid are required for effective Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) implementation. As such, a cloud-based big data platform is proposed in this paper to exploit these data. Additionally, this study aims to develop smart algorithms, which optimise different factors, including BEV cost of ownership and battery degradation. Dashboards are developed to provide key information to different V2G stakeholders. Full article
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Article
Iron Loss Modelling of Electrical Traction Motors for Improved Prediction of Higher Harmonic Losses
World Electr. Veh. J. 2020, 11(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj11010024 - 11 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1077
Abstract
A Finite Element (FE) modelling approach is presented to account for the core losses in electrical machines that are generated by higher harmonic frequencies, for example those caused by Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) switching or by space harmonics due to the machine geometry. [...] Read more.
A Finite Element (FE) modelling approach is presented to account for the core losses in electrical machines that are generated by higher harmonic frequencies, for example those caused by Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) switching or by space harmonics due to the machine geometry. The model builds further on a post-processing calculation tool that was recently developed to take into account the magnetic skin effect in electrical steel laminations at high frequencies, and extends this by a more detailed loss analysis of the minor hysteresis loops that are caused by the higher harmonics. Further, these tools for high-frequency loss analysis are integrated into a complete electrical machine model with separate consideration of the major and minor loops. The modelling approach relies strongly on extensive magnetic measurement data of the electrical steel, in order to accurately predict the different loss components for minor hysteresis loops as a function of the DC bias field, frequency and amplitude of the minor loop. Results from the model are shown for an automotive traction motor, illustrating the losses caused by PWM harmonics and demonstrating the relevance of including the skin effect in these calculations. Full article
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Article
Impact of Smart Charging for Consumers in a Real World Pilot
World Electr. Veh. J. 2020, 11(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj11010021 - 06 Mar 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1813
Abstract
A smart charging profile was implemented on 39 public charging stations in Amsterdam on which the current level available for electric vehicle (EV) charging was limited during peak hours on the electricity grid (07:00–08:30 and 17:00–20:00) and was increased during the rest of [...] Read more.
A smart charging profile was implemented on 39 public charging stations in Amsterdam on which the current level available for electric vehicle (EV) charging was limited during peak hours on the electricity grid (07:00–08:30 and 17:00–20:00) and was increased during the rest of the day. The impact of this profile was measured on three indicators: average charging power, amount of transferred energy and share of positively and negatively affected sessions. The results are distinguished for different categories of electric vehicles with different charging characteristics (number of phases and maximum current). The results depend heavily on this categorisation and are a realistic measurement of the impact of smart charging under real world conditions. The average charging power increased as a result of the new profile and a reduction in the amount of transferred energy was detected during the evening hours, causing outstanding demand which was solved at an accelerated rate after limitations were lifted. For the whole population, 4% of the sessions were positively affected (charged a larger volume of energy) and 5% were negatively affected. These numbers are dominated by the large share of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) in Amsterdam which are technically not able to profit from the higher current levels. For new generation electric vehicles, 14% of the sessions were positively affected and the percentage of negatively affected sessions was 5%. Full article
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Article
Moving a Taxi Sector to Become Electric: Characterizing Taxi Drivers Interested in Purchasing a Full Electric Vehicle
World Electr. Veh. J. 2020, 11(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj11010020 - 04 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1275
Abstract
Electrification of mobility exceeds personal transport to increasingly focus on particular segments such as city logistics and taxis. These commercial mobility segments have different motives to purchase a full electric vehicle and require a particular approach to incentivize and facilitate the transition towards [...] Read more.
Electrification of mobility exceeds personal transport to increasingly focus on particular segments such as city logistics and taxis. These commercial mobility segments have different motives to purchase a full electric vehicle and require a particular approach to incentivize and facilitate the transition towards electric mobility. A case where a municipality was successful in stimulating the transition to electric mobility is the taxi sector in the city of Amsterdam. Using results from a survey study (n = 300), this paper analyses the differences in characteristics between taxi drivers that either have or do not have interest in purchasing a full electric taxi vehicle. Results show a low intention across the sample to adopt a full electric vehicle and no statistically significant differences in demographics between the two groups. Differences were found between the level of acceptability of the covenant, the rated attractiveness of the incentives, the ratings of full electric vehicle attributes and the consultation of objective and social information sources. These results can be used by policy makers to develop new incentives that target specific topics currently influencing the interest in a full electric taxi vehicle. Full article
Article
Are Battery-Electric Trucks for 24-Hour Delivery the Future of City Logistics?—A German Case Study
World Electr. Veh. J. 2020, 11(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj11010016 - 17 Feb 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1785
Abstract
Especially in urban areas, a large proportion of air pollution can be attributed to road traffic. Thus, in many countries, bans are being discussed on diesel vehicles in inner cities. These diesel bans pose a severe threat to logistics service providers (LSPs) that [...] Read more.
Especially in urban areas, a large proportion of air pollution can be attributed to road traffic. Thus, in many countries, bans are being discussed on diesel vehicles in inner cities. These diesel bans pose a severe threat to logistics service providers (LSPs) that are active in city logistics, since their fleets are based on diesel-powered vehicles. One solution for LSPs is to introduce battery-electric heavy-duty trucks (HDTs). However, this is rarely done at present, due to high investment costs of such trucks. In order to compensate these high investments, high mileages are required in order to benefit from such vehicles’ low operating costs. Implementing 24-hour delivery would increase the daily mileage of HDTs. Because of noise emission regulations, 24-hour delivery could only be performed using battery-electric HDTs. In this study, we explore whether using battery-electric HDTs for 24-hour delivery is economical for LSPs. We use data from a German LSP in food logistics, develop a system dynamics model, and integrate a total cost of ownership calculation along with an LSP and a retail store discrete choice model to determine whether 24-hour delivery with battery-electric HDTs is profitable for the LSP, and how it might be accepted and diffused among stores. We find that 24-hour delivery using battery-electric HDTs is immediately profitable. This is due to the almost 50% increase in the daily trip potential of battery-electric HDTs in comparison to diesel HDTs, which leads to a lower required total number of HDTs in the fleet. Lower transportation costs, increased delivery quality, and decreased risk lead to rapid adoption of 24-hour delivery among stores, while lower total costs of ownership (TCO) accelerate the adoption by the LSP. Diffusion through the fleet and stores takes only slightly longer than one HDT lifetime. Consequently, 24-hour delivery with battery-electric HDTs is a promising solution for innovative and sustainable city logistics. Full article
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Article
V2B/V2G on Energy Cost and Battery Degradation under Different Driving Scenarios, Peak Shaving, and Frequency Regulations
World Electr. Veh. J. 2020, 11(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj11010014 - 26 Jan 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2146
Abstract
The energy stored in electric vehicles (EVs) would be made available to commercial buildings to actively manage energy consumption and costs in the near future. These concepts known as vehicle-to-building (V2B) and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technologies have the potential to provide storage capacity to [...] Read more.
