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Energies, Volume 16, Issue 23 (December-1 2023) – 234 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Cybersecurity is a serious problem for cyber-physical smart grid networks. Therefore, understanding the intricate interplay between the cyber and physical domains and the potential effects of successful attacks on the power system using a comprehensive testbed is essential. This paper presents a state-of-the-art Hybrid Physical Co-simulation testbed developed for in-depth studies on the impact of cyber-attacks on the grid. The Hybrid SGTB is designed to take full advantage of the benefits of both co-simulation-based and physical-based testbeds. Based on this testbed, various attack strategies are tested, including man-in-the-middle (MitM), denial-of-service (DoS), data manipulation (DM), and setting tampering (change) on various power system topologies to analyze their impacts on grid stability, power flow, and protection reliability. View this paper
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17 pages, 4397 KiB  
Article
New Energy Commuting Optimization under Low-Carbon Orientation: A Case Study of Xi’an Metropolitan Area
by Xin Dai, Tianshan Ma and Enyi Zhou
Energies 2023, 16(23), 7916; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16237916 - 4 Dec 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 931
Abstract
Low-carbon travel is an important part of low-carbon cities and low-carbon transportation, and low-carbon transportation is an inevitable choice to slow down the growth of carbon emissions in China. All countries in the world are actively promoting new energy vehicles and attach great [...] Read more.
Low-carbon travel is an important part of low-carbon cities and low-carbon transportation, and low-carbon transportation is an inevitable choice to slow down the growth of carbon emissions in China. All countries in the world are actively promoting new energy vehicles and attach great importance to the application of the new energy industry in urban transportation. Commuting is an important part of urban life, and the choice of travel behavior has an important impact on traffic and environmental protection. Taking the Xi’an metropolitan area as an example, this paper expounds on the integrated development path of the industrial chain of new energy + travel in the metropolitan area and clarifies the energy transformation model of the integrated development of low-carbon transportation and energy. From the perspective of green and low-carbon, 1000 commuters were interviewed using a questionnaire survey, and the cumulative prospect model was used to verify the internal mechanism affecting commuters in metropolitan areas to choose new energy commuting. The results of the study show that new energy transportation modes play an important role in the low-carbon economy, and under different scenarios and assumptions, there are significant differences in the cumulative prospect values of the subway, new energy buses and fuel private cars, and corresponding optimization measures are proposed to increase the proportion of new energy commuting trips. The results will help further promote the development of a low-carbon economy and energy integration in the field of transportation and provide a reference for the sustainable development of public transportation. Full article
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34 pages, 6290 KiB  
Article
Enhancing Long-Term Wind Power Forecasting by Using an Intelligent Statistical Treatment for Wind Resource Data
by Monica Borunda, Adrián Ramírez, Raul Garduno, Carlos García-Beltrán and Rito Mijarez
Energies 2023, 16(23), 7915; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16237915 - 4 Dec 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1556
Abstract
Wind power is an important energy source that can be used to supply clean energy and meet current energy needs. Despite its advantages in terms of zero emissions, its main drawback is its intermittency. Deterministic approaches to forecast wind power generation based on [...] Read more.
Wind power is an important energy source that can be used to supply clean energy and meet current energy needs. Despite its advantages in terms of zero emissions, its main drawback is its intermittency. Deterministic approaches to forecast wind power generation based on the annual average wind speed are usually used; however, statistical treatments are more appropriate. In this paper, an intelligent statistical methodology to forecast annual wind power is proposed. The seasonality of wind is determined via a clustering analysis of monthly wind speed probabilistic distribution functions (PDFs) throughout n years. Subsequently, a methodology to build the wind resource typical year (WRTY) for the n+1 year is introduced to characterize the resource into the so-called statistical seasons (SSs). Then, the wind energy produced at each SS is calculated using its PDFs. Finally, the forecasted annual energy for the n+1 year is given as the sum of the produced energies in the SSs. A wind farm in Mexico is chosen as a case study. The SSs, WRTY, and seasonal and annual generated energies are estimated and validated. Additionally, the forecasted annual wind energy for the n+1 year is calculated deterministically from the n year. The results are compared with the measured data, and the former are more accurate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Volume Ⅱ: Advances in Wind and Solar Farm Forecasting)
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19 pages, 5795 KiB  
Article
Fault Detection on Power Transmission Line Based on Wavelet Transform and Scalogram Image Analysis
by Ahmed Sabri Altaie, Ammar Abbas Majeed, Mohamed Abderrahim and Afaneen Alkhazraji
Energies 2023, 16(23), 7914; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16237914 - 4 Dec 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1592
Abstract
Given the massive increase in demand for electrical energy, particularly owing to global climate change and population expansion, as well as the development of complicated electrical systems due to the urgent need for a sophisticated component to enhance power delivery, it becomes important [...] Read more.
Given the massive increase in demand for electrical energy, particularly owing to global climate change and population expansion, as well as the development of complicated electrical systems due to the urgent need for a sophisticated component to enhance power delivery, it becomes important to adopt a smart and contemporary approach that is also appropriate for the aim of protecting transmission lines (TLs) and ensuring the continuous delivery of electric power to customers. Consequently, a unique and highly reliable approach for identifying faults in TLs is presented in this work, which employs Wavelet Transform and is evaluated using Matlab simulation. Wavelets of various kinds were utilized to demonstrate their dependability. Furthermore, utilizing this approach has shown itself to be highly successful and has yielded spectacular results even when it is used on a complicated electrical network. Moreover, many types of faults were presented and afterward evaluated and verified for the network in various settings, which also demonstrated their potential to recognize faults within a relatively short space of time. This innovation will alter the idea of fault detection by providing a complete and integrated model for detecting faults in a TL, and it may be regarded as a revolution in the renewal of core principles in TL protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power System Protection)
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19 pages, 5702 KiB  
Article
Measuring and Modeling the Skin Effect for Harmonic Power Flow Studies
by Eduardo Tavares Silvério and Jose Rubens Macedo Junior
Energies 2023, 16(23), 7913; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16237913 - 4 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1246
Abstract
This research aims to quantify the skin effect and estimate expressions that well represent the phenomenon for harmonic power flow studies. The primary focus is to validate the behavior of the skin effect at harmonic frequencies ranging from 60 Hz to 960 Hz, [...] Read more.
