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Mar. Drugs, Volume 19, Issue 4 (April 2021) – 55 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Screening of the Harbor Branch fraction library against the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-resistant strain (Dd2) led to the identification of the novel diterpene, bebrycin A, and the known terpene, nitenin, as potent antiplasmodials with EC50s of 1.08 ± 0.21 and 0.29 ± 0.02 µM, respectively. Assessment of the stage-specific antiplasmodial effects of these inhibitors during the intraerythrocytic life cycle suggests that Bebrycin A blocks maturation at the schizont stage, while early exposure to nitenin may inhibit the maturation of the parasite during the transition from ring to early trophozoite (6–18 HPI), a novel property among known antimalarials. View this paper
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Article
Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Activities of the Fungal Metabolites Isolated from the Marine Endophytes Epicoccum nigrum M13 and Alternaria alternata 13A
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(4), 232; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19040232 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1280
Abstract
Epicotripeptin (1), a new cyclic tripeptide along with four known cyclic dipeptides (25) and one acetamide derivative (6) were isolated from seagrass-associated endophytic fungus Epicoccum nigrum M13 recovered from the Red Sea. Additionally, two new [...] Read more.
Epicotripeptin (1), a new cyclic tripeptide along with four known cyclic dipeptides (25) and one acetamide derivative (6) were isolated from seagrass-associated endophytic fungus Epicoccum nigrum M13 recovered from the Red Sea. Additionally, two new compounds, cyclodidepsipeptide phragamide A (7) and trioxobutanamide derivative phragamide B (8), together with eight known compounds (916), were isolated from plant-derived endophyte Alternaria alternata 13A collected from a saline lake of Wadi El Natrun depression in the Sahara Desert. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined based on the 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data, HRESIMS data, and a comparison with the reported literature. The absolute configurations of 1 and 7 were established by advanced Marfey’s and Mosher’s ester analyses. The antimicrobial screening indicated that seven of the tested compounds exhibited considerable (MIC range of 2.5–5 µg/mL) to moderate (10–20 µg/mL) antibacterial effect against the tested Gram-positive strains and moderate to weak (10–30 µg/mL) antibacterial effect against Gram-negative strains. Most of the compounds exhibited weak or no activity against the tested Gram-negative strains. On the other hand, four of the tested compounds showed considerable antibiofilm effects against biofilm forming Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Natural Products from the Red Sea)
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Article
Electrochromic Properties and Electrochemical Behavior of Marennine, a Bioactive Blue-Green Pigment Produced by the Marine Diatom Haslea ostrearia
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(4), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19040231 - 19 Apr 2021
Viewed by 740
Abstract
Marennine has long been known as the unique peculiar pigment responsible for the natural greening of oysters. It is specifically produced by the marine diatom Haslea ostrearia and it is a natural blue molecule indeed promising for food industry because of the rarity [...] Read more.
Marennine has long been known as the unique peculiar pigment responsible for the natural greening of oysters. It is specifically produced by the marine diatom Haslea ostrearia and it is a natural blue molecule indeed promising for food industry because of the rarity of such non-toxic, blue-colored pigments. In the search for its still not defined molecular structure, investigation of the color changes with the redox state has been carried out combining different approaches. Reducing and oxidizing chemicals have been added to purified marennine solutions and a stable blue-green color has been confirmed for the oxidized state, while a yellow color corresponded to the reduced unstable state. Raman spectroscopy has been used to monitor changes in the Raman spectra corresponding to the different colored states, and cyclic voltammetry has allowed the detection of a redox system in which protons and electrons are exchanged. These findings show that marennine is a suitable stable blue pigment for use in food applications and help in the elucidation of the chromophore structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Pigments)
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Article
Two Benthic Diatoms, Nanofrustulum shiloi and Striatella unipunctata, Encapsulated in Alginate Beads, Influence the Reproductive Efficiency of Paracentrotus lividus by Modulating the Gene Expression
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(4), 230; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19040230 - 17 Apr 2021
Viewed by 725
Abstract
Physiological effects of algal metabolites is a key step for the isolation of interesting bioactive compounds. Invertebrate grazers may be fed on live diatoms or dried, pelletized, and added to compound feeds. Any method may reveal some shortcomings, due to the leaking of [...] Read more.
Physiological effects of algal metabolites is a key step for the isolation of interesting bioactive compounds. Invertebrate grazers may be fed on live diatoms or dried, pelletized, and added to compound feeds. Any method may reveal some shortcomings, due to the leaking of wound-activated compounds in the water prior to ingestion. For this reason, encapsulation may represent an important step of bioassay-guided fractionation, because it may assure timely preservation of the active compounds. Here we test the effects of the inclusion in alginate (biocompatible and non-toxic delivery system) matrices to produce beads containing two benthic diatoms for sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus feeding. In particular, we compared the effects of a diatom whose influence on P. lividus was known (Nanofrustulum shiloi) and those of a diatom suspected to be harmful to marine invertebrates, because it is often present in blooms (Striatella unipunctata). Dried N. shiloi and S. unipunctata were offered for one month after encapsulation in alginate hydrogel beads and the larvae produced by sea urchins were checked for viability and malformations. The results indicated that N. shiloi, already known for its toxigenic effects on sea urchin larvae, fully conserved its activity after inclusion in alginate beads. On the whole, benthic diatoms affected the embryogenesis of P. lividus, altering the expression of several genes involved in stress response, development, skeletogenesis and detoxification processes. Interactomic analysis suggested that both diatoms activated a similar stress response pathway, through the up-regulation of hsp60, hsp70, NF-κB, 14-3-3 ε and MDR1 genes. This research also demonstrates that the inclusion in alginate beads may represent a feasible technique to isolate diatom-derived bioactive compounds. Full article
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Article
Svalbamides A and B, Pyrrolidinone-Bearing Lipodipeptides from Arctic Paenibacillus sp.