The energy stored in electric vehicles (EVs) would be made available to commercial buildings to actively manage energy consumption and costs in the near future. These concepts known as vehicle-to-building (V2B) and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technologies have the potential to provide storage capacity to benefit both EV and building owners respectively, by reducing some of the high cost of EVs, buildings’ energy cost, and providing reliable emergency backup services. In this study, we considered a vehicle-to-buildings/grid (V2B/V2G) system simultaneously for peak shaving and frequency regulation via a combined multi-objective optimization strategy which captures battery state of charge (SoC), EV battery degradation, EV driving scenarios, and operational constraints. Under these assumptions, we showed that the electricity usage/bill can be reduced by a difference of 0.1 on a scale of 0 to 1 (with 1 the normalized original electricity cost), and that EV batteries can also achieve superior economic benefits under controlled SoC limits (e.g., when kept between the SoC range of SoCmin > 30% and SoCmax < 90%) and subjected to very restricted charge-discharge battery cycling. Full article
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Article
Benefits of Electrified Powertrains in Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles
World Electr. Veh. J. 2020, 11(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj11010012 - 18 Jan 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1425
Abstract
The benefits of electrified powertrains for light-duty vehicles are well understood, however sufficient published information is not available on the benefits of advanced powertrains on the various types of medium and heavy duty vehicles. Quantifying the benefits of powertrain electrification will help fleet [...] Read more.
The benefits of electrified powertrains for light-duty vehicles are well understood, however sufficient published information is not available on the benefits of advanced powertrains on the various types of medium and heavy duty vehicles. Quantifying the benefits of powertrain electrification will help fleet operators understand the advantages or limitations in adopting electrified powertrains in their truck fleets. Trucks vary in size and shape, as they are designed for specific applications. It is necessary to model each kind of truck separately to understand what kind of powertrain architecture will be feasible for their daily operations. This paper examines 11 types of vehicles and 5 powertrain technology choices to quantify the fuel saving potential of each design choice. This study uses the regulatory cycles proposed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for measuring fuel consumption. Full article
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Article
Optimal Speed Regulation Control of the Hybrid Dual Clutch Transmission Shift Process
World Electr. Veh. J. 2020, 11(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj11010011 - 15 Jan 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1273
Abstract
This paper presents a gear shift method for the dual clutch transmission (DCT) with integrated electric motor in pure electric drive mode. In contrast to clutch-to-clutch shift in conventional DCT, a good gear shifting process relies on the coordinated control of the motor [...] Read more.
This paper presents a gear shift method for the dual clutch transmission (DCT) with integrated electric motor in pure electric drive mode. In contrast to clutch-to-clutch shift in conventional DCT, a good gear shifting process relies on the coordinated control of the motor and synchronizer in electric drive mode of the hybrid DCT. To shorten the torque interruption time and reduce the wear of the synchronizer during engagement, the key point is to adjust the oncoming gear speed to the output shaft speed rapidly. This study provides a speed regulation control framework based on model predictive control (MPC) and disturbance observer (DO), where the MPC controller is designed to achieve a good tracking performance and the DO is to eliminate effects from exogenous disturbances. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach can attain a rapid and robust gear shifting performance. Full article
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Article
Vehicle Electrification Impacts on Energy Consumption for Different Connected-Autonomous Vehicle Scenario Runs
World Electr. Veh. J. 2020, 11(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj11010009 - 27 Dec 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1715
Abstract
Transportation system simulation is a widely accepted approach to evaluate the impact of transport policy deployment. In developing a transportation system deployment model, the energy impact of the model is extremely valuable for sustainability and validation. It is expected that different penetration levels [...] Read more.
Transportation system simulation is a widely accepted approach to evaluate the impact of transport policy deployment. In developing a transportation system deployment model, the energy impact of the model is extremely valuable for sustainability and validation. It is expected that different penetration levels of Connected-Autonomous Vehicles (CAVs) will impact travel behavior due to changes in potential factors such as congestion, miles traveled, etc. Along with such impact analyses, it is also important to further quantify the regional energy impact of CAV deployment under different factors of interest. The objective of this paper is to study the energy consumption of electrified vehicles in the future for different penetration levels of CAVs deployment in the City of Chicago. The paper will further provide a statistical analysis of the results to evaluate the impact of the different penetration levels on the different electrified powertrains used in the study. Full article
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Article
State of the Art of Mobility as a Service (MaaS) Ecosystems and Architectures—An Overview of, and a Definition, Ecosystem and System Architecture for Electric Mobility as a Service (eMaaS)
World Electr. Veh. J. 2020, 11(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj11010007 - 24 Dec 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3136
Abstract
Mobility as a Service (MaaS) is a concept that aligns with both current and future mobility demands of users, namely intermodal, personalized, on-demand and seamless. Although the number of shared mobility, electric mobility and multimodal passenger transport users is rapidly growing, until now, [...] Read more.
Mobility as a Service (MaaS) is a concept that aligns with both current and future mobility demands of users, namely intermodal, personalized, on-demand and seamless. Although the number of shared mobility, electric mobility and multimodal passenger transport users is rapidly growing, until now, the list of MaaS and electric Mobility as Service (eMaaS) providers is quite short. This could partly be explained by the lack of a common architecture that facilitates the complex integration of all actors involved in the (e)MaaS ecosystem. The goal of this publication is to give an overview of the state of the art regarding (e)MaaS’ ecosystems and architectures. Moreover, it aims to support the further development of eMaaS by proposing a definition and a novel system architecture for eMaaS. Firstly, the state of the art of the MaaS ecosystem is reviewed. Secondly, the eMaaS ecosystem that builds upon our definition of eMaaS is described and the MaaS system- and technical- architectures found in literature are reviewed. Finally, an eMaaS architecture that focuses on the integration of MaaS and electric mobility systems is presented. With the definition, ecosystem and system architecture presented in this work, the aim is to support the further development of the eMaaS concept. Full article
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Article
Influence of User Preferences on the Revealed Utility Factor of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles
World Electr. Veh. J. 2020, 11(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj11010006 - 22 Dec 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1973
Abstract
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are an effective intermediate vehicle technology option in the long-term transition pathway towards light-duty vehicle electrification. Their net environmental impact is evaluated using the performance metric Utility Factor (UF), which quantifies the fraction of vehicle miles traveled (VMT) [...] Read more.