This research aims to quantify the skin effect and estimate expressions that well represent the phenomenon for harmonic power flow studies. The primary focus is to validate the behavior of the skin effect at harmonic frequencies ranging from 60 Hz to 960 Hz, while considering various amplitudes of electric current. The investigation not only examines the measurement of the skin effect, but also considers the temperature of the tested conductors, aiming to analyze the increase in resistance resulting from temperature rise and resistivity changes. The measurement outcomes demonstrate notable increments in electrical resistance, with resistivity increases of up to 1.9% observed throughout the measurement process. Finally, based on the results obtained through laboratory measurements, mathematical expressions were estimated as a function of frequency. In order to evaluate the simulation time reduction by the proposed expressions, OpenDSS (version: 9.4.1.2; Electric Power Research Institute, Knoxville, TN, USA) software was used, which aims at quantifying the impact of the skin effect on the technical losses. The results from these simulations demonstrate that the proposed expressions to account for the skin effect in conductors reduce the simulation time by around 17% for harmonic power flow. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Electric Power System 2023)
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18 pages, 5611 KiB  
Article
Experimental and Numerical Evaluation of Solar Receiver Heat Losses of a Commercial 9 MWe Linear Fresnel Power Plant
by Edouard Montanet, Sylvain Rodat, Quentin Falcoz and Fabien Roget
Energies 2023, 16(23), 7912; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16237912 - 4 Dec 2023
Viewed by 789
Abstract
Evaluating the heat losses of linear Fresnel concentrator (LFC) receivers is crucial for determining plant efficiency and managing the flow rate in solar lines. This becomes particularly significant when operating in direct steam generation to manage the steam quality at the line outlet. [...] Read more.
Evaluating the heat losses of linear Fresnel concentrator (LFC) receivers is crucial for determining plant efficiency and managing the flow rate in solar lines. This becomes particularly significant when operating in direct steam generation to manage the steam quality at the line outlet. In general, the LFC receiver heat losses are determined experimentally on prototype systems to control the inlet condition or numerically using 3D computational fluid dynamics models or 1D mathematical models. The originality of this work is in reporting the study of heat losses of a commercial 9 MWe solar Fresnel power plant without impacting its electricity production. The experimentally measured receiver’s linear heat losses were found to be well represented by a second-degree polynomial function of the difference between the inlet/outlet fluid temperature average and the ambient temperature. Finally, to express the strong influence of wind speed on the receiver heat losses, a 1D single-phase model was developed and adapted to include the current receiver degradation. To conclude, the model was validated by comparing the experimental and theoretical results. Based on this comparison, it can be concluded that the model accurately predicts experimental heat losses with an acceptable uncertainty of ±30%, regardless of the wind velocity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Solar Thermal Technology)
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18 pages, 12466 KiB  
Article
Electromagnetic Vibration Analysis of Transverse Flux Permanent Magnet Linear Submersible Motor for Oil Production
by Mei Zhao, Yihao Li, Sicheng Zuo, Pingpeng Tang, Tong Yao, Huaqiang Zhang and Shunjie Wu
Energies 2023, 16(23), 7911; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16237911 - 4 Dec 2023
Viewed by 818
Abstract
A transverse flux linear motor is a special type of linear motor with a high thrust force density, and it has broad application prospects in the field of linear direct-drive systems. In the process of oil production, the vibration of the linear motor [...] Read more.
A transverse flux linear motor is a special type of linear motor with a high thrust force density, and it has broad application prospects in the field of linear direct-drive systems. In the process of oil production, the vibration of the linear motor poses a significant amount of harm to the system due to its special slender structure. This paper focuses on the electromagnetic vibration of a transverse flux permanent magnet linear submersible motor (TFPMLSM). Firstly, the no-load air gap flux density is calculated based on the field modulation principle. Secondly, the radial electromagnetic force (REF) of the TFPMLSM is calculated, and the finite element method (FEM) is used to analyze the time-space and spectral characteristics of the REF. Then, the influence of secondary eccentricity on the frequency spectrum of the REF is further concluded. Finally, the natural frequencies of each vibration mode are calculated using the modal superposition method and the influence of the REF on the motor vibration is obtained through magnetic-structural coupling analysis. The research results found that the motor does not cause resonance at low speeds, and the fundamental frequency of REF has the greatest impact on electromagnetic vibration. Full article
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17 pages, 5683 KiB  
Article
Effect of Sand and Dust Shading on the Output Characteristics of Solar Photovoltaic Modules in Desertification Areas
by Mingzhi Zhao, Rong Yu, Chun Chang, Daorina Bao, Aohan Mei, Yingjie Liu and Ningbo Wang
Energies 2023, 16(23), 7910; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16237910 - 4 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1005
Abstract
Photovoltaic power generation is rapidly developing as a kind of renewable energy that can protect the ecological environment. The establishment of photovoltaic power stations in desertification areas can play a very important role in desert windbreaks and sand fixation as well as improve [...] Read more.
Photovoltaic power generation is rapidly developing as a kind of renewable energy that can protect the ecological environment. The establishment of photovoltaic power stations in desertification areas can play a very important role in desert windbreaks and sand fixation as well as improve the ecological environment. The realization of the effective integration of photovoltaics and deserts can have multiple benefits for the economy, society, and ecology. However, the deposition of sand and dust caused by environmental factors in desertification areas can seriously affect the power generation efficiency of PV modules. In this study, the output characteristics of photovoltaic modules were tested under three wind speed conditions (5 m/s, 10 m/s, and 15 m/s), with different sand densities, sand particle sizes, and inclination angles. The experimental study showed that the module’s output power gradually decreased with an increase in the density of accumulated sand; the sand accumulation density on the surface of the photovoltaic module increased from 0 to 40 g/m2, and the maximum output power decreased by 32.2%. As the sand particle size increased, the maximum output power of the module rose and was gradually stabilized in the three wind speed groups. As the sand particle size increased, the maximum output power of the module increased and gradually stabilized in the three wind speed groups. When the wind speed was 15 m/s, the component output power of the angle had the largest drop; the tilt angle was 60° when the relative output power rate reached the minimum (i.e., 86.5%); that is, there was electrical energy loss of approximately 13.7%. The sand particle size and accumulated sand density were the control variables related to the module temperature and the transmittance of the proportion of the impact of the module filling factor differences. According to the curve analysis of the filling factor in different sand accumulation densities, the filling factor first increased and then decreased. In this test, the filling factor at the sand accumulation density of 35 g/m2 (module temperature valley) reached the peak value. The change trend for the component filling factor under different sand particle sizes fluctuated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section A2: Solar Energy and Photovoltaic Systems)
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22 pages, 8591 KiB  
Article
Numerical Study on the Effects of Partial Oxidation Fuel Reforming (POFR) on the Performance of a Natural Gas Engine
by Mingda Wang, Rui Zhou, Min Guan, Jian Zheng and Fei Yi
Energies 2023, 16(23), 7909; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16237909 - 4 Dec 2023
Viewed by 749
Abstract
Due to the issues of low flame speed and high CH4 emissions for a natural gas engine, investigations into the partial oxidation fuel reforming (POFR) method used in natural gas engines to blend H2 have become increasingly valuable. In this paper, [...] Read more.