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(4), 229; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19040229 - 17 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 830
Abstract
Two new secondary metabolites, svalbamides A (1) and B (2), were isolated from a culture extract of Paenibacillus sp. SVB7 that was isolated from surface sediment from a core (HH17-1085) taken in the Svalbard archipelago in the Arctic Ocean. [...] Read more.
Two new secondary metabolites, svalbamides A (1) and B (2), were isolated from a culture extract of Paenibacillus sp. SVB7 that was isolated from surface sediment from a core (HH17-1085) taken in the Svalbard archipelago in the Arctic Ocean. The combinational analysis of HR-MS and NMR spectroscopic data revealed the structures of 1 and 2 as being lipopeptides bearing 3-amino-2-pyrrolidinone, d-valine, and 3-hydroxy-8-methyldecanoic acid. The absolute configurations of the amino acid residues in svalbamides A and B were determined using the advanced Marfey’s method, in which the hydrolysates of 1 and 2 were derivatized with l- and d- forms of 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrophenyl-5-alanine amide (FDAA). The absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were completely assigned by deducing the stereochemistry of 3-hydroxy-8-methyldecanoic acid based on DP4 calculations. Svalbamides A and B induced quinone reductase activity in Hepa1c1c7 murine hepatoma cells, indicating that they represent chemotypes with a potential for functioning as chemopreventive agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Molecules from Extreme Environments II)
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Article
Rapid Sorting of Fucoxanthin-Producing Phaeodactylum tricornutum Mutants by Flow Cytometry
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(4), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19040228 - 17 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1000
Abstract
Fucoxanthin, which is widely found in seaweeds and diatoms, has many benefits to human health, such as anti-diabetes, anti-obesity, and anti-inflammatory physiological activities. However, the low content of fucoxanthin in brown algae and diatoms limits the commercialization of this product. In this study, [...] Read more.
Fucoxanthin, which is widely found in seaweeds and diatoms, has many benefits to human health, such as anti-diabetes, anti-obesity, and anti-inflammatory physiological activities. However, the low content of fucoxanthin in brown algae and diatoms limits the commercialization of this product. In this study, we introduced an excitation light at 488 nm to analyze the emitted fluorescence of Phaeodactylum tricornutum, a diatom model organism rich in fucoxanthin. We observed a unique spectrum peak at 710 nm and found a linear correlation between fucoxanthin content and the mean fluorescence intensity. We subsequently used flow cytometry to screen high-fucoxanthin-content mutants created by heavy ion irradiation. After 20 days of cultivation, the fucoxanthin content of sorted cells was 25.5% higher than in the wild type. This method provides an efficient, rapid, and high-throughput approach to screen fucoxanthin-overproducing mutants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carotenoids)
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Review
Symbioses of Cyanobacteria in Marine Environments: Ecological Insights and Biotechnological Perspectives
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(4), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19040227 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1404
Abstract
Cyanobacteria are a diversified phylum of nitrogen-fixing, photo-oxygenic bacteria able to colonize a wide array of environments. In addition to their fundamental role as diazotrophs, they produce a plethora of bioactive molecules, often as secondary metabolites, exhibiting various biological and ecological functions to [...] Read more.
Cyanobacteria are a diversified phylum of nitrogen-fixing, photo-oxygenic bacteria able to colonize a wide array of environments. In addition to their fundamental role as diazotrophs, they produce a plethora of bioactive molecules, often as secondary metabolites, exhibiting various biological and ecological functions to be further investigated. Among all the identified species, cyanobacteria are capable to embrace symbiotic relationships in marine environments with organisms such as protozoans, macroalgae, seagrasses, and sponges, up to ascidians and other invertebrates. These symbioses have been demonstrated to dramatically change the cyanobacteria physiology, inducing the production of usually unexpressed bioactive molecules. Indeed, metabolic changes in cyanobacteria engaged in a symbiotic relationship are triggered by an exchange of infochemicals and activate silenced pathways. Drug discovery studies demonstrated that those molecules have interesting biotechnological perspectives. In this review, we explore the cyanobacterial symbioses in marine environments, considering them not only as diazotrophs but taking into consideration exchanges of infochemicals as well and emphasizing both the chemical ecology of relationship and the candidate biotechnological value for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Molecules Involved in Symbiosis as Potential New Natural Drugs)
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Article
Biosynthesis of Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Marine Gammarids: Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterisation of Three Fatty Acyl Elongases
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(4), 226; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19040226 - 16 Apr 2021
Viewed by 993
Abstract
Long-chain (C20–24) polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) are essential nutrients that are mostly produced in marine ecosystems. Previous studies suggested that gammarids have some capacity to endogenously produce LC-PUFAs. This study aimed to investigate the repertoire and functions of elongation of very [...] Read more.
Long-chain (C20–24) polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) are essential nutrients that are mostly produced in marine ecosystems. Previous studies suggested that gammarids have some capacity to endogenously produce LC-PUFAs. This study aimed to investigate the repertoire and functions of elongation of very long-chain fatty acid (Elovl) proteins in gammarids. Our results show that gammarids have, at least, three distinct elovl genes with putative roles in LC-PUFA biosynthesis. Phylogenetics allowed us to classify two elongases as Elovl4 and Elovl6, as they were bona fide orthologues of vertebrate Elovl4 and Elovl6. Moreover, a third elongase was named as “Elovl1/7-like” since it grouped closely to the Elovl1 and Elovl7 found in vertebrates. Molecular analysis of the deduced protein sequences indicated that the gammarid Elovl4 and Elovl1/7-like were indeed polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) elongases, whereas Elovl6 had molecular features typically found in non-PUFA elongases. This was partly confirmed in the functional assays performed on the marine gammarid Echinogammarus marinus Elovl, which showed that both Elovl4 and Elovl1/7-like elongated PUFA substrates ranging from C18 to C22. E. marinus Elovl6 was only able to elongate C18 PUFA substrates, suggesting that this enzyme does not play major roles in the LC-PUFA biosynthesis of gammarids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Fatty Acids-2021)
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Article
Marine-Source Quorum Quenching Enzyme YtnP to Improve Hygiene Quality in Dental Units
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(4), 225; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19040225 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 660
Abstract
Biofilm in dental unit water lines may pose a health risk to patients and dental practitioners. An AdiC-like quorum quenching enzyme, YtnP, was cloned from a deep-sea probiotic Bacillus velezensis, and heterologously expressed in E. coli to examine the application on the [...] Read more.