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are an effective intermediate vehicle technology option in the long-term transition pathway towards light-duty vehicle electrification. Their net environmental impact is evaluated using the performance metric Utility Factor (UF), which quantifies the fraction of vehicle miles traveled (VMT) on electricity. There are concerns about the gap between Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sticker label and real-world UF due to the inability of test cycles to represent actual driving conditions and assumptions about their driving and charging differing from their actual usage patterns. Using multi-year longitudinal data from 153 PHEVs (11–53 miles all-electric range) in California, this paper systematically evaluates how observed driving and charging, energy consumption, and UF differs from sticker label expectations. Principal Components Analysis and regression model results indicated that UF of short-range PHEVs (less than 20-mile range) was lower than label expectations mainly due to higher annual VMT and high-speed driving. Long-distance travel and high-speed driving were the major reasons for the lower UF of longer-range PHEVs (at least 35-mile range) compared to label values. Enhancing charging infrastructure access at both home and away locations, and increasing the frequency of home charging, improves the UF of short-range and longer-range PHEVs respectively. Full article
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Article
Experiences from Battery-Electric Truck Users in Norway
World Electr. Veh. J. 2020, 11(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj11010005 - 22 Dec 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3439
Abstract
This paper presents experiences from pilot-projects with battery-electric trucks in Norway, focusing on purchasing processes, technology, vehicle choices, user experience and various performance aspects. Furthermore, we discuss the electrification potential for battery-electric trucks and compare their total costs of ownership and associated socio-economic [...] Read more.
This paper presents experiences from pilot-projects with battery-electric trucks in Norway, focusing on purchasing processes, technology, vehicle choices, user experience and various performance aspects. Furthermore, we discuss the electrification potential for battery-electric trucks and compare their total costs of ownership and associated socio-economic costs with internal combustion engine (ICE) trucks for a range of technological maturity scenarios. The results show that experiences have generally been positive but tailoring of use patterns is often required. Furthermore, at their current maturity level, battery-electric trucks could, to some extent, replace typical use of Norwegian ICE trucks, depending on the situation. In terms of costs, we expect that battery-electric light distribution trucks will first become competitive with ICE trucks when technology reaches mass production. Full article
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Article
Accelerating beyond Early Adopters to Achieve Equitable and Widespread Electric Vehicle Use in the San Francisco Bay Area
World Electr. Veh. J. 2020, 11(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj11010003 - 19 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1490
Abstract
The San Francisco Bay Area (Bay Area) leads the United States and California in the rate of electric vehicle (EV) adoption. However, EVs only represent 3% of vehicles driving on Bay Area roads. Widespread EV adoption requires that all Bay Area residents participate [...] Read more.
The San Francisco Bay Area (Bay Area) leads the United States and California in the rate of electric vehicle (EV) adoption. However, EVs only represent 3% of vehicles driving on Bay Area roads. Widespread EV adoption requires that all Bay Area residents participate in the EV revolution regardless of demographics or geography. Equitable access to EVs will ensure that all Bay Area residents benefit from improved air quality, lower fuel and maintenance costs, and a better driving experience. Below, we delve into the unique EV market in the Bay Area and present information and insights from the Bay Area Air Quality Management District’s (Air District) EV programs. Full article
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Article
Predicting Electric Vehicle Consumption: A Hybrid Physical-Empirical Model
World Electr. Veh. J. 2020, 11(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj11010002 - 18 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1572
Abstract
Electric vehicles are becoming more important in our society. Using them in a fleet to minimize energy cost is, therefore, a compelling opportunity for taxi companies. It is crucial to develop accurate models that estimate energy consumption for traveling from one point to [...] Read more.
Electric vehicles are becoming more important in our society. Using them in a fleet to minimize energy cost is, therefore, a compelling opportunity for taxi companies. It is crucial to develop accurate models that estimate energy consumption for traveling from one point to another. Consumption can be estimated using a physical model, but such a model fails to fit real-world data, especially in taxi-driving conditions. We compare different approaches to learn from historical data in order to correct/improve the physical model. Similar techniques can be used to estimate consumption for a new vehicle model, which can be useful for companies that want to add a new vehicle model for which they do not have historical data. Full article
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Article
Framework Conditions and Potential Measures for Small Electric Vehicles on a Municipal Level
World Electr. Veh. J. 2020, 11(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj11010001 - 18 Dec 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1252
Abstract
Responding to pressing problems arising from growing urban populations and mass motorization, municipalities need to take action. The resulting conditions include congested cities, poor air quality and quality of life. Providing contextual conditions and thereby increasing the amount of small electric vehicles could [...] Read more.
Responding to pressing problems arising from growing urban populations and mass motorization, municipalities need to take action. The resulting conditions include congested cities, poor air quality and quality of life. Providing contextual conditions and thereby increasing the amount of small electric vehicles could help reduce land use and improve air quality. Based on outcomes of expert interviews and an online survey, the status-quo of antecedences and barriers as well as potential measures for the implementation of small electric vehicles on a municipal level is outlined. To get an international and comprehensive view, experts from the USA, Asia and Europe participated. Results show that there are several obstacles that have to be overcome on local, national and international levels. For local policymakers especially, there is an array of measures available. The combination of push and pull measures is one key element. In this way, infrastructural changes, financial incentives, strategic implementations and soft measures to raise awareness could help the process of a market take-off immensely. Full article
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Article
New Operating Strategies for an On-the-Road Modular, Electric and Autonomous Vehicle Concept in Urban Transportation
World Electr. Veh. J. 2019, 10(4), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj10040091 - 13 Dec 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1612
Abstract
Today commercial transport in urban areas faces major challenges. These include making optimal use of limited space, avoiding empty trips, meeting driver shortages as well as reducing costs and emissions such as CO2, particulate matter and noise. The mutual acceleration and [...] Read more.