Due to the issues of low flame speed and high CH4 emissions for a natural gas engine, investigations into the partial oxidation fuel reforming (POFR) method used in natural gas engines to blend H2 have become increasingly valuable. In this paper, the combustion process, engine performance, and emissions of a natural gas engine with fuel-reforming gases blended together have been numerically studied. The results show that a higher fuel-reforming ratio can effectively improve the engine combustion performance, especially at lean-burn conditions. Combustion with reformed gases can increase the thermal efficiency by almost 2% at the full-load condition, whereas fuel reforming significantly affects the natural gas engine’s power performance. Furthermore, CH4 and NOX emissions decrease significantly with increasing fuel-reforming ratio. In conclusion, fuel reforming for a natural gas engine has a promising future in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and improving economic performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section I2: Energy and Combustion Science)
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29 pages, 4141 KiB  
Review
Addressing Environmental Challenges: The Role of Hydrogen Technologies in a Sustainable Future
by Alessandra Di Nardo, Marcella Calabrese, Virginia Venezia, Maria Portarapillo, Maria Turco, Almerinda Di Benedetto and Giuseppina Luciani
Energies 2023, 16(23), 7908; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16237908 - 4 Dec 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1473
Abstract
Energy and environmental issues are of great importance in the present era. The transition to renewable energy sources necessitates technological, political, and behavioral transformations. Hydrogen is a promising solution, and many countries are investing in the hydrogen economy. Global demand for hydrogen is [...] Read more.
Energy and environmental issues are of great importance in the present era. The transition to renewable energy sources necessitates technological, political, and behavioral transformations. Hydrogen is a promising solution, and many countries are investing in the hydrogen economy. Global demand for hydrogen is expected to reach 120 million tonnes by 2024. The incorporation of hydrogen for efficient energy transport and storage and its integration into the transport sector are crucial measures. However, to fully develop a hydrogen-based economy, the sustainability and safety of hydrogen in all its applications must be ensured. This work describes and compares different technologies for hydrogen production, storage, and utilization (especially in fuel cell applications), with focus on the research activities under study at SaRAH group of the University of Naples Federico II. More precisely, the focus is on the production of hydrogen from bio-alcohols and its storage in formate solutions produced from renewable sources such as biomass or carbon dioxide. In addition, the use of materials inspired by nature, including biowaste, as feedstock to produce porous electrodes for fuel cell applications is presented. We hope that this review can be useful to stimulate more focused and fruitful research in this area and that it can open new avenues for the development of sustainable hydrogen technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Women in Hydrogen Energy)
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20 pages, 12715 KiB  
Article
Numerical Investigation of Unsteady Rotor–Stator Interaction Mechanism and Wake Transportation Characteristics in a Compressor with Non-Uniform Tip Clearance Rotor
by Guochen Zhang, Zhipeng Li, Qijiao Wang, Zhihui Xu and Zhiyuan Cao
Energies 2023, 16(23), 7907; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16237907 - 4 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 886
Abstract
This study aims to numerically investigate a transonic compressor by solving the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations. The flow mechanisms related to unsteady flow were carefully examined and compared between rotors with non-uniform tip clearance (D1) and small-value tip clearance (P1). The unsteady flow [...] Read more.
This study aims to numerically investigate a transonic compressor by solving the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations. The flow mechanisms related to unsteady flow were carefully examined and compared between rotors with non-uniform tip clearance (D1) and small-value tip clearance (P1). The unsteady flow field near the 50% and 95% blade span characterized by unsteady rotor–stator interaction was analyzed in detail for near-stall (NS) conditions. According to the findings, the perturbation of unsteady aerodynamic force for the stator is much bigger than that of the rotor. At the mid-gap between the rotor and stator, the perturbation of tangential velocity of the D1 scheme in the rotor and stator frame is reduced. At the rotor’s outlet region, the perturbation intensity is divided into three main perturbation regions, which are respectively concentrated in the TLV near the upper endwall, the corner separation at the blade root, and the wake of the whole blade span. Through the analysis of the wake transportation characteristics, it was found that when the wake passes through the stator blade surface, the wake exerts a substantial influence on the flow within the stator passage. It further leads to notable pressure perturbations on the stator’s surface, as well as affecting the development and flow loss of the boundary layer. The negative jet effect induces opposite secondary flow velocity on both sides of the wake near the stator’s surfaces. Therefore, the velocity at a specific point on the stator’s suction surface will decrease and then increase. Conversely, the velocity at a particular point on the pressure surface will increase and then decrease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Fluid Dynamics in Gas Turbines)
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18 pages, 3006 KiB  
Article
Modeling the Consumption of Main Fossil Fuels in Greenhouse Gas Emissions in European Countries, Considering Gross Domestic Product and Population
by Alicja Kolasa-Więcek, Agnieszka A. Pilarska, Małgorzata Wzorek, Dariusz Suszanowicz and Piotr Boniecki
Energies 2023, 16(23), 7906; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16237906 - 4 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1018
Abstract
Poland ranks among the leading European countries in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Many European countries have higher emissions per capita than the EU average. This research aimed to quantify the complex relationships between the consumption variables of the main fossil fuels, [...] Read more.