Biofilm in dental unit water lines may pose a health risk to patients and dental practitioners. An AdiC-like quorum quenching enzyme, YtnP, was cloned from a deep-sea probiotic Bacillus velezensis, and heterologously expressed in E. coli to examine the application on the improvement of hygiene problems caused by biofilm infection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in dental units. Pseudomonas bacteria were isolated from dental chair units and used to grow static biofilms in the laboratory. A water filter system was designed to test the antifouling activity of YtnP in Laboratory, to simulate the biofilm contamination on water filter in dental unit water lines. The results demonstrated that the enzyme of YtnP was able to degrade the N-acyl homoserine lactones, significantly inhibited the EPS generation, biofilm formation, and virulence factors production (pyocyanin and rhamnolipid) of P. aeruginosa, and was efficient on the antifouling against P. aeruginosa. The findings in this study indicated the possibility of YtnP as novel disinfectant reagent for hygiene treatment in dental units. Full article
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Article
Anti-Food Allergic Compounds from Penicillium griseofulvum MCCC 3A00225, a Deep-Sea-Derived Fungus
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(4), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19040224 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 764
Abstract
Ten new (110) and 26 known (1136) compounds were isolated from Penicillium griseofulvum MCCC 3A00225, a deep sea-derived fungus. The structures of the new compounds were determined by detailed analysis of the NMR and HRESIMS [...] Read more.
Ten new (110) and 26 known (1136) compounds were isolated from Penicillium griseofulvum MCCC 3A00225, a deep sea-derived fungus. The structures of the new compounds were determined by detailed analysis of the NMR and HRESIMS spectroscopic data. The absolute configurations were established by X-ray crystallography, Marfey’s method, and the ICD method. All isolates were tested for in vitro anti-food allergic bioactivities in immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated rat basophilic leukemia (RBL)-2H3 cells. Compound 13 significantly decreased the degranulation release with an IC50 value of 60.3 μM, compared to that of 91.6 μM of the positive control, loratadine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Molecules from Extreme Environments II)
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Review
Antifungal and Larvicidal Activities of Phlorotannins from Brown Seaweeds
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(4), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19040223 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1042
Abstract
Phlorotannins are secondary metabolites produced by brown seaweeds with antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, and larvicidal activities. Phlorotannins’ structures are formed by dibenzodioxin, ether and phenyl, ether, or phenyl linkages. The polymerization of phlorotannins is used to classify and characterize. The structural diversity of phlorotannins [...] Read more.
Phlorotannins are secondary metabolites produced by brown seaweeds with antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, and larvicidal activities. Phlorotannins’ structures are formed by dibenzodioxin, ether and phenyl, ether, or phenyl linkages. The polymerization of phlorotannins is used to classify and characterize. The structural diversity of phlorotannins grows as polymerization increases. They have been characterized extensively with respect to chemical properties and functionality. However, review papers of the biological activities of phlorotannins have focused on their antibacterial and antiviral effects, and reviews of their broad antifungal and larvicidal effects are lacking. Accordingly, evidence for the effectiveness of phlorotannins as antifungal and larvicidal agents is discussed in this review. Online databases (ScienceDirect, PubMed, MEDLINE, and Web of Science) were used to identify relevant articles. In total, 11 articles were retrieved after duplicates were removed and exclusion criteria were applied. Phlorotannins from brown seaweeds show antifungal activity against dermal and plant fungi, and larvicidal activity against mosquitos and marine invertebrate larvae. However, further studies of the biological activity of phlorotannins against fungal and parasitic infections in aquaculture fish, livestock, and companion animals are needed for systematic analyses of their effectiveness. The research described in this review emphasizes the potential applications of phlorotannins as pharmaceutical, functional food, pesticide, and antifouling agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Brown Algae)
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Article
Chemical and Antioxidant Characteristics of Skin-Derived Collagen Obtained by Acid-Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Bigeye Tuna (Thunnus obesus)
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(4), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19040222 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 698
Abstract
The utilization of bigeye tuna skin as a source of collagen has been increasing the value of these skins. In this study, the quality of the skin was studied first. The skin after 14 h freeze-drying showed a high protein level (65.42% ± [...] Read more.
The utilization of bigeye tuna skin as a source of collagen has been increasing the value of these skins. In this study, the quality of the skin was studied first. The skin after 14 h freeze-drying showed a high protein level (65.42% ± 0.06%, db), no histamine and a lack of heavy metals. The collagens were extracted through acid and acid-enzymatic methods. The enzymes used were bromelain, papain, pepsin, and trypsin. The two highest-yield collagens were pepsin-soluble collagen (PSC) and bromelain-soluble collagen (BSC). Both were type I collagen, based on SDS-PAGE and FTIR analysis. They dissolved very well in dimethyl sulfoxide and distilled water. The pH ranges were 4.60–4.70 and 4.30–4.40 for PSC and BSC, respectively. PSC and BSC were free from As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, and Pb. They showed antioxidant activities, as determined by the DPPH method and the reducing power method. In conclusion, bigeye tuna skin shows good potential as an alternative source of mammalian collagen. Although further work is still required, PSC and BSC showed the potential to be further used as antioxidant compounds in food applications. Other biological tests of these collagens might also lead to other health applications. Full article
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Review
Enhancement of Xanthophyll Synthesis in Porphyra/Pyropia Species (Rhodophyta, Bangiales) by Controlled Abiotic Factors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(4), 221; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19040221 - 15 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1290
Abstract
Red alga species belonging to the Porphyra and Pyropia genera (commonly known as Nori), which are widely consumed and commercialized due to their high nutritional value. These species have a carotenoid profile dominated by xanthophylls, mostly lutein and zeaxanthin, which have relevant benefits [...] Read more.