Today commercial transport in urban areas faces major challenges. These include making optimal use of limited space, avoiding empty trips, meeting driver shortages as well as reducing costs and emissions such as CO2, particulate matter and noise. The mutual acceleration and reinforcement of technological trends such as electrification, digitization and automation may enable new vehicle and mobility concepts that can meet these challenges. One possible vehicle concept is presented in this article. It is based on on-the-road modularization, i.e., a vehicle that can change different transport capsules during operation. The vehicle is divided into an electrically propelled autonomous drive unit and a transport unit. Standardized interfaces between these units enable the easy design of capsules for different uses, while the drive unit can be used universally. Business models and operating strategies that allow optimal use of this vehicle concept are discussed in depth in the article. First, the current situation is analyzed followed by a detailed description of an exemplary business model using a business model canvas. The operating strategies and logistics concepts are illustrated and compared with conventional concepts. Full article
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Article
How to Improve the Total Cost of Ownership of Electric Vehicles: An Analysis of the Light Commercial Vehicle Segment
World Electr. Veh. J. 2019, 10(4), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj10040090 - 13 Dec 2019
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2663
Abstract
This paper analyses how the total cost of ownership (TCO) of electric light commercial vehicles change with the number of kilometers driven, the period of ownership, the residual value of the battery, and different fiscal incentives, as well as a kilometer charging scheme. [...] Read more.
This paper analyses how the total cost of ownership (TCO) of electric light commercial vehicles change with the number of kilometers driven, the period of ownership, the residual value of the battery, and different fiscal incentives, as well as a kilometer charging scheme. This paper demonstrates that a kilometer-based charge and reduced fiscal incentives for conventional vans can drastically improve the TCO of electric commercial light duty vehicles. Second life applications for batteries could also have a strong impact on the TCO of electric vans as they could retrieve a better residual value. Finally, the paper shows that the TCO of electric vans can be optimized based on its usage. These are important findings given the ambitious objective of carbon free city logistics by 2030. Adoption of electric vans remains very low and this paper offers an up to date analysis to stimulate the electrification of light commercial vehicles, a segment that is growing fast in city logistics. Full article
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Article
Innovative and Highly Integrated Modular Electric Drivetrain
World Electr. Veh. J. 2019, 10(4), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj10040089 - 11 Dec 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3126
Abstract
A highly integrated electric drivetrain module with 157 kW peak power is presented, which incorporates novel technologies in the field of electric machines, power electronics and transmissions: 1. High-speed electric machine with six phases and injection mould polymer-bonded magnets; 2. High-ratio dual-speed transmission [...] Read more.
A highly integrated electric drivetrain module with 157 kW peak power is presented, which incorporates novel technologies in the field of electric machines, power electronics and transmissions: 1. High-speed electric machine with six phases and injection mould polymer-bonded magnets; 2. High-ratio dual-speed transmission with double planetary gear set (Ravigneaux gear set); 3. Gallium nitride (GaN) power electronics with winding reconfiguration feature.The combination of these components in one single housing makes the drive module flexible to integrate and to combine with conventional or alternative propulsion technologies, thus allowing various hybrid and electric drivetrain topologies. All technologies are selected in accordance with mass production potential and can therefore have a high impact on the automotive market in the future. Currently, the drive module is under development; the first models will be assembled in winter 2019. The integration into a demonstrator vehicle in 2020 will prove the potential of many new technologies and the suitability for the automotive market. Full article
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Article
The Influence of Electric Vehicle Charging on Low Voltage Grids with Characteristics Typical for Germany
World Electr. Veh. J. 2019, 10(4), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj10040088 - 10 Dec 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1844
Abstract
The increasing number of electric vehicles poses new challenges to the power grid. Their charging process stresses the power system, as additional energy has to be supplied, especially during peak load periods. This additional load can result in critical network situations depending on [...] Read more.
The increasing number of electric vehicles poses new challenges to the power grid. Their charging process stresses the power system, as additional energy has to be supplied, especially during peak load periods. This additional load can result in critical network situations depending on various parameters. These impacts may vary based on market penetration, the energy demand, the plug-in time, the charging rate, and the grid topology and the associated operational equipment. Hence, the impact of electric vehicles (EVs) on the power grid was analysed for twelve typical German low voltage grids by applying power flow calculations. One main result was that thermal and voltage-related network overloads were highly dependent on market penetration and grid topology. Full article
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Article
Motivations and Barriers for Using Speed Pedelecs for Daily Commuting
World Electr. Veh. J. 2019, 10(4), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj10040087 - 03 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2063
Abstract
Speed pedelecs, electric bicycles that can provide pedal assistance up to 45 km/h, have seen rapid uptake over the past ten years in Flanders, Belgium, yet perceptions around motivators and barriers have not been studied and understood in detail. This paper reports on [...] Read more.
Speed pedelecs, electric bicycles that can provide pedal assistance up to 45 km/h, have seen rapid uptake over the past ten years in Flanders, Belgium, yet perceptions around motivators and barriers have not been studied and understood in detail. This paper reports on the qualitative experiences of 100 participants from 10 Flemish companies who replaced their commuting vehicle by a speed pedelec for up to three weeks. Focus groups provided data in the identification of the motivators and the barriers towards speed pedelecs in comparison to those for bicycles and pedelecs classified in nine categories. The results from the focus groups show notable differences in motivators for using speed pedelecs compared to bicycles and pedelecs—the higher available speed and range within a given timeframe, which provides the possibility of better time management. The mental benefits and the competitive aspect of commuting with a speed pedelec were identified as new motivators. The purchase cost and the perception of safety as barriers remain, with reliability, flexibility, and planning identified as new barriers. Full article
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Article
Electric Trolley Trucks—A Techno-Economic Assessment for Germany
World Electr. Veh. J. 2019, 10(4), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj10040086 - 29 Nov 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2046
Abstract
Road freight transport is responsible for about one-third of road transport emissions and it is still growing. One solution to decarbonize this sector are electric trolley trucks powered by overhead lines. We compare electric trolley trucks to conventional diesel vehicles from a techno-economic [...] Read more.