Poland ranks among the leading European countries in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Many European countries have higher emissions per capita than the EU average. This research aimed to quantify the complex relationships between the consumption variables of the main fossil fuels, accounting for economic indicators such as population and gross domestic product (GDP) in relation to GHG emissions. This research attempted to find similarities in the group of 16 analyzed European countries. The hypothesis of an inverted U-shaped environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) was tested. The resulting multiple regression models showed similarities in one group of countries, namely Poland, Germany, the Czech Republic, Austria and Slovakia, in which most of the variables related to the consumption of fossil fuels, including HC and BC simultaneously, are statistically significant. The HC variable is also significant in Denmark, Estonia, the Netherlands, Finland and Bulgaria, and BC is also significant in Lithuania, Greece and Belgium. Moreover, results from Ireland, the Netherlands, and Belgium indicate a negative impact of population on GHG emissions, and in the case of Germany, the hypothesis of an environmental Kuznets curve can be accepted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable and Low Carbon Development in the Energy Sector)
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3 pages, 185 KiB  
Editorial
Special Issue: “The Future of Nuclear Power for Clean Energy Systems”
by Mikołaj Oettingen, Paweł Gajda and Bartosz Ceran
Energies 2023, 16(23), 7905; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16237905 - 4 Dec 2023
Viewed by 769
Abstract
Currently, many countries are considering the construction of nuclear power plants as a result of rapidly changing global political and economic conditions [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Future of Nuclear Power for Clean Energy Systems)
20 pages, 3312 KiB  
Article
Evidence-Based Policymaking: Insights and Recommendations for the Implementation of Clean Energy Transition Pathways for Kenya’s Power Sector
by Neve Fields, David Ryves, Rudolf Yeganyan, Carla Cannone, Naomi Tan and Mark Howells
Energies 2023, 16(23), 7904; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16237904 - 4 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1273
Abstract
With ambitious targets to drastically increase economic activity over the next decade, Kenya’s future is undoubtedly energy-intensive. Current power capacity expansion plans will see Kenya considerably ramp up fossil fuel generation, significantly increasing emissions. Therefore, Kenya is at a crucial stage of its [...] Read more.
With ambitious targets to drastically increase economic activity over the next decade, Kenya’s future is undoubtedly energy-intensive. Current power capacity expansion plans will see Kenya considerably ramp up fossil fuel generation, significantly increasing emissions. Therefore, Kenya is at a crucial stage of its national development, with critical decisions to make regarding its future power expansion and production. OSeMOSYS modelling software (clicSAND version v1.1) is employed to produce a series of possible clean energy transition pathways to increase renewable power production under rapidly intensifying demand. This study integrates existing national priorities and policies into six modelled scenarios to provide insights into their generation, total production, and costs, which can assist future policymaking and capacity-building efforts. The high-level insights gained in this research were employed to suggest key recommendations for Kenya’s power sector. Most notably, policy alignment, increased wind power production, energy-efficiency penetration, finance and investment securement, the development of storage technologies, power transmission, and distribution improvements should be prioritised. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Energy Transition towards Carbon Neutrality)
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17 pages, 3835 KiB  
Article
Collaborative Optimal Configuration of a Mobile Energy Storage System and a Stationary Energy Storage System to Cope with Regional Grid Blackouts in Extreme Scenarios
by Weicheng Zhou, Ping Zhao and Yifei Lu
Energies 2023, 16(23), 7903; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16237903 - 4 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1017
Abstract
To address regional blackouts in distribution networks caused by extreme accidents, a collaborative optimization configuration method with both a Mobile Energy Storage System (MESS) and a Stationary Energy Storage System (SESS), which can provide emergency power support in areas of power loss, is [...] Read more.
To address regional blackouts in distribution networks caused by extreme accidents, a collaborative optimization configuration method with both a Mobile Energy Storage System (MESS) and a Stationary Energy Storage System (SESS), which can provide emergency power support in areas of power loss, is proposed. First, a time–space model of MESS with a coupled transportation network and power grids is constructed, as a MESS is more flexible than a SESS. Considering resilience and recovery, a minimization objective function for total cost, encompassing the hybrid energy storage investment cost, the power grid operation cost, and the load shedding penalty cost, is established. Moreover, considering SESS constraints and operational constraints, a hybrid configuration model is established. Then, considering the probability of extreme accidents, the scenario analysis method is used to address randomness, ensuring that the configuration results can be adapted to various scenarios. The proposed method can fully combine the time–space flexibility of MESS and the economic advantages of SESS, which can reduce the total cost and ensure the power system’s reliability. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by the improved IEEE33 system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section D: Energy Storage and Application)
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15 pages, 4510 KiB  
Article
Stick–Slip Vibration Characteristics Study of the Drill String Based on PID Controller
by Baoyong Yan, Jialin Tian, Xianghui Meng and Zhe Zhang
Energies 2023, 16(23), 7902; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16237902 - 4 Dec 2023
Viewed by 829
Abstract
In order to address the issue of drill string stick–slip vibration, which leads to drill bit wear and reduces the drilling velocity, we conducted a study on the characteristics of stick–slip vibration using a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller. By applying the principles of rigid [...] Read more.
In order to address the issue of drill string stick–slip vibration, which leads to drill bit wear and reduces the drilling velocity, we conducted a study on the characteristics of stick–slip vibration using a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller. By applying the principles of rigid body mechanics, we established a two-degree-of-freedom torsional dynamics equation and derived the first-order differential dynamics equation for the drill string. Subsequently, we designed a PID controller and obtained an equation for the control of stick–slip vibration. The research findings indicate that variations in the difference between the static and dynamic friction coefficients directly impact the nature of the limit cycles in the phase plane. As this difference decreases, the limit cycle narrows and the stick–slip vibrations weaken progressively. When the static and dynamic friction coefficients are equalized, no stick–slip vibrations occur within the drill string. The implementation of PID control effectively manages stick–slip vibrations in the drill string, with greater efficiency observed in controlling the turntable velocity compared to the drill bit velocity. This research provides valuable insights for the development of control strategies aimed at mitigating stick–slip vibrations in drilling engineering applications, thereby facilitating the efficient and safe extraction of oil and gas resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section H: Geo-Energy)
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12 pages, 2289 KiB  
Article
Effect of Glucose and Methylene Blue in Microbial Fuel Cells Using E. coli
by Carolina Montoya-Vallejo, Jorge Omar Gil Posada and Juan Carlos Quintero-Díaz
Energies 2023, 16(23), 7901; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16237901 - 4 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1329
Abstract
Microbial fuel cells could be used as an alternative for wastewater treatment and electricity generation. Escherichia coli is a representative bacterium that has been widely studied as a model in laboratory assays despite its limited ability to transfer electrons. Although previous studies have [...] Read more.
