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Advanced Electric Power System 2023

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "F1: Electrical Power System".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (29 February 2024) | Viewed by 14804

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Electrical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Taoyuan City 32023, Taiwan
Interests: smart grid; control and planning for microgrid; intelligent methods applied to power systems
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Reliable power delivery from a generation system through transmission and distribution systems to end-users is crucial in a power market. A power system is a large-scale, dynamic, and nonlinear system, which has potential security, stability, or reliability problems. Thus, the development of advanced technologies and innovative methods applied to the modern electric power system is vital. Distributed generation resources, energy storage systems, electric vehicles, power electronics, demand responses, and advanced control devices are particularly addressed in a modern electric power system. To combat these power system problems, many approaches have been presented, such as hybrid intelligent systems, deep learning, big data analytics, decentralized control, wide area measurement, IoT, and advanced optimization.

“Advanced Electric Power System 2023” is a Special Issue in Energies that seeks to publish original papers on the generation, transmission, distribution, and utilization of electrical energy. It also aims to present important results on electric power systems, based on applied research, the development of new algorithms or components, the original application of existing knowledge, or new facilities applied to power systems.

Papers in the relevant area of advanced electric power systems, including (but not limited to) the following, are invited:

  1. Power system stability;
  2. Power system reliability;
  3. FACTS applied to power systems;
  4. Power system optimization;
  5. Intelligent methods applied to power system studies;
  6. Power market and demand response program;
  7. The control of generation systems;
  8. The operation of distribution systems;
  9. The control, operation, and planning of distributed generation resources;
  10. The control, operation, and planning of energy storage systems and electric vehicles;
  11. Smart communities with energy management systems;
  12. Renewable energy forecasting;
  13. Microgrid and virtual power plant;
  14. Active distribution network;
  15. Harmonics/voltage power quality;
  16. Power system resiliency.

Prof. Dr. Ying-Yi Hong
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • stability
  • reliability
  • sustainability
  • security
  • vulnerability
  • resiliency
  • smart grid

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Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