Road freight transport is responsible for about one-third of road transport emissions and it is still growing. One solution to decarbonize this sector are electric trolley trucks powered by overhead lines. We compare electric trolley trucks to conventional diesel vehicles from a techno-economic perspective in Germany up to 2030. We find that an infrastructure set-up ordered by utilization of roads can be financed up to 2700 km with higher savings than cost. The impact on the energy system is lower than expected and the largest impacts are found in rural areas with highway intersections. Further fields of research are discussed. Full article
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Article
Quo Vadis Smart Charging? A Literature Review and Expert Survey on Technical Potentials and User Acceptance of Smart Charging Systems
World Electr. Veh. J. 2019, 10(4), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj10040085 - 28 Nov 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2178
Abstract
Uncontrolled charging of plug-in Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV) represents a challenge for the energy system. As a solution, recent studies propose smart charging to avoid grid congestion and to integrate renewable energy. While financial benefits for smart charging schemes are currently quite low, [...] Read more.
Uncontrolled charging of plug-in Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV) represents a challenge for the energy system. As a solution, recent studies propose smart charging to avoid grid congestion and to integrate renewable energy. While financial benefits for smart charging schemes are currently quite low, there are other objectives for smart charging. However, it is unclear for which objectives smart charging can be used most effectively and which arguments are most likely to convince end users of BEVs to use smart charging schemes. To fill this gap, we conducted a literature review of the premises and the objectives of smart charging and how they fit the end-user’s motivation to use such smart charging systems. To evaluate the results, we present findings of 16 domain experts who evaluated various statements on smart charging according to their technical correctness and their persuasiveness towards end users. The results show that experts consider those smart charging objectives as most persuasive towards end users which they consider technically correct. Moreover, cost savings and integration of renewable energies are rated highest on both scales. On the contrary, experts do not expect a positive impact of smart charging systems on battery life and rate it as not very convincing. Full article
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Article
Dynamic Wireless Power Transfer Charging Infrastructure for Future EVs: From Experimental Track to Real Circulated Roads Demonstrations
World Electr. Veh. J. 2019, 10(4), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj10040084 - 24 Nov 2019
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 3267
Abstract
In a context of growing electrification of road transport, Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) appears as an appealing alternative technology as it enables Electric Vehicles (EVs) to charge while driving and without any mechanical contact (with overhead cables or rails in the ground). Although [...] Read more.
In a context of growing electrification of road transport, Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) appears as an appealing alternative technology as it enables Electric Vehicles (EVs) to charge while driving and without any mechanical contact (with overhead cables or rails in the ground). Although the WPT technology background dates from the end of 20th century, recent advances in semiconductor technologies have enabled the first real demonstrations. Within the FABRIC European project, the French research Institute VEDECOM and its partners implemented a whole prototype wireless power transfer charging infrastructure. The first demonstrations of Inductive WPT in different real driving conditions (up to 20 kW, from 0 to 100 km/h, with one or two serial vehicles) were provided. This paper describes the prototype equipment and its instrumentation and provides the system characterization results. The future of the Inductive WPT technology is further discussed considering its different technical and economic challenges. In parallel, how this technology could be part of future generation road infrastructures is discussed. Future research and demonstration steps are presented in the conclusion. Full article
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Article
Connected and Shared X-in-the-Loop Technologies for Electric Vehicle Design
World Electr. Veh. J. 2019, 10(4), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj10040083 - 21 Nov 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1740
Abstract
The presented paper introduces a new methodology of experimental testing procedures required by the complex systems of electric vehicles (EV). This methodology is based on real-time connection of test setups and platforms, which may be situated in different geographical locations, belong to various [...] Read more.
The presented paper introduces a new methodology of experimental testing procedures required by the complex systems of electric vehicles (EV). This methodology is based on real-time connection of test setups and platforms, which may be situated in different geographical locations, belong to various cyber-physical domains, and are united in a global X-in-the-loop (XIL) experimental environment. The proposed concept, called XILforEV, allows exploring interdependencies between various physical processes that can be identified or investigated in the process of EV development. The paper discusses the following relevant topics: global XILforEV architecture; realization of required high-confidence models using dynamic data driven application systems (DDDAS) and multi fidelity models (MFM) approaches; and formulation of case studies to illustrate XILforEV applications. Full article
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Article
Design, Production, and Verification of a Switched-Reluctance Wheel Hub Drive Train for Battery Electric Vehicles
World Electr. Veh. J. 2019, 10(4), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj10040082 - 21 Nov 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1459
Abstract
This contribution deals with the topic of the consistent further development of a wheel hub motor for battery electric vehicles (BEV) based on the principle of an outer rotor switched reluctance machine (SRM). The research work presented in this paper was founded by [...] Read more.
This contribution deals with the topic of the consistent further development of a wheel hub motor for battery electric vehicles (BEV) based on the principle of an outer rotor switched reluctance machine (SRM). The research work presented in this paper was founded by the ERDF.NRW program, Investment for Growth and Employment and the European Regional Development Fund. The R&D project was named Switched-Reluctance fo(u)r wheel (SR4Wheel). Based on the experience made by first prototype Evolution 0 (EVO 0), developed in the Laboratory for Automation Engineering, Power Electronics and Electrical Drives of the Cologne University of Applied Sciences (CUAS), the test results of EVO 1, as well as the redesign, EVO 2 is presented in this paper. The prototype EVO 0, a first proof of concept leads to several optimizations and lessons learned for the predecessor model EVO 1. The overall target of developing such a gearless outer rotor wheel hub motor is the full integration of the complete machine including its power electronics into the given space between the original friction brake and the rim. Furthermore, due to the additional integration of the power electronics, great opportunities in terms of new vehicle design as well as retrofitting capabilities of already existing vehicle platforms can be achieved. Thereby, further drive train assembly space like the engine compartment is no longer necessary. The SRM does not require magnets for torque production which leads to independence from the changeable commodity prices on the rare earth element markets. This paper presents the developing process, testing, and verification of the innovative drive train concept starting with the final CAD of EVO 1. During the testing and verification process a machine characteristic mapping is performed on a drive train test bench and subsequently the results of a finite element analysis (FEA) are plausibility checked by the test bench results. The process continues with energy conversion test scenarios of the project demonstrator vehicle on a roller test bench focused on noise vibration harshness (NVH) behavior and efficiency. As a conclusion, the gained knowledge by evaluating two EVO 1 prototypes on the rear axle of the test vehicle, and the design for the front axle drive train EVO 2 will be presented. As a major task on the front axle, the limited space due to the large disc brake can be identified and solved. Full article
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Article
Electric Mobility and Smart Mobility Concepts—Restrained Uptake in German Cities
World Electr. Veh. J. 2019, 10(4), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj10040081 - 19 Nov 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1468
Abstract
Ninety German cities exceeded the European threshold on NO2 in 2016, 65 of those cities developed countermeasures and strategies that were published in Green City Plans (GCP). In the scope of this study, 55 publicly available GCPs were evaluated in order to [...] Read more.