Microbial fuel cells could be used as an alternative for wastewater treatment and electricity generation. Escherichia coli is a representative bacterium that has been widely studied as a model in laboratory assays despite its limited ability to transfer electrons. Although previous studies have employed glucose and methylene blue in electricity production using E. coli, there remains a lack of understanding on how current generation would impact the production of metabolites and what the most appropriate conditions for current production might be. To shed light on those issues, this manuscript used a 32 factorial design to evaluate the effect of the concentration of organic matter (glucose) and the concentration of the mediator methylene blue (MB) using E. coli DH5α as an anodic microorganism. It was found that as the concentration of glucose was increased, the production of electricity increased and at the same time, its degradation percentage decreased. Similarly, a 17-fold increase in current production was observed with an elevation in methylene blue concentration from 0 to 0.3 mM, though inhibition became apparent at higher concentrations. The maximum power generated by the cell was 204.5 µW m−2, achieving a current density of 1.434 mA m−2 at concentrations of 5 g L−1 of glucose and 0.3 mM of MB. Reductions in the production of ethanol, lactate, and acetate were observed due to the deviation of electrons to the anode. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Chemical and Biochemical Processes for Energy Sources)
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15 pages, 2488 KiB  
Article
A Data-Driven Architecture for Smart Renewable Energy Microgrids in Non-Interconnected Zones: A Colombian Case Study
by Ramón Fernando Colmenares-Quintero, Gina Maestre-Gongora, Oscar Camilo Valderrama-Riveros, Marieth Baquero-Almazo and Kim E. Stansfield
Energies 2023, 16(23), 7900; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16237900 - 4 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1285
Abstract
Implementing smart microgrids for Non-Interconnected Zones (NIZs) has become an alternative solution to provide electrical energy by taking advantage of the resources available through the generation of renewable energy within these isolated areas. Within this context, in this study, the challenges related to [...] Read more.
Implementing smart microgrids for Non-Interconnected Zones (NIZs) has become an alternative solution to provide electrical energy by taking advantage of the resources available through the generation of renewable energy within these isolated areas. Within this context, in this study, the challenges related to microgrids and data analysis are presented, and different relevant data architectures described in the literature are compared. This paper focuses on the design of a data architecture for a smart microgrid for NIZs whose microgrid contains two 260 W solar panels, a 480 W inverter, and two 260 Ah batteries. Regarding the Colombian context, this paper describes the limitations (connectivity, isolation, appropriation of technologies) and opportunities (low demand, access to natural resources, state interest) from which the functional and non-functional requirements for the architecture are established. Finally, a data architecture is proposed and implemented in a NIZ in Colombia, and this paper also includes a description of the architecture, its characteristics, its associated opportunities and challenges, and discussions regarding its implementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section A: Sustainable Energy)
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16 pages, 10066 KiB  
Article
Study on the Effect of Parameter Sensitivity on Engine Optimization Results
by Kuo Jiang, Hong Zeng, Zefan Wu, Jianping Sun, Cai Chen and Bing Han
Energies 2023, 16(23), 7899; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16237899 - 4 Dec 2023
Viewed by 906
Abstract
The effects of six control parameters, intake valve opening timing (IVO), exhaust valve opening timing (EVO), compression ratio (CR), engine speed, intake temperature, and intake pressure on engine output power, indicated specific fuel consumption (ISFC), and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions, are analyzed through [...] Read more.
The effects of six control parameters, intake valve opening timing (IVO), exhaust valve opening timing (EVO), compression ratio (CR), engine speed, intake temperature, and intake pressure on engine output power, indicated specific fuel consumption (ISFC), and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions, are analyzed through engine simulation. The six parameters were categorized into two groups based on the degree of influence: high influence (EVO, speed and intake pressure) and low influence (CR, IVO and intake temperature). The relationship between these two groups of parameters and power, ISFC and NOx emissions was explored. Optimization was carried out for each of the two groups of parameters, and the optimization of the high impact parameters resulted in a higher diversity and wider distribution of the solution set. On the other hand, the optimization of the low-impact parameters resulted in a more concentrated distribution of the solution set, while better reflecting the trade-off between the optimization objectives. For the optimal solutions for both sets of parameters, the high-impact parameters provided significant optimization performance compared to the standard operating conditions. Although power and ISFC were optimized, the optimal solution for the low-impact parameter performed poorly with a significant increase in NOx emissions. Therefore, the parameters should be evaluated for optimization using high impact parameters to improve engine performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section I2: Energy and Combustion Science)
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22 pages, 3725 KiB  
Article
Fully Distributed Optimal Economic Dispatch for Microgrids under Directed Communication Networks Considering Time Delays
by Yuhang Zhang and Ming Ni
Energies 2023, 16(23), 7898; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16237898 - 4 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 748
Abstract
Distributed generation and demand-side management are expected to play a more prominent role in future power systems. However, the increased number of generations and load demands pose new challenges to optimal energy management in a microgrid. In this paper, an economic dispatch model [...] Read more.
Distributed generation and demand-side management are expected to play a more prominent role in future power systems. However, the increased number of generations and load demands pose new challenges to optimal energy management in a microgrid. In this paper, an economic dispatch model for microgrids considering Traditional Generators (TGs), energy storage units, wind turbines (WTs), and flexible loads is established. To tackle the Economic Dispatch Problem (EDP) over directed communication networks, a fully distributed algorithm developed by leveraging a two-step state information exchange mechanism is proposed. In addition, by employing a fixed stepsize, the proposed algorithm demonstrates rapid convergence. Furthermore, our algorithm is well-suited for nonquadratic convex cost functions. Subsequently, we extend our algorithm to address imperfect communication scenarios. Even in the presence of arbitrarily large yet bounded time delays, our algorithm exhibits robustness. Finally, several numerical examples are given to verify the correctness and effectiveness of the developed results. Full article
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20 pages, 332 KiB  
Review
Review of Hot Topics in the Sustainable Development of Energy, Water, and Environment Systems Conference in 2022
by Wenxiao Chu, Maria Vicidomini, Francesco Calise, Neven Duić, Poul Alberg Østergaard, Qiuwang Wang and Maria da Graça Carvalho
Energies 2023, 16(23), 7897; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16237897 - 4 Dec 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2026
Abstract
The current applications in the energy sector are based largely on fossil fuels which release greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere. To face the issue of global warming, the energy sector has to transfer to and develop sustainable energy solutions that do not [...] Read more.