14 pages, 2543 KiB  
Article
Research on a Two-Layer Optimal Dispatching Method Considering the Mutual Aid of Peak Regulating Resources among Regional Power Grids
by Tianmeng Yang, Suhua Lou, Meng Zhang, Yanchun Li, Wei Feng and Jicheng Liu
Energies 2024, 17(3), 667; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17030667 - 30 Jan 2024
Viewed by 525
Abstract
Since the power generation structures and load characteristics in each province in China are quite different, the distribution of peak regulating resources and demands are extremely imbalance. Restricted by a low power marketization degree, peak regulating resource shortages, and transmission channel blocks, the [...] Read more.
Since the power generation structures and load characteristics in each province in China are quite different, the distribution of peak regulating resources and demands are extremely imbalance. Restricted by a low power marketization degree, peak regulating resource shortages, and transmission channel blocks, the efficient utilization of new energy is facing greater pressures. In order to improve the mutual aid in regional power grids and to obtain more precise simulation results, this paper proposes a two-layer optimization dispatching model, considering the mutual aid of peak regulation resources between each province. It determines the optimal startup mode and the units’ power output in each province and obtains the power output arrangements for all the units and the technical and economic indicators. The model and the solution method are original and innovative. And it effectively solved the unequal distribution problem between the peak regulating demands and resources of each provincial power grid. Finally, taking an actual regional power grid in China as an example, the simulation results show that the proposed model can significantly improve the utilization rate of new energy, which verifies the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed model and methods presented in this paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Electric Power System 2023)
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16 pages, 359 KiB  
Article
Fuzzy Inference System Development for Turbogenerator Failure Diagnosis on Floating Production Offloading and Storage Platform
by Patricio F. Castro, George Rossany Soares de Lira, Pablo Bezerra Vilar, Edson G. da Costa and Fabricio B. S. Carvalho
Energies 2024, 17(2), 392; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17020392 - 12 Jan 2024
Viewed by 640
Abstract
This paper introduces a novel approach for diagnosing failures within a turbogenerator mineral lube oil system, employing a fuzzy inference system (FIS) model. The study leverages real operational data collected from supervisory monitoring sensors across four turbogenerators over a three-year operational span, resulting [...] Read more.
This paper introduces a novel approach for diagnosing failures within a turbogenerator mineral lube oil system, employing a fuzzy inference system (FIS) model. The study leverages real operational data collected from supervisory monitoring sensors across four turbogenerators over a three-year operational span, resulting in a dataset comprising 40,456,663 input parameters. The failure modes were established through expert knowledge, using the Failure Mode, Effect, and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) documentation as the basis. Initially, the model’s universe variables were constructed using the sensor calibration range, and then the fuzzy membership functions were formulated based on the operational thresholds inherent to each measured parameter. The fault identification mechanism is underpinned by an inference system employing predefined rules, extrapolated from expert judgments encapsulating failure typologies specific to the turbogenerators’ mineral lube oil system, as delineated in the FMECA. The FIS model demonstrates notable efficacy in failure diagnosis with an overall performance evaluation of the system yielding satisfactory outcomes, having a 98.35% true positive rate for failure classification, coupled with a 99.99% true negative rate for accurate classification during normal system operation. These results highlight the visibility of the FIS model in diagnosing failures within the turbogenerator mineral lube oil system, thereby showcasing its potential for enhancing operational reliability and maintenance efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Electric Power System 2023)
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19 pages, 5702 KiB  
Article
Measuring and Modeling the Skin Effect for Harmonic Power Flow Studies
by Eduardo Tavares Silvério and Jose Rubens Macedo Junior
Energies 2023, 16(23), 7913; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16237913 - 4 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1151
Abstract
This research aims to quantify the skin effect and estimate expressions that well represent the phenomenon for harmonic power flow studies. The primary focus is to validate the behavior of the skin effect at harmonic frequencies ranging from 60 Hz to 960 Hz, [...] Read more.
This research aims to quantify the skin effect and estimate expressions that well represent the phenomenon for harmonic power flow studies. The primary focus is to validate the behavior of the skin effect at harmonic frequencies ranging from 60 Hz to 960 Hz, while considering various amplitudes of electric current. The investigation not only examines the measurement of the skin effect, but also considers the temperature of the tested conductors, aiming to analyze the increase in resistance resulting from temperature rise and resistivity changes. The measurement outcomes demonstrate notable increments in electrical resistance, with resistivity increases of up to 1.9% observed throughout the measurement process. Finally, based on the results obtained through laboratory measurements, mathematical expressions were estimated as a function of frequency. In order to evaluate the simulation time reduction by the proposed expressions, OpenDSS (version: 9.4.1.2; Electric Power Research Institute, Knoxville, TN, USA) software was used, which aims at quantifying the impact of the skin effect on the technical losses. The results from these simulations demonstrate that the proposed expressions to account for the skin effect in conductors reduce the simulation time by around 17% for harmonic power flow. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Electric Power System 2023)
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20 pages, 724 KiB  
Article
Detection of False Data Injection Attacks in a Smart Grid Based on WLS and an Adaptive Interpolation Extended Kalman Filter
by Guoqing Zhang, Wengen Gao, Yunfei Li, Xinxin Guo, Pengfei Hu and Jiaming Zhu
Energies 2023, 16(20), 7203; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16207203 - 23 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 985
Abstract
An accurate power state is the basis of the normal functioning of the smart grid. However, false data injection attacks (FDIAs) take advantage of the vulnerability in the bad data detection mechanism of the power system to manipulate the process of state estimation. [...] Read more.
An accurate power state is the basis of the normal functioning of the smart grid. However, false data injection attacks (FDIAs) take advantage of the vulnerability in the bad data detection mechanism of the power system to manipulate the process of state estimation. By attacking the measurements, then affecting the estimated state, FDIAs have become a serious hidden danger that affects the security and stable operation of the power system. To address the bad data detection vulnerability, in this paper, a false data attack detection method based on weighted least squares (WLS) and an adaptive interpolation extended Kalman filter (AIEKF) is proposed. On the basis of applying WLS and AIEKF, the Euclidean distance is used to calculate the deviation values of the two-state estimations to determine whether the current moment is subjected to a false data injection attack in the power system. Extensive experiments were conducted to simulate an IEEE-14-bus power system, showing that the adaptive interpolation extended Kalman filter can compensate for the deficiency in the bad data detection mechanism and successfully detect FDIAs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Electric Power System 2023)
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20 pages, 11782 KiB  
Article