Ninety German cities exceeded the European threshold on NO2 in 2016, 65 of those cities developed countermeasures and strategies that were published in Green City Plans (GCP). In the scope of this study, 55 publicly available GCPs were evaluated in order to assess their potential for traffic turnaround at a municipal level. All GCPs were analyzed to determine in which of the mentioned five to seven fields of action the respective city had planned measures and which fields of action were prioritized. A more in-depth qualitative analysis of the main topics: Electric mobility, public transport, and mobility concepts was carried out. To get a better understanding of the potential impact of the measures elaborated in the GCPs, complementary information on municipal fleet vehicle stocks, requirements of charging infrastructure for public buses and results of the European roadmap on mobility concepts are given. The evaluation of the GCPs showed that to this day, city administrations mainly optimize the current system by measures of electrification and digitization. Electrification of municipal fleets, car-sharing fleets, and public transport buses is in the focus of the strategies. Instruments to increase non-motorised transport, sustainable commercial transport, and/or mobility concepts are mentioned, but play a minor role. However, there still has been no system change in Germany. Therefore, a substantial turnaround of the transport system (“Verkehrswende”) is necessary. This applies to integrated urban and transport planning, flexible, strong, fast PT, non-motorised and flexible operating systems. Full article
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Article
Smart EV Charging: A Global Review of Promising Practices
World Electr. Veh. J. 2019, 10(4), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj10040080 - 18 Nov 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3074
Abstract
The electrification of transport in Europe is in the early stages of a market transformation that has the potential to significantly cut emissions in both the transportation and energy sectors, while generating wider benefits for society. The research underpinning this study finds that [...] Read more.
The electrification of transport in Europe is in the early stages of a market transformation that has the potential to significantly cut emissions in both the transportation and energy sectors, while generating wider benefits for society. The research underpinning this study finds that the greatest value from integrating electric vehicles (EVs) into the power grid can be generated by charging them when and where it is most beneficial for the power system, while ensuring consumers’ mobility needs are met at an affordable cost. An emerging body of research on electric vehicle grid integration focuses on modeling the cost of integration under various scenarios, but few studies look at the existing promising practices that are based on policy tools in use today. The authors of this study conducted a qualitative review of policies for EV grid integration in the EU and U.S. markets. We found that, in order to unlock the environmental and economic opportunities associated with market uptake, three policy strategies are most effective: cost-reflective pricing, intelligent technology, and integrated infrastructure planning. The study also explores the implications of these practices for policymakers and regulators in the EU (A short version of this paper was presented at the 32nd Electric Vehicles Symposium in Lyon, France, in May 2019). Full article
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Article
Understanding the Thermal Runaway of Ni-Rich Lithium-Ion Batteries
World Electr. Veh. J. 2019, 10(4), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj10040079 - 15 Nov 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3498
Abstract
The main safety issue pertaining to operating lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) relates to their sensitivity to thermal runaway. This complex multiphysics phenomenon was observed in two commercial 18650 Ni-rich LIBs, namely a Panasonic NCR GA and a LG HG2, which were based on [...] Read more.
The main safety issue pertaining to operating lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) relates to their sensitivity to thermal runaway. This complex multiphysics phenomenon was observed in two commercial 18650 Ni-rich LIBs, namely a Panasonic NCR GA and a LG HG2, which were based on L i ( N i 0.8 C o 0.15 A l 0.05 ) O 2 (NCA) and L i ( N i 0.8 M n 0.1 C o 0.1 ) O 2 (NMC811), respectively, for positive electrodes, in combination with graphite-SiOx composite negative electrodes. At pristine state, the batteries were charged to different levels of state of charge (SOC) (100% and 50%) and were investigated through thermal abuse tests in quasi-adiabatic conditions of accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC). The results confirmed the proposed complete thermal runaway of exothermic chain reactions. The different factors impacting the thermal runaway kinetics were also studied by considering the intertwined impacts of SOC and the related properties of these highly reactive Ni-rich technologies. All tested cells started their accelerated thermal runaway stage at the same self-heating temperature rate of ~48 °C/min. Regardless of technology, cells at reduced SOC are less reactive. Regardless of SOC levels, the Panasonic NCR GA battery technology had a wider safe region than that of the LG HG2 battery. This technology also delayed the hard internal short circuit and shifted the final venting to a higher temperature. However, above this critical temperature, it exhibited the most severe irreversible self-heating stage, with the highest self-heating temperature rate over the longest duration. Full article
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Article
Comparison of the Economic and Environmental Performance of V2H and Residential Stationary Battery: Development of a Multi-Objective Optimization Method for Homes of EV Owners
World Electr. Veh. J. 2019, 10(4), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj10040078 - 15 Nov 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1382
Abstract
The use of batteries of electric vehicles (EVs) for home electricity applications using a bidirectional charger, a process called vehicle-to-home (V2H), is attracting the attention of EV owners as a valuable additional benefit of EVs. To motivate owners to invest in V2H, a [...] Read more.
The use of batteries of electric vehicles (EVs) for home electricity applications using a bidirectional charger, a process called vehicle-to-home (V2H), is attracting the attention of EV owners as a valuable additional benefit of EVs. To motivate owners to invest in V2H, a quantitative evaluation to compare the performance of EV batteries with that of residential stationary batteries (SBs) is required. In this study, we developed a multi-objective optimization method for the household of EV owners using energy costs including investment and CO2 emissions as indices and compared the performances of V2H and SB. As a case study, a typical detached house in Japan was assumed, and we evaluated the economic and environmental aspects of solar power self-consumption using V2H or SB. The results showed that non-commuting EV owners should invest in V2H if the investment cost of a bidirectional charger is one third of the current cost as compared with inexpensive SB, in 2030. In contrast, our results showed that there were no advantages for commuting EV owners. The results of this study contribute to the rational setting of investment costs to increase the use of V2H by EV owners. Full article
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Article
Innovation Needs for the Integration of Electric Vehicles into the Energy System
World Electr. Veh. J. 2019, 10(4), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj10040076 - 12 Nov 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1443
Abstract
The mitigation of climate change and the substitution of fossil energy sources is one of the greatest tasks of our time. Electric mobility is the most promising solution to decarbonize the transport sector. As the market for electric vehicles is quickly gaining momentum, [...] Read more.