The current applications in the energy sector are based largely on fossil fuels which release greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere. To face the issue of global warming, the energy sector has to transfer to and develop sustainable energy solutions that do not release carbon emissions. This is one of the primary motivators for the SDEWES conference as well as for this review, and previous ones, examining the most recent works based on sustainable and green energy production in such fields. The 17th Conference on the Sustainable Development of Energy, Water, and Environment Systems (SDEWES) was held on 6–10 November 2022 in Paphos, Cyprus. The SDEWES conference aims at solving complex and ongoing concerns that approach a long-term perspective and supporting innovative solutions and continuous monitoring and evaluation. This review paper aims at collecting the main presented papers focused on the following hot topics: low-carbon technologies based on renewable and clean-energy systems, including mainly biomass, solar, and wind energy applications; energy storage systems; hydrogen-based systems; energy-saving strategies in buildings; and the adoption of smart management strategies using renewable energy systems. These topics are investigated in order to propose solutions to address the issues of climate change, water scarcity, and energy saving. From the analyzed works, we note that some key issues for sustainable development remain to be further addressed: such as novel and advanced energy storage systems, green hydrogen production, novel low-temperature district heating and cooling networks, novel solar technologies for the simultaneous production of power and high temperature heat, solar desalination for hydrogen production systems, and agrivoltaic systems for the production of power and food. Full article
15 pages, 2233 KiB  
Article
Calorific Value Prediction Model Using Structure Composition of Heat-Treated Lignocellulosic Biomass
by Sunyong Park, Seon Yeop Kim, Ha Eun Kim, Kwang Cheol Oh, Seok Jun Kim, La Hoon Cho, Young Kwang Jeon and DaeHyun Kim
Energies 2023, 16(23), 7896; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16237896 - 3 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1119
Abstract
This study aims to identify an equation for predicting the calorific value for heat-treated biomass using structural analysis. Different models were constructed using 129 samples of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, and calorific values obtained from previous studies. These models were validated using 41 [...] Read more.
This study aims to identify an equation for predicting the calorific value for heat-treated biomass using structural analysis. Different models were constructed using 129 samples of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, and calorific values obtained from previous studies. These models were validated using 41 additional datasets, and an optimal model was identified using its results and following performance metrics: the coefficient of determination (R2), mean absolute error (MAE), root-mean-squared error (RMSE), average absolute error (AAE), and average bias error (ABE). Finally, the model was verified using 25 additional data points. For the overall dataset, R2 was ~0.52, and the RMSE range was 1.46–1.77. For woody biomass, the R2 range was 0.78–0.83, and the RMSE range was 0.9626–1.2810. For herbaceous biomass, the R2 range was 0.5251–0.6001, and the RMSE range was 1.1822–1.3957. The validation results showed similar or slightly poorer performances. The optimal model was then tested using the test data. For overall biomass and woody biomass, the performance metrics of the obtained model were superior to those in previous studies, whereas for herbaceous biomass, lower performance metrics were observed. The identified model demonstrated equal or superior performance compared to linear models. Further improvements are required based on a wider range of structural biomass data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Energy Development in Liquid Waste and Biomass)
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15 pages, 1624 KiB  
Article
Implications of Growing Wind and Solar Penetration in Retail Electricity Markets with Gradual Demand Response
by Chin Hui Hao, Presley K. Wesseh, Jr., David Iheke Okorie and Hermas Abudu
Energies 2023, 16(23), 7895; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16237895 - 3 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 893
Abstract
Time-of-use pricing in retail electricity markets implies that wholesale market scarcity becomes easily communicated to end consumers. Yet, it is not well-understood if and how the price formation process in retail electricity markets will help to reward the demand for operational flexibility due [...] Read more.
Time-of-use pricing in retail electricity markets implies that wholesale market scarcity becomes easily communicated to end consumers. Yet, it is not well-understood if and how the price formation process in retail electricity markets will help to reward the demand for operational flexibility due to growth in intermittent generation. To contribute to this discussion, this paper develops a partial equilibrium model of the retail electricity market calibrated to Chinese data. The paper finds that tariffs in this market may not be significantly suppressed by growth in near-zero costs renewable sources when controlling for flexibility restrictions on thermal generation assets and when a significant curtailment of variable renewable resources exists in the market. In addition, it shows that the price formation process in retail electricity markets which controls for flexibility restrictions on thermal generation while allowing for consumers to respond slowly to price changes is a feasible strategy to reward the demand for operational flexibility. Finally, the paper reveals that while integrating intermittent generation beyond levels which the available storage capacities can accommodate may result in losses to producers, benefits to consumers may offset these losses, leading to overall welfare gains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Solar and Wind Power and Energy Forecasting)
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15 pages, 2115 KiB  
Article
Techno-Economic Evaluation of a Compressed CO2 Energy Storage System for Load Shifting Based on Dynamic Modelling
by Bin Zhang, Junbo Yang, Sule Tian, Qingxi Huang, Wei Wang, Qie Sun and Xiaohan Ren
Energies 2023, 16(23), 7894; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16237894 - 3 Dec 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1048
Abstract
To reduce the electricity grid’s valley—peak difference, thereby resulting in a smoother electricity load, this study employs a compressed CO2 energy storage system to facilitate load shifting. Load shifting by the CCES system not only enhances the energy flexibility of the electricity [...] Read more.
To reduce the electricity grid’s valley—peak difference, thereby resulting in a smoother electricity load, this study employs a compressed CO2 energy storage system to facilitate load shifting. Load shifting by the CCES system not only enhances the energy flexibility of the electricity load but also creates energy arbitrage from variations in the electricity prices. An optimization model is developed to optimize the operation of the CCES system to minimize the standard deviation of the electricity load. Thereby, load shifting by the CCES system can be achieved. Based on the real electricity loads and prices, results indicate that, with an energy storage capacity of 267 MWh, the CCES system can provide 3845 MWh, 4052 MWh, and 3816 MWh of upward flexible energy and 3846 MWh, 3180 MWh, and 3735 MWh of downward flexible energy during a week in summer, winter, and the transition season, respectively. With a lifespan of 35 years, the CCES system can attain a net present value (NPV) of MUSD 239.9 and a payback time of 2 years. The sensitivity analysis shows that increasing the energy storage capacity of the CCES system augments both the upward and downward flexible energy of the electricity load but reduces the NPV of the CCES system. Full article
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23 pages, 8301 KiB  
Article
Passive Mixing and Convective Heat Transfer Enhancement for Nanofluid Flow across Corrugated Base Microchannels
by Ali Ammar Naqvi, Emad Uddin and Muhammad Zia Ullah Khan
Energies 2023, 16(23), 7893; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16237893 - 3 Dec 2023
Viewed by 998
Abstract
Vortex generators and pin fins are conventionally used to deliver fluid mixing and improved convective heat transfer. The increased pressure loss following a fractional increase in heat transfer, as well as the complex manufacturing design, leave room for improvement. The present work proposes [...] Read more.