Real-Time Control of a Battery Energy Storage System Using a Reconfigurable Synchrophasor-Based Control System
by Prottay M. Adhikari, Luigi Vanfretti, Hao Chang and Koushik Kar
Energies 2023, 16(19), 6909; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16196909 - 30 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1309
Abstract
Synchrophasor-driven smart grid applications aiming to orchestrate a diverse set of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) require extensive infrastructure including substantial instrumentation hardware, communication network extensions and controller installations for coordinated operation. This can make the overall installation expensive. Additionally, due to the computational [...] Read more.
Synchrophasor-driven smart grid applications aiming to orchestrate a diverse set of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) require extensive infrastructure including substantial instrumentation hardware, communication network extensions and controller installations for coordinated operation. This can make the overall installation expensive. Additionally, due to the computational complexity and data-intensive nature of the PDC functionality, most of the existing PDC implementations are on a purely software level, making them unsuitable for the real-time applications. To address this, the current paper proposes an alternate architecture for the real-time synchrophasor-based control of DER applications (e.g., microgrids) incorporating a centralized synchronization hardware designed to replace aggregation Phasor Data Concentrators (PDCs) and supplementary control algorithms into a singular reconfigurable hardware. This particular hardware is termed a Synchrophasor Synchronization Gateway and Controller (SSGC). The robustness of the proposed architecture is tested by using real-time (RT) Controller Hardware-In-the-Loop (CHIL) simulation-based experiments by manipulating the communication network that connects the SSGC with multiple Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) streams broadcasting data through the IEEE C37.118.2 protocol in real time. These PMU streams were generated by using a real-time microgrid model running on a Typhoon HIL 604 simulator. To manipulate the communication interface between the proposed SSGC hardware and the PMU streams, a configurable Wide Area Network (WAN) emulator and communication network impairment appliance deployed in the Candela Technologies CT910 external hardware was utilized. The real-time control system was expanded by incorporating a low-pass filter to eliminate the potential overswitching of a Battery Energy Storage System (BESS). The proposed architecture demonstrated a reliable performance under ideal to moderately tampered communication networks. However, under a significantly corrupted network, the performance of this architecture is acutely affected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Electric Power System 2023)
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17 pages, 2731 KiB  
Article
Long-Term Voltage Stability Bifurcation Analysis and Control Considering OLTC Adjustment and Photovoltaic Power Station
by Sheng Li, Can Zhang and Jili Zuo
Energies 2023, 16(17), 6383; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16176383 - 3 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 895
Abstract
The influence of photovoltaic (PV) output with stochasticity and uncertainty on the grid-connected system’s voltage stability is worth further exploration. The long-term voltage stability of a 3-bus system with a large-scale PV power station considering the adjustment of an on-load tap changer (OLTC) [...] Read more.
The influence of photovoltaic (PV) output with stochasticity and uncertainty on the grid-connected system’s voltage stability is worth further exploration. The long-term voltage stability of a 3-bus system with a large-scale PV power station considering the adjustment of an on-load tap changer (OLTC) was studied. In this typical system, two supercritical Hopf bifurcation (SHB) points are found using the bifurcation calculation. At the SHB point that appears first, a small sudden increase in reactive load power or a sudden increase in PV active power Ppv can eventually cause a voltage collapse after a long increasing oscillation. The long-term collapse phenomenon shows that SHB cannot be ignored in the PV grid-connected system. Meanwhile, the time constant of OLTC can affect the progress of long-term voltage collapse, but it has different effects under different disturbances. When Ppv drops suddenly at the SHB point, due to the adjustment of OLTC, the load bus voltage can recover to near the target value of OLTC after a long period of time. Similarly, the time constant of OLTC can affect the progress of long-term voltage recovery. To prevent the long-term voltage collapse when Ppv increases suddenly at the SHB point, a new locking-OLTC index Ilock, depending on the value of Ppv corresponding to the SHB point, and a locking OLTC method are proposed, and the voltage can be recovered to an acceptable stable value quickly. Compared with the system without OLTC, OLTC adjustment can effectively prevent long-term voltage oscillation instability and collapse, so that PV power can play a bigger role in power systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Electric Power System 2023)
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18 pages, 6930 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Secondary Controller on MTDC Link with Solar PV Integration for Inter-Area Power Oscillation Damping
by Oluwafemi Emmanuel Oni and Omowunmi Mary Longe
Energies 2023, 16(17), 6295; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16176295 - 29 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 723
Abstract
Integration of renewable energy sources is important in limiting the continuous environmental degradation and emissions caused by energy generation from fossil fuels and thus becoming a better alternative for a large-scale power mix. However, an adequate analysis of the interaction with the alternating [...] Read more.
Integration of renewable energy sources is important in limiting the continuous environmental degradation and emissions caused by energy generation from fossil fuels and thus becoming a better alternative for a large-scale power mix. However, an adequate analysis of the interaction with the alternating current (AC) network during network disturbance, especially during inter-area power (IAP) oscillations is needed. Insufficient damping of oscillations can significantly impact the reliability and effective operation of a whole power system. Therefore, this paper focuses on the stability of the modified Kundur two-area four-machine (MKTAFM) system. A robust secondary controller is proposed and implemented on a line commutated converter (LCC)-based multi-terminal high voltage direct current (MTDC) system. The solution consists of a local generator controller and the LCC MTDC (LMTDC) system, voltage-dependent current order limiter, and extinction angle controller. The proposed robust controller is designed for the LMTDC systems to further dampen the inter-area power oscillations. Three operational scenarios were implemented in this study, which are the local generator controller and double circuits AC line, local generator controller with LMTDC controllers, and local generator controller with LMTDC controllers and secondary controller. The simulation result carried out on PSCAD/EMTDC recorded better damping of the inter-area power oscillation with LMTDC. A considerable improvement of 100% damping of the IAP oscillations was observed when a secondary controller was implemented on the LMTDC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Electric Power System 2023)
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13 pages, 2956 KiB  
Article
Actions to Handle Increasing Distributed Generation and Rising Voltage during Low-Demand Periods: Tap Staggering Practices and Field Tests in the Italian Transmission Network
by Stefano Quaia, Alessandro Mauri, Alessio Marchesin and Paolo Manià
Energies 2023, 16(17), 6258; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16176258 - 28 Aug 2023
Viewed by 777
Abstract
This paper deals with the voltage regulation strategies implemented in the Italian transmission network to face the increasing problem of high voltages during time periods characterized by low demand. After an introduction in which this very actual problem is discussed, the focus is [...] Read more.