The mitigation of climate change and the substitution of fossil energy sources is one of the greatest tasks of our time. Electric mobility is the most promising solution to decarbonize the transport sector. As the market for electric vehicles is quickly gaining momentum, an urgent need for an intelligent integration of the energy and mobility system arises. This integration leads to a multitude of technical, economic and social challenges. Through a validated road-mapping process, the needs for future research, development, standardisation and regulation have been identified and visualised. Recommendations for action for decision-makers in politics and industry have been derived from those innovation needs. In summary, the most promising innovation path is the consequent application of smart and flexible charging concepts as well as an adaption of the regulations and roles in combination with the consequent usage of renewable energies. In five to ten years, also synergies through the exploitation of autonomous electric vehicles will gain momentum. Full article
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Article
Analysis of Optimal Battery State-of-Charge Trajectory for Blended Regime of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle
World Electr. Veh. J. 2019, 10(4), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj10040075 - 08 Nov 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1504
Abstract
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) typically combine several power sources, which call for the use of optimal control strategy design techniques. The PHEV powertrain efficiency can be improved if the battery is gradually discharged by blending fully electric and hybrid driving modes during [...] Read more.
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) typically combine several power sources, which call for the use of optimal control strategy design techniques. The PHEV powertrain efficiency can be improved if the battery is gradually discharged by blending fully electric and hybrid driving modes during the whole trip. Here, the battery state-of-charge (SoC) trajectory profile is of particular importance to achieving near-optimal powertrain operation. In order to reveal optimal patterns of SoC trajectory profiles, numerical optimizations of PHEV control variables based on the dynamic programing (DP) algorithm are conducted in the paper. The obtained optimal SoC trajectories are found to form linear-like profiles of minimum length when expressed with respect to travelled distance. Detailed analyses of the DP results point out that the SoC trajectory length is minimized in order to minimize electric losses, which is then reflected in reduced total fuel consumption. This finding is further justified by analyzing the problem of optimal discharging for the simplified battery-only system and for the powertrain as a whole. The impact of engine specific fuel consumption characteristic on the optimal SoC trajectory profile under simplified driving conditions is analyzed, as well. Full article
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Article
Governance in Maritime Passenger Transport: Green Public Procurement of Ferry Services
World Electr. Veh. J. 2019, 10(4), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj10040074 - 06 Nov 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1253
Abstract
Governance is central for sustainability transitions in maritime transport. Norwegian authorities can directly influence developments in maritime transport through green public procurement, and low- or zero-emission technologies have been or are being considered for more than 250 operational ferry and high-speed vessel connections. [...] Read more.
Governance is central for sustainability transitions in maritime transport. Norwegian authorities can directly influence developments in maritime transport through green public procurement, and low- or zero-emission technologies have been or are being considered for more than 250 operational ferry and high-speed vessel connections. This study explores practices of green public procurement and investigates procuring authorities and operators’ perspectives on the efficiency of green public procurement in accelerating sustainability transitions. Through review of calls for tender and interviews with procuring authorities and operators, the study identifies critical issues for green public procurement to accelerate maritime passenger transport toward sustainability. The critical issues are related to either procedural or service delivery issues. Procedural issues refer to timelines with multiple calls on the same time and different views of procurers and operators on the ideal duration of contracts. The most demanding service delivery issues are infrastructure for charging and energy capacity in remote areas where operators have to pre-book energy needs based on rough estimations which in turn increase the tender price. Full article
Article
Simulating Electric Vehicle Diffusion and Charging Activities in France and Germany
World Electr. Veh. J. 2019, 10(4), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj10040073 - 01 Nov 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1770
Abstract
Plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) are considered to reduce oil dependency, noise, and local air pollution as well as greenhouse gas emissions caused by road transportation. Today, the early market penetration phase has started and can be observed in many countries. But how could [...] Read more.
Plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) are considered to reduce oil dependency, noise, and local air pollution as well as greenhouse gas emissions caused by road transportation. Today, the early market penetration phase has started and can be observed in many countries. But how could the diffusion and adoption of PEV be modeled to create consistent scenarios? With which PEV driving and charging behavior can these scenarios be associated and what load-shifting potentials can be derived? This work provides an answer to these questions by describing a hybrid modeling approach of a PEV diffusion scenario consisting of a top-down macro-econometric Bass model, answering the question as to at what point in time how many PEV will be on the market, and a bottom-up micro-econometric binary logistic PEV adoption model answering who is likely to adopt. This set of methods is applied to representative mobility data sets available for France and Germany in order to simulate driving and charging behaviors of potential French and German PEV adopters. In addition, a sampling method is presented, which reduces computational times while intending to remain representative of the population of PEV adopters considered. This approach enables the consideration of PEV at a detailed level in an agent-based energy system model focusing on European day-ahead markets. Results show that PEV diffusion dynamics are slightly higher in France than in Germany. Furthermore, average plug-in times, average active charging periods, average load-shifting potentials, and average energy charged per PEV differ slightly between France and Germany. Computational times can be reduced by our approach, resulting in the ability to better integrate PEV diffusion, adoption, and representative charging demand in bottom-up energy system models that simulate European wholesale electricity markets. Full article
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Article
Comparative Concept Study of Passive Hybrid Energy Storage Systems in 48 V Mild Hybrid Vehicles Varying Lithium-Ion Battery and Supercapacitor Technologies
World Electr. Veh. J. 2019, 10(4), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj10040071 - 01 Nov 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1649
Abstract
A single energy storage technology will deliver either high power or high energy density. In high cycle applications like 48 V mild hybrid electric vehicles, lithium-ion batteries or supercapacitors have to be oversized to meet power, energy and cycle life requirements. However, a [...] Read more.