Vortex generators and pin fins are conventionally used to deliver fluid mixing and improved convective heat transfer. The increased pressure loss following a fractional increase in heat transfer, as well as the complex manufacturing design, leave room for improvement. The present work proposes a novel diverging–converging base corrugation model coupled with vortex generation using simple geometrical modifications across rectangular microchannels to ensure a superior performance. The Nusselt number, friction factor, and flow phenomenon were numerically studied across a Reynolds number range of 50–1000. The optimum cross-section of the microchannel-generating vortices was determined after thorough study, and base corrugation was further added to improve heat transfer. For the vortex–corrugation modeling, the heat transfer enhancement was verified in two optimized cases: (1) curved corrugated model, (2) interacting corrugated model. In the first case, an optimized curve generating Dean vortices was coupled with base corrugation. An overall increase in the Nusselt number of up to 32.69% and the thermal performance of “1.285 TPF” were observed at a high Reynolds number. The interacting channels with connecting bridges of varying width were found to generate vortices in the counter-flow configuration. The thermal performance of “1.25 TPF” was almost identical to the curved corrugated model; however, a major decrease in pressure, with a loss of 26.88%, was observed for this configuration. Full article
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18 pages, 7308 KiB  
Article
Improved Isothermal Relaxation Current Measurement Based on Isolated Circuit for Nondestructive Evaluation of High-Voltage Cable Insulation
by Huangjing Gu, Yongkang Zhang, Bin Shen, Ziqi Liu, Yunjie Zhou, Xiaodi Wang, Xinyang Zhu and Yalin Wang
Energies 2023, 16(23), 7892; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16237892 - 3 Dec 2023
Viewed by 948
Abstract
The Isothermal Relaxation Current (IRC) method, as a non-destructive condition evaluation method based on insulation dielectric response, has been applied in the maintenance of power cables. However, the relaxation current is usually conducted through the outer shield of the high-voltage wire, which will [...] Read more.
The Isothermal Relaxation Current (IRC) method, as a non-destructive condition evaluation method based on insulation dielectric response, has been applied in the maintenance of power cables. However, the relaxation current is usually conducted through the outer shield of the high-voltage wire, which will introduce the extra depolarization current into the test circuit, affecting the accuracy of the test results. Furthermore, most IRC cable measurements are single-phase, which means depolarization currents are measured for each cable separately. In order to improve the measurement accuracy and efficiency of the IRC test, this paper proposes an improved IRC measurement method based on an isolated circuit, which discharges the interference current from the high-voltage insulated wire back to the earth and reduces the measurement error of depolarization current. At the same time, a three-phase IRC simultaneous test system is designed, and the control software is developed. Furthermore, by verifying the accuracy of the test system, the independence of the single-phase circuit and the consistency of the three-phase circuit is achieved. The effect of depolarization time and temperature on the relaxation current is then explored to determine the suitable parameter of the IRC test. Finally, the IRC system is used to evaluate the aging state of 10 kV cables with various aging conditions in the air and water for the longest 12 months. Critical parameters such as aging factor and time constants are compared to investigate the aging characteristics of tested cables with various aging conditions in the air and water. The proposed method and research conclusions can provide helpful references for the non-destructive condition evaluation for high-voltage cable insulation. Full article
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15 pages, 2695 KiB  
Article
Experimental Investigation of Single-Cylinder Engine Performance Using Biodiesel Made from Waste Swine Oil
by Ramozon Khujamberdiev, Haeng Muk Cho and Md. Iqbal Mahmud
Energies 2023, 16(23), 7891; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16237891 - 3 Dec 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 978
Abstract
The global push towards sustainable energy solutions has intensified research into alternative fuels, such as biodiesel. This study investigates the performance and emission characteristics of biodiesel derived from waste swine oil in comparison to traditional diesel fuel. Using an engine running at 75% [...] Read more.
The global push towards sustainable energy solutions has intensified research into alternative fuels, such as biodiesel. This study investigates the performance and emission characteristics of biodiesel derived from waste swine oil in comparison to traditional diesel fuel. Using an engine running at 75% load across a range of speeds (1200 rpm to 1800 rpm), various metrics such as Brake-Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC), Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE), and emissions including Carbon Monoxide (CO), Hydrocarbon (HC), Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Nitrogen Oxide (NOx), and smoke opacity were measured. The biodiesel demonstrated a higher BSFC (270 g/kWh) compared to diesel (245 g/kWh) but showed reduced Brake Thermal Efficiency (28.5% vs. 29.8%) compared to diesel. In terms of emissions, biodiesel blends recorded lower levels of CO, HC, and smoke opacity, but elevated levels of CO2 and NOx. The results indicate that while biodiesel from waste swine oil presents some environmental benefits, such as reduced CO, HC, and smoke emissions, challenges remain in terms of higher NOx emissions and less efficient fuel consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Bioenergy and Biofuel)
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24 pages, 5620 KiB  
Article
A Powerful Prediction Framework of Fracture Parameters for Hydraulic Fracturing Incorporating eXtreme Gradient Boosting and Bayesian Optimization
by Zhe Liu, Qun Lei, Dingwei Weng, Lifeng Yang, Xin Wang, Zhen Wang, Meng Fan and Jiulong Wang
Energies 2023, 16(23), 7890; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16237890 - 3 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1031
Abstract
In the last decade, low-quality unconventional oil and gas resources have become the primary source for domestic oil and gas storage and production, and hydraulic fracturing has become a crucial method for modifying unconventional reservoirs. This paper puts forward a framework for predicting [...] Read more.