This paper deals with the voltage regulation strategies implemented in the Italian transmission network to face the increasing problem of high voltages during time periods characterized by low demand. After an introduction in which this very actual problem is discussed, the focus is on tap staggering practices. Although tap staggering is not a new idea, it is gaining practical importance only in the very last few years as a means of enhancing the inductive power drawn from the grid and, therefore, limiting the voltage rise. Accordingly, tap staggering contributes to the mitigation of the problems caused by the increasing penetration of renewable energy sources and thus can allow an increase in the share of renewable energy sources. The paper presents the different tap staggering practices that are being defined by the Italian transmission system operator and reports some tap staggering tests recently performed on large autotransformers as well as phase-shifter transformers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Electric Power System 2023)
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17 pages, 4315 KiB  
Article
DC Admittance Model of VSCs for Stability Studies in VSC-HVDC Systems
by Joaquín Pedra, Luis Sainz and Lluís Monjo
Energies 2023, 16(14), 5457; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16145457 - 18 Jul 2023
Viewed by 832
Abstract
High-voltage direct current (HVDC) systems linked to AC grids with converters are promising energy transmission systems. These systems present complex AC- and DC-side dynamic interactions. Impedance-based stability studies have recently been proposed to assess DC-side dynamics from DC-side characterization of voltage source converters [...] Read more.
High-voltage direct current (HVDC) systems linked to AC grids with converters are promising energy transmission systems. These systems present complex AC- and DC-side dynamic interactions. Impedance-based stability studies have recently been proposed to assess DC-side dynamics from DC-side characterization of voltage source converters (VSCs) considering AC-side dynamics. However, the existing approaches used for stability studies in VSC-HVDC systems do not completely model VSCs because they do not consider together the VSC delay, the grid voltage feedforward filter, and all the d- and q-reference current controls. Moreover, these approaches are analytically characterized from dq-real space vectors (less related to circuit theory than dq-complex space vectors), and some work with simple AC grids. The main contribution of this paper is a detailed and complete DC admittance model of VSCs from dq-complex space vectors, which considers the VSC delay, feedforward filter, and d- and q-reference current controls, and also a general AC grid. The proposed model can be used for DC-side stability studies in VSC-HVDC systems considering AC grid dynamics. The capabilities and drawbacks of impedance-based stability methods for DC-side stability assessment were analyzed, and the positive-net-damping criterion was validated as a robust approach. The model was validated by PSCAD/EMTDC simulations and applied to a stability study in a VSC-HVDC system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Electric Power System 2023)
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17 pages, 9880 KiB  
Article
Unique Symbolic Factorization for Fast Contingency Analysis Using Full Newton–Raphson Method
by Hakim Bennani, Ahmed Chebak and Abderrazak El Ouafi
Energies 2023, 16(11), 4279; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16114279 - 23 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 985
Abstract
Contingency analysis plays an important role in assessing the static security of a network. Its purpose is to check whether a system can operate safely when some elements are out of service. In a real-time application, the computational time required to perform the [...] Read more.
Contingency analysis plays an important role in assessing the static security of a network. Its purpose is to check whether a system can operate safely when some elements are out of service. In a real-time application, the computational time required to perform the calculation is paramount for operators to take immediate actions to prevent cascading outages. Therefore, the numerical performance of the contingency analysis is the main focus of this current research. In power flow calculation, when solving the network equations with a sparse matrix solver, most of the time is spent factorizing the Jacobian matrix. In terms of computation time, the symbolic factorization is the costliest operation in the LU (Lower-upper) factorization process. This paper proposes a novel method to perform the calculation with only one symbolic factorization using a full Newton–Raphson-based generic formulation and modular approach (GFMA). The symbolic factorization retained can be used during the iterations of any power flow contingency scenario. A computer study demonstrates that reusing the same symbolic factorization greatly reduces computation time and improves numerical performance. Power system security assessment under N-1 and N-2 contingency conditions is performed for the IEEE standard 54-bus and 108-bus to evaluate the numerical performance of the proposed method. A comparison with the conventional power flow method shows that the time required for the analysis is shortened considerably, with a minimum gain of 228%. The comparative analysis demonstrates that the proposed solution has better numerical performance for large-scale networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Electric Power System 2023)
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17 pages, 7580 KiB  
Article
Overview of Various Voltage Control Technologies for Wind Turbines and AC/DC Connection Systems
by Yuan-Kang Wu, Deng-Yue Gau and Trinh-Duc Tung
Energies 2023, 16(10), 4128; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16104128 - 16 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1889
Abstract
Wind power generation is one of the mainstream renewable energy resources. Voltage stability is as important as the frequency stability of a power system with a high penetration of wind power generation. The advantages of high-voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission systems become more [...] Read more.
Wind power generation is one of the mainstream renewable energy resources. Voltage stability is as important as the frequency stability of a power system with a high penetration of wind power generation. The advantages of high-voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission systems become more significant with the increase of both installed capacity and transmission distance in offshore wind farms. Therefore, this study discusses various voltage control methods for wind turbines and HVDC transmission systems. First, various voltage control methods of a wind farm were introduced, and they include QV control and voltage droop control. The reactive power of a wind turbine varies with active power, while the active power from each wind turbine may be different owing to wake effects. Thus, QV and voltage droop control with varying gain values are also discussed in this paper. Next, the voltage control methods for an HVDC transmission system, such as power factor control, voltage control, and Vac-Q control, are also summarized and tested in this study. When a three-phase short circuit fault occurs or a sudden reactive power load increases, the system voltage would drop immediately. Thus, various voltage control methods for wind turbines or HVDC can make the system’s transient response more stable. Therefore, this study implemented the simulation scenarios, including a three-phase short circuit fault at the point of common coupling (PCC) or a sudden increase of reactive power load, and adopted various voltage control methods, which aim to verify whether additional voltage control methods are effective to improve the performance of transient voltage. The voltage control method has been implemented in PSCAD/EMTDC, and the simulation results show that the QV control performs better than the droop control. In addition, when applying the voltage control technique during a three-phase fault, transient voltage nadir can be improved through either an HVDC transmission system or an AC transmission system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Electric Power System 2023)
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Review