Red alga species belonging to the Porphyra and Pyropia genera (commonly known as Nori), which are widely consumed and commercialized due to their high nutritional value. These species have a carotenoid profile dominated by xanthophylls, mostly lutein and zeaxanthin, which have relevant benefits for human health. The effects of different abiotic factors on xanthophyll synthesis in these species have been scarcely studied, despite their health benefits. The objectives of this study were (i) to identify the abiotic factors that enhance the synthesis of xanthophylls in Porphyra/Pyropia species by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of the xanthophyll content found in the literature, and (ii) to recommend a culture method that would allow a significant accumulation of these compounds in the biomass of these species. The results show that salinity significantly affected the content of total carotenoids and led to higher values under hypersaline conditions (70,247.91 µg/g dm at 55 psu). For lutein and zeaxanthin, the wavelength treatment caused significant differences between the basal and maximum content (4.16–23.47 µg/g dm). Additionally, in Pyropia spp., the total carotenoids were considerably higher than in Porphyra spp.; however, the lutein and zeaxanthin contents were lower. We discuss the specific conditions for each treatment and the relation to the ecological distribution of these species. Full article
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Article
Rapid Hemostatic Biomaterial from a Natural Bath Sponge Skeleton
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(4), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19040220 - 15 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 859
Abstract
Uncontrolled bleeding is the main cause of mortality from trauma. Collagen has been developed as an important hemostatic material due to its platelet affinity function. A bath sponge skeleton is rich in collagen, also known as spongin. To understand the hemostatic effect of [...] Read more.
Uncontrolled bleeding is the main cause of mortality from trauma. Collagen has been developed as an important hemostatic material due to its platelet affinity function. A bath sponge skeleton is rich in collagen, also known as spongin. To understand the hemostatic effect of spongin, spongin materials, SX, SFM and SR were prepared from the bath sponge Spongia officinalis, and hemostatic experiments were performed. The SX, SFM and SR were significantly better than the positive control, type I collagen, in shortening the whole blood clotting time in vitro and hemostasis upon rat tail amputation. In a hemostatic experiment of rabbit common carotid artery injury, the hemostatic time and 3 h survival rate of the SFM group were 3.00 ± 1.53 min and 100%, respectively, which are significantly better than those of the commercial hemostat CELOX-A (10.33 ± 1.37 min and 67%, respectively). Additionally, the SFM showed good coagulation effects in platelet-deficient blood and defibrinated blood, while also showing good biocompatibility. Through a variety of tests, we speculated that the hemostatic activity of the SFM is mainly caused by its hyperabsorbency, high affinity to platelets and high effective concentration. Overall, the SFM and spongin derivates could be potential hemostatic agents for uncontrolled bleeding and hemorrhagic diseases caused by deficiency or dysfunction of coagulation factors. Full article
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Article
Inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 Virus Entry by the Crude Polysaccharides of Seaweeds and Abalone Viscera In Vitro
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(4), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19040219 - 15 Apr 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1633
Abstract
Much attention is being devoted to the potential of marine sulfated polysaccharides as antiviral agents in preventing COVID-19. In this study, sulfated fucoidan and crude polysaccharides, extracted from six seaweed species (Undaria pinnatifida sporophyll, Laminaria japonica, Hizikia fusiforme, Sargassum horneri, Codium fragile, Porphyra [...] Read more.
Much attention is being devoted to the potential of marine sulfated polysaccharides as antiviral agents in preventing COVID-19. In this study, sulfated fucoidan and crude polysaccharides, extracted from six seaweed species (Undaria pinnatifida sporophyll, Laminaria japonica, Hizikia fusiforme, Sargassum horneri, Codium fragile, Porphyra tenera) and Haliotis discus hannai (abalone viscera), were screened for their inhibitory activity against SARS-CoV-2 virus entry. Most of them showed significant antiviral activities at an IC50 of 12~289 μg/mL against SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus in HEK293/ACE2, except for P. tenera (IC50 > 1000 μg/mL). The crude polysaccharide of S. horneri showed the strongest antiviral activity, with an IC50 of 12 μg/mL, to prevent COVID-19 entry, and abalone viscera and H. fusiforme could also inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection with an IC50 of 33 μg/mL and 47 μg/mL, respectively. The common properties of these crude polysaccharides, which have strong antiviral activity, are high molecular weight (>800 kDa), high total carbohydrate (62.7~99.1%), high fucose content (37.3~66.2%), and highly branched polysaccharides. These results indicated that the crude polysaccharides from seaweeds and abalone viscera can effectively inhibit SARS-CoV-2 entry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Natural Products against Coronaviruses)
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Article
Synthesis and Bioactivities of Marine Pyran-Isoindolone Derivatives as Potential Antithrombotic Agents
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(4), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19040218 - 15 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 670
Abstract
2,5-Bis-[8-(4,8-dimethyl-nona-3,7-dienyl)-5,7-dihydroxy-8-methyl-3-keto-1,2,7,8-teraahydro-6H-pyran[a]isoindol-2-yl]-pentanoic acid (FGFC1) is a marine pyran-isoindolone derivative isolated from a rare marine microorganism Stachybotrys longispora FG216, which showed moderate antithrombotic(fibrinolytic) activity. To further enhance its antithrombotic effect, a series of new FGFC1 derivatives (F1F7) [...] Read more.