A single energy storage technology will deliver either high power or high energy density. In high cycle applications like 48 V mild hybrid electric vehicles, lithium-ion batteries or supercapacitors have to be oversized to meet power, energy and cycle life requirements. However, a passive hybrid energy storage system is able to meet those challenges, but its performance depends on several factors. In this study, simulations and experimental investigations show how the design and operation conditions influence the performance of a passive hybridized system. In a comparative study for 48 V systems, consequences on performance are discussed. Full article
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Article
Optimal Incentives for Electric Vehicles at e-Park & Ride Hub with Renewable Energy Source
World Electr. Veh. J. 2019, 10(4), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj10040070 - 31 Oct 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1056
Abstract
As electric vehicles’ penetration increases, more impacts on urban systems are observed and related to both driving (e.g., on traffic congestion and reduced pollution) and charging (e.g., on the electrical grid). Therefore, there is a need to design coupled incentive mechanisms. To propose [...] Read more.
As electric vehicles’ penetration increases, more impacts on urban systems are observed and related to both driving (e.g., on traffic congestion and reduced pollution) and charging (e.g., on the electrical grid). Therefore, there is a need to design coupled incentive mechanisms. To propose and numerically evaluate such incentives, a game theory model is adopted. Its originality comes from the coupling between the charging cost and the driving decisions: to drive downtown or to charge at an e-Park & Ride hub with solar panels and then take public transport, in order to reach destination. Optimal ticket fares and solar park’s size are computed using real photovoltaic production data. Full article
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Article
Material Characterization and Analysis on the Effect of Vibration and Nail Penetration on Lithium Ion Battery
World Electr. Veh. J. 2019, 10(4), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj10040069 - 30 Oct 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1283
Abstract
Battery packaging in a vehicle depends on the cell chemistry being used and its behavior plays an important role in the safety of the entire battery pack. Chemical degradation of various parts of a cell such as the cathode or anode is a [...] Read more.
Battery packaging in a vehicle depends on the cell chemistry being used and its behavior plays an important role in the safety of the entire battery pack. Chemical degradation of various parts of a cell such as the cathode or anode is a concern as it adversely affects performance and safety. A cell in its battery pack once assembled can have two different mechanical abuse condition. One is the vibration generated from the vehicle and the second is the intrusion of external elements in case of accident. In this paper, a commercially available 32,700 lithium ion cell with lithium iron phosphate (LFP) chemistry is studied for its response to both the abuse conditions at two different states of charge (SoC). The primary aim of this study is to understand their effect on the surface morphology of the cathode and the anode. The cells are also characterized to study impedance behavior before and after being abused mechanically. The cells tested for vibration were also analyzed for dynamic stiffness. A microscopy technique such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study the surface morphology and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) characterization was carried out to study the internal resistance of the cell. It was observed that there was a drop in internal resistance and increase in the stiffness after the cells subjected to mechanical abuse. The study also revealed different morphology at the center and at the corner of the cell subjected to nail penetration at 50% SoC. Full article
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Article
The Effect of Reducing Electric Car Purchase Incentives in the European Union
World Electr. Veh. J. 2019, 10(4), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj10040064 - 16 Oct 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2276
Abstract
The importance of electric car purchase incentives is starting to be questioned. The objective of this paper is to explore the potential effect of reducing or removing electric car purchase public subsidies in the European Union. To this end, the system dynamics Powertrain [...] Read more.
The importance of electric car purchase incentives is starting to be questioned. The objective of this paper is to explore the potential effect of reducing or removing electric car purchase public subsidies in the European Union. To this end, the system dynamics Powertrain Technology Transition Market Agent Model is used. The size and timing of purchase incentives for this technology in European countries are investigated under eight scenarios and sensitivity analysis performed. The simulations suggest that, in the short-run, the electric car market share is higher when the subsidies remain in place. In the medium-run, a purchase subsidy scheme granting €3000 for plug-in hybrid electric cars and €4000 for battery electric cars over the period 2020–2024 yields the fastest electric car market uptake of all the scenarios considered. We conclude that, though the current evolution of the battery price is favorable, electric car purchase subsidies remain an effective policy measure to support electro-mobility in the next years. Full article
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Article
Evaluation of the End-of-Life of Electric Vehicle Batteries According to the State-of-Health
World Electr. Veh. J. 2019, 10(4), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj10040063 - 08 Oct 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2176
Abstract
As a result of monitoring thousands of electric vehicle charges around Europe, this study builds statistical distributions that model the amount of energy necessary for trips between charges, showing that most of trips are within the range of electric vehicle even when the [...] Read more.
As a result of monitoring thousands of electric vehicle charges around Europe, this study builds statistical distributions that model the amount of energy necessary for trips between charges, showing that most of trips are within the range of electric vehicle even when the battery degradation reaches the end-of-life, commonly accepted to be 80% State of Health. According to these results, this study analyses how far this End-of-Life can be pushed forward using statistical methods and indicating the provability of failing to fulfill the electric vehicle (EV) owners’ daily trip needs. Full article
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Article
Comparison of Tab-To-Busbar Ultrasonic Joints for Electric Vehicle Li-Ion Battery Applications
World Electr. Veh. J. 2019, 10(3), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj10030055 - 14 Sep 2019
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 2597
Abstract
Recent uptake in the use of lithium-ion battery packs within electric vehicles has drawn significant attention to the selection of busbar material and corresponding thickness, which are usually based on mechanical, electrical and thermal characteristics of the welded joints, material availability and cost. [...] Read more.
Recent uptake in the use of lithium-ion battery packs within electric vehicles has drawn significant attention to the selection of busbar material and corresponding thickness, which are usually based on mechanical, electrical and thermal characteristics of the welded joints, material availability and cost. To determine joint behaviour corresponding to critical-to-quality criteria, this study uses one of the widely used joining technologies, ultrasonic metal welding (UMW), to produce tab-to-busbar joints using copper and aluminium busbars of varying thicknesses. Joints for electrical and thermal characterisation were selected based on the satisfactory mechanical strength determined from the T-peel tests. Electrical contact resistance and corresponding temperature rise at the joints were compared for different tab-to-busbar joints by passing current through the joints. The average resistance or temperature increase from the 0.3 mm Al tab was 0.6 times higher than the 0.3 mm Cu[Ni] tab, irrespective of busbar selection. Full article
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