Jump to: Research

45 pages, 3058 KiB  
Review
A Comprehensive Review on the Modelling and Significance of Stability Indices in Power System Instability Problems
by Chandu Valuva, Subramani Chinnamuthu, Tahir Khurshaid and Ki-Chai Kim
Energies 2023, 16(18), 6718; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16186718 - 20 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1583
Abstract
Many technological advancements in the modern era have made actual use of electrical power and the constrained operating of power systems within stability limits. Some expeditious load variations and rising power demands initiate complications in voltage stability and can put stress on performance, [...] Read more.
Many technological advancements in the modern era have made actual use of electrical power and the constrained operating of power systems within stability limits. Some expeditious load variations and rising power demands initiate complications in voltage stability and can put stress on performance, leading to voltage instability. Voltage Stability Indices can be used to perform voltage stability assessment. This review evaluates various VSIs based on mathematical derivations, assumptions, critical values, and methodology. VSIs determine the maximum loadability, voltage collapse proximity, stability margin, weak areas, and contingency ranking. Stability indices can also specify the optimal placing and sizing of Distributed Generators. Thus, VSIs play a vital role in power system voltage stability. This review is a comprehensive survey of various indices and analyses their accuracy in determining the instability of power systems. Voltage stability is a crucial concern in operating a reliable power system, and the systematic evaluation of voltage stability is essential in a power system. This review considered and analyzed 34 indices from 138 articles from the literature for their significant performance in various power system stability problems. Of 33 indices, were 22 derived from transmission line parameters, referred to as line indices, and 12 from bus and line parameters, referred to as bus indices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Electric Power System 2023)
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