2,5-Bis-[8-(4,8-dimethyl-nona-3,7-dienyl)-5,7-dihydroxy-8-methyl-3-keto-1,2,7,8-teraahydro-6H-pyran[a]isoindol-2-yl]-pentanoic acid (FGFC1) is a marine pyran-isoindolone derivative isolated from a rare marine microorganism Stachybotrys longispora FG216, which showed moderate antithrombotic(fibrinolytic) activity. To further enhance its antithrombotic effect, a series of new FGFC1 derivatives (F1F7) were synthesized via chemical modification at C-2 and C-2′ phenol groups moieties and C-1″ carboxyl group. Their fibrinolytic activities in vitro were evaluated. Among the derivatives, F1F4 and F6 showed significant fibrinolytic activities with EC50 of 59.7, 87.1, 66.6, 82.8, and 42.3 μM, respectively, via enhancement of urokinase activity. Notably, derivative F6 presented the most remarkable fibrinolytic activity (2.72-fold than that of FGFC1). Furthermore, the cytotoxicity of derivative F6 was tested as well as expression of Fas/Apo-1 and IL-1 on HeLa cells. The results showed that, compared to FGFC1, derivative F6 possessed moderate cytotoxicity and apoptotic effect on HeLa cells (statistical significance p > 0.1), making F6 a potential antithrombotic agent towards clinical application. Full article
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Article
Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Possible Immunomodulatory Activity Mechanism of Chlorella sp. Exopolysaccharides on RAW264.7 Macrophages
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(4), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19040217 - 14 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 820
Abstract
In this study, the exopolysaccharides of Chlorella sp. (CEP) were isolated to obtain the purified fraction CEP4. Characterization results showed that CEP4 was a sulfated heteropolysaccharide. The main monosaccharide components of CEP4 are glucosamine hydrochloride (40.8%) and glucuronic acid (21.0%). The impact of [...] Read more.
In this study, the exopolysaccharides of Chlorella sp. (CEP) were isolated to obtain the purified fraction CEP4. Characterization results showed that CEP4 was a sulfated heteropolysaccharide. The main monosaccharide components of CEP4 are glucosamine hydrochloride (40.8%) and glucuronic acid (21.0%). The impact of CEP4 on the immune activity of RAW264.7 macrophage cytokines was detected, and the results showed that CEP4 induced the production of nitric oxide (NO), TNF-α, and IL-6 in a dose-dependent pattern within a range of 6 μg/mL. A total of 4824 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained from the results of RNA-seq. Gene enrichment analysis showed that immune-related genes such as NFKB1, IL-6, and IL-1β were significantly upregulated, while the genes RIPK1 and TLR4 were significantly downregulated. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis showed that DEGs were significantly enriched in immune-related biological processes, including toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway, cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway, and C-type lectin receptor signaling pathway. Protein–protein interaction (PPI) network analysis showed that HSP90AB1, Rbx1, ISG15, Psmb6, Psmb3, Psmb8, PSMA7, Polr2f, Rpsa, and NEDD8 were the hub genes with an essential role in the immune activity of CEP4. The preliminary results of the present study revealed the potential mechanism of CEP4 in the immune regulation of RAW264.7 macrophages, suggesting that CEP4 is a promising immunoregulatory agent. Full article
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Article
In Vitro Bioactivity of Astaxanthin and Peptides from Hydrolisates of Shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris) By-Products: From the Extraction Process to Biological Effect Evaluation, as Pilot Actions for the Strategy “From Waste to Profit”
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(4), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19040216 - 13 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 908
Abstract
Non-edible parts of crustaceans could be a rich source of valuable bioactive compounds such as the carotenoid astaxanthin and peptides, which have well-recognized beneficial effects. These compounds are widely used in nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals, and their market is rapidly growing, suggesting the need [...] Read more.
Non-edible parts of crustaceans could be a rich source of valuable bioactive compounds such as the carotenoid astaxanthin and peptides, which have well-recognized beneficial effects. These compounds are widely used in nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals, and their market is rapidly growing, suggesting the need to find alternative sources. The aim of this work was to set up a pilot-scale protocol for the reutilization of by-products of processed shrimp, in order to address the utilization of this valuable biomass for nutraceutical and pharmaceuticals application, through the extraction of astaxanthin-enriched oil and antioxidant-rich protein hydrolysates. Astaxanthin (AST) was obtained using “green extraction methods,” such as using fish oil and different fatty acid ethyl esters as solvents and through supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), whereas bioactive peptides were obtained by protease hydrolysis. Both astaxanthin and bioactive peptides exhibited bioactive properties in vitro in cellular model systems, such as antioxidant and angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities (IA). The results show higher astaxanthin yields in ethyl esters fatty acids (TFA) extraction and significant enrichment by short-path distillation (SPD) up to 114.80 ± 1.23 µg/mL. Peptide fractions of <3 kDa and 3–5 kDa exhibited greater antioxidant activity while the fraction 5–10 kDa exhibited a better ACE-IA. Lower-molecular-weight bioactive peptides and astaxanthin extracted using supercritical fluids showed protective effects against oxidative damage in 142BR and in 3T3 cell lines. These results suggest that “green” extraction methods allow us to obtain high-quality bioactive compounds from large volumes of shrimp waste for nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications. Full article
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Article
Effect of Oversulfation on the Composition, Structure, and In Vitro Anti-Lung Cancer Activity of Fucoidans Extracted from Sargassum aquifolium
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(4), 215; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19040215 - 12 Apr 2021
Viewed by 841
Abstract
Intensive efforts have been undertaken in the fields of prevention, diagnosis, and therapy of lung cancer. Fucoidans exhibit a wide range of biological activities, which are dependent on the degree of sulfation, sulfation pattern, glycosidic branches, and molecular weight of fucoidan. The determination [...] Read more.