In the last decade, low-quality unconventional oil and gas resources have become the primary source for domestic oil and gas storage and production, and hydraulic fracturing has become a crucial method for modifying unconventional reservoirs. This paper puts forward a framework for predicting hydraulic fracture parameters. It combines eXtreme Gradient Boosting and Bayesian optimization to explore data-driven machine learning techniques in fracture simulation models. Analyzing fracture propagation through mathematical models can be both time-consuming and costly under conventional conditions. In this study, we predicted the physical parameters and three-dimensional morphology of fractures across multiple time series. The physical parameters encompass fracture width, pressure, proppant concentration, and inflow capacity. Our results demonstrate that the fusion model applied can significantly improve fracture morphology prediction accuracy, exceeding 0.95, while simultaneously reducing computation time. This method enhances standard numerical calculation techniques used for predicting hydraulic fracturing while encouraging research on the extraction of unconventional oil and gas resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Development of Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources)
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13 pages, 4732 KiB  
Article
Numerical Analysis on the Effect of the Conduction Band Offset in Dion–Jacobson Perovskite Solar Cells
by Yongjin Gan, Guixin Qiu, Chenqing Yan, Zhaoxiang Zeng, Binyi Qin, Xueguang Bi and Yucheng Liu
Energies 2023, 16(23), 7889; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16237889 - 2 Dec 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1151
Abstract
Benefiting from the advantages of a high absorption coefficient, a long charge diffusion length, excellent carrier mobility, and a tunable bandgap, three-dimensional (3D) metal halide perovskites exhibit great potential for application in solar cells. However, 3D perovskite solar cells (PSCs) often suffer from [...] Read more.
Benefiting from the advantages of a high absorption coefficient, a long charge diffusion length, excellent carrier mobility, and a tunable bandgap, three-dimensional (3D) metal halide perovskites exhibit great potential for application in solar cells. However, 3D perovskite solar cells (PSCs) often suffer from poor long-term stability against moisture, heat, and light. To address this issue, reducing the dimension of perovskite and forming two-dimensional (2D) perovskites can be effective in slowing down the oxidation of the perovskite film and significantly improving device stability. In this study, 2D PSCs were designed with glass/FTO/TiO2/Dion–Jacobson (DJ) perovskite/NiOx/Au structures, based on the solar cell simulation software SCAPS. The absorption layers employed in the study included PeDAMA2Pb3I10, PeDAMA3Pb4I13, PeDAMA4Pb5I16, and PeDAMA5Pb6I19. The influence of the conduction band offset (CBO) variation in the range of −0.5 to 0.5 eV on cell performance was explored through a numerical simulation. The simulation results indicate that the open-circuit voltage and fill factor continue to increase, whereas the short-circuit current density remains almost unchanged when the CBO increases from −0.5 eV to 0 eV. The devices exhibit better performance when the value of the CBO is positive and within a small range. For DJ PSCs, controlling the CBO within 0.1–0.4 eV is conducive to better cell performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section A2: Solar Energy and Photovoltaic Systems)
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0 pages, 4644 KiB  
Review
Management of Fly Ash to Synthesise Geopolymers and Zeolites
by Paweł Baran, Jakub Sobala, Jakub Szczurowski and Katarzyna Zarębska
Energies 2023, 16(23), 7888; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16237888 - 2 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1541
Abstract
The purpose of the article was to conduct an in-depth literature review on the possibilities of managing combustion by-products (mainly fly ash) in the context of a closed-loop economy. First, information on the chemical composition of fly ash in Poland was collected and [...] Read more.
The purpose of the article was to conduct an in-depth literature review on the possibilities of managing combustion by-products (mainly fly ash) in the context of a closed-loop economy. First, information on the chemical composition of fly ash in Poland was collected and compared with the composition of fly ash in other European countries. The authors concentrated on describing methods for synthesizing geopolymers and zeolites using fly ash as a substrate. By-products of zeolite synthesis, which are strongly alkaline solutions, can be used as a substrate in the synthesis of geopolymers. A concept has been proposed to combine the synthesis of zeolites and geopolymers into a single process to close the material loop. The search for comprehensive technological solutions that take into account the ideas of a closed-loop economy is essential in an era of resource depletion, and this literature review encapsulates this topic area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section A: Sustainable Energy)
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24 pages, 9825 KiB  
Article
Stability Control Technology for Surrounding Rocks in Gob-Side Entry Driving with Small Coal Pillars under Dynamic Pressure
by Shihao Guo, Shanchao Hu, Junhong Huang, Zhihao Gao, Yafei Cheng, Jinming Han and Lei Yang
Energies 2023, 16(23), 7887; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16237887 - 2 Dec 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 980
Abstract
To address the support difficulties caused by the dynamic pressure from the adjacent working face in gob-side entry driving, this study, taking the 8103 working face of the Jinhuagong Coal Mine in Shanxi Province as an example, adopted methods such as theoretical analysis, [...] Read more.
To address the support difficulties caused by the dynamic pressure from the adjacent working face in gob-side entry driving, this study, taking the 8103 working face of the Jinhuagong Coal Mine in Shanxi Province as an example, adopted methods such as theoretical analysis, physical experiments, numerical simulations, and field practices to explore roof-cutting and pressure-relieving techniques to control the surrounding rocks in gob-side entry driving with small coal pillars under dynamic pressure. Fractures of the lateral roof, stresses on the surrounding rock, and deformations with different cutting-roof parameters were analyzed to determine the reasonable parameters for applications. The following results have been obtained. The longer the lateral cantilever length of the roof, the greater the load borne by the surrounding rock. Therefore, the key to reducing the confining pressure in a roadway is reducing the lateral cantilever length of the roof. After roof cutting, the roof of the gob area collapsed more completely. The stress on both sides of the coal pillar and that on the ribs of the solid coal dropped by 7.72 MPa and 4.16 MPa, respectively. The key roof-cutting parameters were analyzed by the UDEC numerical software, and the reasonable roof-cutting angle and height were determined to be 12° and 14 m. A support scheme combining “steel strip + bolt + anchor cable + roof cutting” was proposed. With the scheme applied, the displacement of both sides of the coal pillar was 61 mm shorter than that in the non-test section, and the duration in which the roadway was affected by mining was 11 days shorter. Therefore, the rationality of the selected roof-cutting and support parameters in this study is verified. The proposed scheme can effectively control the stability of surrounding rocks in gob-side entry driving with small coal pillars under dynamic pressure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimization of Coal Mining and Fossil Energy)
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