Intensive efforts have been undertaken in the fields of prevention, diagnosis, and therapy of lung cancer. Fucoidans exhibit a wide range of biological activities, which are dependent on the degree of sulfation, sulfation pattern, glycosidic branches, and molecular weight of fucoidan. The determination of oversulfation of fucoidan and its effect on anti-lung cancer activity and related signaling cascades is challenging. In this investigation, we used a previously developed fucoidan (SCA), which served as a native fucoidan, to generate two oversulfated fucoidan derivatives (SCA-S1 and SCA-S2). SCA, SCA-S1, and SCA-S2 showed differences in compositions and had the characteristic structural features of fucoidan by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses. The anticancer properties of SCA, SCA-S1, and SCA-S2 against human lung carcinoma A-549 cells were analyzed in terms of cytotoxicity, cell cycle, Bcl-2 expression, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), expression of caspase-3, cytochrome c release, Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) staining, DNA fragmentation, and the underlying signaling cascades. Our findings indicate that the oversulfation of fucoidan promotes apoptosis of lung cancer cells and the mechanism may involve the Akt/mTOR/S6 pathway. Further in vivo research is needed to establish the precise mechanism whereby oversulfated fucoidan mitigates the progression of lung cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Brown Algae)
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Article
Magnificines A and B, Antimicrobial Marine Alkaloids Featuring a Tetrahydrooxazolo[3,2-a]azepine-2,5(3H,6H)-dione Backbone from the Red Sea Sponge Negombata magnifica
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(4), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19040214 - 12 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 781
Abstract
Investigation of the Red Sea sponge Negombata magnifica gave two novel alkaloids, magnificines A and B (1 and 2) and a new β-ionone derivative, (±)-negombaionone (3), together with the known latrunculin B (4) and 16-epi-latrunculin [...] Read more.
Investigation of the Red Sea sponge Negombata magnifica gave two novel alkaloids, magnificines A and B (1 and 2) and a new β-ionone derivative, (±)-negombaionone (3), together with the known latrunculin B (4) and 16-epi-latrunculin B (5). The analysis of the NMR and HRESIMS spectra supported the planar structures and the relative configurations of the compounds. The absolute configurations of magnificines A and B were determined by the analysis of the predicted and experimental ECD spectra. Magnificines A and B possess a previously unreported tetrahydrooxazolo[3,2-a]azepine-2,5(3H,6H)-dione backbone and represent the first natural compounds in this class. (±)-Negombaionone is the first β-ionone of a sponge origin. Compounds 1-3 displayed selective activity against Escherichia coli in a disk diffusion assay with inhibition zones up to 22 mm at a concentration of 50 µg/disc and with MIC values down to 8.0 µM. Latrunculin B and 16-epi-latrunculin B inhibited the growth of HeLa cells with IC50 values down to 1.4 µM. Full article
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Article
In Vitro Prebiotic and Anti-Colon Cancer Activities of Agar-Derived Sugars from Red Seaweeds
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(4), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19040213 - 12 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2875
Abstract
Numerous health benefits of diets containing red seaweeds or agar-derived sugar mixtures produced by enzymatic or acid hydrolysis of agar have been reported. However, among various agar-derived sugars, the key components that confer health-beneficial effects, such as prebiotic and anti-colon cancer activities, remain [...] Read more.
Numerous health benefits of diets containing red seaweeds or agar-derived sugar mixtures produced by enzymatic or acid hydrolysis of agar have been reported. However, among various agar-derived sugars, the key components that confer health-beneficial effects, such as prebiotic and anti-colon cancer activities, remain unclear. Here, we prepared various agar-derived sugars by multiple enzymatic reactions using an endo-type and an exo-type of β-agarase and a neoagarobiose hydrolase and tested their in vitro prebiotic and anti-colon cancer activities. Among various agar-derived sugars, agarotriose exhibited prebiotic activity that was verified based on the fermentability of agarotriose by probiotic bifidobacteria. Furthermore, we demonstrated the anti-colon cancer activity of 3,6-anhydro-l-galactose, which significantly inhibited the proliferation of human colon cancer cells and induced their apoptosis. Our results provide crucial information regarding the key compounds derived from red seaweeds that confer beneficial health effects, including prebiotic and anti-colon cancer activities, to the host. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutra-Cosmeceuticals from Algae for Health and Wellness)
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Article
Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of a Depolymerized Glycosaminoglycan from Holothuria fuscopunctata, a Novel Anticoagulant Candidate, in Rats by Bioanalytical Methods
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(4), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19040212 - 11 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 722
Abstract
dHG-5 (Mw 5.3 kD) is a depolymerized glycosaminoglycan from sea cucumber Holothuria fuscopunctata. As a selective inhibitor of intrinsic Xase (iXase), preclinical study showed it was a promising anticoagulant candidate without obvious bleeding risk. In this work, two bioanalytical methods based on [...] Read more.
dHG-5 (Mw 5.3 kD) is a depolymerized glycosaminoglycan from sea cucumber Holothuria fuscopunctata. As a selective inhibitor of intrinsic Xase (iXase), preclinical study showed it was a promising anticoagulant candidate without obvious bleeding risk. In this work, two bioanalytical methods based on the anti-iXase and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) prolongation activities were established and validated to determine dHG-5 concentrations in plasma and urine samples. After single subcutaneous administration of dHG-5 at 5, 9, and 16.2 mg/kg to rats, the time to peak concentration (Tmax) was at about 1 h, and the peak concentration (Cmax) was 2.70, 6.50, and 10.11 μg/mL, respectively. The plasma elimination half-life(T1/2β) was also about 1 h and dHG-5 could be almost completely absorbed after s.c. administration. Additionally, the pharmacodynamics of dHG-5 was positively correlated with its pharmacokinetics, as determined by rat plasma APTT and anti-iXase method, respectively. dHG-5 was mainly excreted by urine as the unchanged parent drug and about 60% was excreted within 48 h. The results suggested that dHG-5 could be almost completely absorbed after subcutaneous injection and the pharmacokinetics of dHG-5 are predictable. Studying pharmacokinetics of dHG-5 could provide valuable information for future clinical studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmaceutical Formulation of Marine Drugs)
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Review
Antimicrobials from Seaweeds for Food Applications
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(4), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19040211 - 11 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2039
Abstract
The exponential growth of emerging multidrug-resistant microorganisms, including foodborne pathogens affecting the shelf-life and quality of foods, has recently increased the needs of the food industry to search for novel, natural and eco-friendly antimicrobial agents. Macroalgae are a bio-diverse group distributed worldwide, known [...] Read more.
The exponential growth of emerging multidrug-resistant microorganisms, including foodborne pathogens affecting the shelf-life and quality of foods, has recently increased the needs of the food industry to search for novel, natural and eco-friendly antimicrobial agents. Macroalgae are a bio-diverse group distributed worldwide, known to produce multiple compounds of diverse chemical nature, different to those produced by terrestrial plants. These novel compounds have shown promising health benefits when incorporated into foods, including antimicrobial properties. This review aims to provide an overview of the general methods and novel compounds with antimicrobial properties recently isolated and characterized from macroalgae, emphasizing the molecular pathways of their antimicrobial mechanisms of action. The current scientific evidence on the use of macroalgae or macroalgal extracts to increase the shelf-life of foods and prevent the development of foodborne pathogens in real food products and their influence on the sensory attributes of multiple foods (i.e., meat, dairy, beverages, fish and bakery products) will also be discussed, together with the main challenges and future trends of the use of marine natural products as antimicrobials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fighting Antimicrobial Resistance with Marine Antibacterial Compounds)
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Article
Estrogenic Effects of Extracts and Isolated Compounds from Belowground and Aerial Parts of Spartina anglica
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(4), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19040210 - 11 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 783
Abstract
Menopause, caused by decreases in estrogen production, results in symptoms such as facial flushing, vaginal atrophy, and osteoporosis. Although hormone replacement therapy is utilized to treat menopausal symptoms, it is associated with a risk of breast cancer development. We aimed to evaluate the [...] Read more.
Menopause, caused by decreases in estrogen production, results in symptoms such as facial flushing, vaginal atrophy, and osteoporosis. Although hormone replacement therapy is utilized to treat menopausal symptoms, it is associated with a risk of breast cancer development. We aimed to evaluate the estrogenic activities of Spartina anglica (SA) and its compounds and identify potential candidates for the treatment of estrogen reduction without the risk of breast cancer. We evaluated the estrogenic and anti-proliferative effects of extracts of SA and its compounds in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. We performed an uterotrophic assay using an immature female rat model. Among extracts of SA, belowground part (SA-bg-E50) had potent estrogenic activity. In the immature female rat model, the administration of SA-bg-E50 increased uterine weight compared with that in the normal group. Among the compounds isolated from SA, 1,3-di-O-trans-feruloyl-(-)-quinic acid (1) had significant estrogenic activity and induced phosphorylation at serine residues of estrogen receptor (ER)α. All extracts and compounds from SA did not increase MCF-7 cell proliferation. Compound 1 is expected to act as an ERα ligand and have estrogenic effects, without side effects, such as breast cancer development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Natural Products Modulating the Immune System)
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Article
Integrated Omics Strategy Reveals Cyclic Lipopeptides Empedopeptins from Massilia sp. YMA4 and Their Biosynthetic Pathway
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(4), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19040209 - 09 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1073
Abstract
Empedopeptins—eight amino acid cyclic lipopeptides—are calcium-dependent antibiotics that act against Gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus by inhibiting cell wall biosynthesis. However, to date, the biosynthetic mechanism of the empedopeptins has not been well identified. Through comparative genomics and metabolomics analysis, we identified [...] Read more.
Empedopeptins—eight amino acid cyclic lipopeptides—are calcium-dependent antibiotics that act against Gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus by inhibiting cell wall biosynthesis. However, to date, the biosynthetic mechanism of the empedopeptins has not been well identified. Through comparative genomics and metabolomics analysis, we identified empedopeptin and its new analogs from a marine bacterium, Massilia sp. YMA4. We then unveiled the empedopeptin biosynthetic gene cluster. The core nonribosomal peptide gene null-mutant strains (ΔempC, ΔempD, and ΔempE) could not produce empedopeptin, while dioxygenase gene null-mutant strains (ΔempA and ΔempB) produced several unique empedopeptin analogs. However, the antibiotic activity of ΔempA and ΔempB was significantly reduced compared with the wild-type, demonstrating that the hydroxylated amino acid residues of empedopeptin and its analogs are important to their antibiotic activity. Furthermore, we found seven bacterial strains that could produce empedopeptin-like cyclic lipopeptides using a genome mining approach. In summary, this study demonstrated that an integrated omics strategy can facilitate the discovery of potential bioactive metabolites from microbial sources without further isolation and purification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Lipopeptides)
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Editorial
Synthesis of Marine Natural Products and Molecules Inspired by Marine Substances
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(4), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19040208 - 08 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 642
Abstract
The sea covers more than 70% of Earth’s surface and contains more than 300,000 organisms with huge biodiversity [...] Full article
Article
Accelerated Solvent Extraction and Pulsed Electric Fields for Valorization of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Sole (Dover sole) By-Products: Protein Content, Molecular Weight Distribution and Antioxidant Potential of the Extracts
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(4), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19040207 - 07 Apr 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1106
Abstract
Fishery by-products are rich in biologically active substances and the use of green and efficient extraction methods to recover these high-added-value compounds is of particular importance. In this study, head, skin and viscera of rainbow trout and sole were used as the target [...] Read more.
Fishery by-products are rich in biologically active substances and the use of green and efficient extraction methods to recover these high-added-value compounds is of particular importance. In this study, head, skin and viscera of rainbow trout and sole were used as the target matrices and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) (45–55 °C, 15 min, pH 5.2–6.8, 103.4 bars) and pulsed electric fields (PEF) (1–3 kV/cm, 123–300 kJ/kg, 15–24 h) were applied as extraction technologies. The results showed that ASE and PEF significantly increased the protein extract efficiency of the fish by-products (p < 0.05) by up to 80%. SDS-PAGE results showed that ASE and PEF treatments changed the molecular size distribution of the protein in the extracts, which was specifically expressed as the change in the area or number of bands between 5 and 250 kDa. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was evaluated by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and total antioxidant capacity (ABTS) assays. The results showed that both ASE and PEF treatments significantly increased the antioxidant capacity of rainbow trout and sole skin and head extracts (p < 0.05). ASE and PEF extraction processes can be used as new technologies to extract high-added-value compounds from fish by-products. Full article
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Article
Isomalabaricane Triterpenes from the Marine Sponge Rhabdastrella sp.
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(4), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19040206 - 06 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 909
Abstract
The marine sponge of the genus Geodia, Jaspis, Rhabdastrella, and Stelletta are characterized chemically by a variety of isomalabaricane triterpenes. This class of compounds drew spotlights in marine lead discovery due to their profound anti-proliferative properties. Further research on exploring [...] Read more.
The marine sponge of the genus Geodia, Jaspis, Rhabdastrella, and Stelletta are characterized chemically by a variety of isomalabaricane triterpenes. This class of compounds drew spotlights in marine lead discovery due to their profound anti-proliferative properties. Further research on exploring its chemical diversity led to the identifications of two new isomalabaricane-type triterpenes rhabdastin H (1) and rhabdastin I (2). Their structures were unraveled using a series of spectroscopic approaches. These isolates were found to exhibit unique structural features with the only reported tetrahydrofuran functionality among all marine-derived isomalabaricanes. Both compounds 1 and 2 showed activities against K562 (IC50 11.7 and 9.8 μM) and Molt4 (IC50 16.5 and 11.0 μM) leukemic cells in MTT cell proliferative assay. Full article
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Review
Cellular Signal Transductions and Their Inhibitors Derived from Deep-Sea Organisms
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(4), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19040205 - 05 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 854
Abstract
Not only physiological phenomena but also pathological phenomena can now be explained by the change of signal transduction in the cells of specific tissues. Commonly used cellular signal transductions are limited. They consist of the protein–tyrosine kinase dependent or independent Ras-ERK pathway, and [...] Read more.
Not only physiological phenomena but also pathological phenomena can now be explained by the change of signal transduction in the cells of specific tissues. Commonly used cellular signal transductions are limited. They consist of the protein–tyrosine kinase dependent or independent Ras-ERK pathway, and the PI3K-Akt, JAK-STAT, SMAD, and NF-κB-activation pathways. In addition, biodegradation systems, such as the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway and autophagy, are also important for physiological and pathological conditions. If we can control signaling for each by a low-molecular-weight agent, it would be possible to treat diseases in new ways. At present, such cell signaling inhibitors are mainly looked for in plants, soil microorganisms, and the chemical library. The screening of bioactive metabolites from deep-sea organisms should be valuable because of the high incidence of finding novel compounds. Although it is still an emerging field, there are many successful examples, with new cell signaling inhibitors. In this review, we would like to explain the current view of the cell signaling systems important in diseases, and show the inhibitors found from deep-sea organisms, with their structures and biological activities. These inhibitors are possible candidates for anti-inflammatory agents, modulators of metabolic syndromes, antimicrobial agents, and anticancer agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Product from the Deep Sea)
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Article
Seasonal Variation of the Proximate Composition, Mineral Content, Fatty Acid Profiles and Other Phytochemical Constituents of Selected Brown Macroalgae
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(4), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19040204 - 04 Apr 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1809
Abstract
The main objective was to determine the chemical, phytochemical, fatty acid and mineral profiles of three commercially relevant brown macroalgae (Laminaria digitata, Laminaria hyperborea and Ascophyllum nodosum) collected each season for two years off the west coast of Ireland. All [...] Read more.
The main objective was to determine the chemical, phytochemical, fatty acid and mineral profiles of three commercially relevant brown macroalgae (Laminaria digitata, Laminaria hyperborea and Ascophyllum nodosum) collected each season for two years off the west coast of Ireland. All the chemical, phytochemical, fatty acid and minerals analysed varied significantly depending on the macroalgal species, season and year of collection. Overall, the protein contents of macroalgae were negatively correlated with carbohydrate content. Protein (2–11%) was at its highest during winter and/or spring, decreasing to a minimum during summer and/or autumn. The three macroalgal species analysed in this study had clearly differentiated fatty acid profiles. The concentration of fatty acids was higher in A. nodosum compared with both Laminaria species. The mineral profile of the three macroalgal species was rich in essential metals, particularly Ca, Mg and P, while the levels of I were approximately 9- to 10-fold higher in both Laminaria spp. compared with A. nodosum. The levels of toxic metals (Cd, Hg and Pb) in all the macroalgal species studied were low in the current study; while the levels of total As were high (49–64 mg/kg DW macroalgae) compared with previous reports. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Methods in the Marine Natural Product Science)
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Article
Glycosaminoglycans from Litopenaeus vannamei Inhibit the Alzheimer’s Disease β Secretase, BACE1
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(4), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19040203 - 03 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1133
Abstract
Only palliative therapeutic options exist for the treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease; no new successful drug candidates have been developed in over 15 years. The widely used clinical anticoagulant heparin has been reported to exert beneficial effects through multiple pathophysiological pathways involved in the [...] Read more.
Only palliative therapeutic options exist for the treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease; no new successful drug candidates have been developed in over 15 years. The widely used clinical anticoagulant heparin has been reported to exert beneficial effects through multiple pathophysiological pathways involved in the aetiology of Alzheimer’s Disease, for example, amyloid peptide production and clearance, tau phosphorylation, inflammation and oxidative stress. Despite the therapeutic potential of heparin as a multi-target drug for Alzheimer’s disease, the repurposing of pharmaceutical heparin is proscribed owing to the potent anticoagulant activity of this drug. Here, a heterogenous non-anticoagulant glycosaminoglycan extract, obtained from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, was found to inhibit the key neuronal β-secretase, BACE1, displaying a more favorable therapeutic ratio compared to pharmaceutical heparin when anticoagulant activity is considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-Alzheimer Agents from Marine Sources)
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