Special Issue "Progress in the Development of Synthetic or Biosynthetic Studies on Marine Drugs"

A special issue of Marine Drugs (ISSN 1660-3397). This special issue belongs to the section "Synthesis and Medicinal Chemistry of Marine Natural Products".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2021) | Viewed by 8703

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Asunción Barbero
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Campus Miguel Delibes, 47011 Valladolid, Spain
Interests: heterocyclic chemistry; organosilanes; natural products synthesis; multicomponent reactions
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The remarkable biological properties of marine drugs have contributed to significant advances in medicinal chemistry. The inspiring and sometimes challenging structure of these compounds has attracted the attention of the scientific community who attempted to develop different synthetic approaches to prepare this type of compound.

As Guest Editor of this Special Issue of Marine Drugs, I invite you to contribute papers and review articles describing synthetic or biosynthetic approaches to marine drugs. Manuscripts describing the total or partial synthesis or biosynthesis of natural marine products, as well as analogs, are most welcome.

Prof. Dr. Asunción Barbero
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Marine Drugs is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Article
Fatty Acid Production and Direct Acyl Transfer through Polar Lipids Control TAG Biosynthesis during Nitrogen Deprivation in the Halotolerant Alga Dunaliella tertiolecta
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(7), 368; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19070368 - 25 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1392
Abstract
The aims of this work were to evaluate the contribution of the free fatty acid (FA) pool to triacylglyceride (TAG) biosynthesis and to try to characterize the mechanism by which FA are assimilated into TAG in the green alga Dunaliella tertiolecta. A [...] Read more.
The aims of this work were to evaluate the contribution of the free fatty acid (FA) pool to triacylglyceride (TAG) biosynthesis and to try to characterize the mechanism by which FA are assimilated into TAG in the green alga Dunaliella tertiolecta. A time-resolved lipidomic analysis showed that nitrogen (N) deprivation induces a redistribution of total lipidome, particularly of free FA and major polar lipid (PL), in parallel to enhanced accumulation of polyunsaturated TAG. The steady-state concentration of the FA pool, measured by prolonged 14C-bicarbonate pre-labeling, showed that N deprivation induced a 50% decrease in total FA level within the first 24 h and up to 85% after 96 h. The abundance of oleic acid increased from 50 to 70% of total free FA while polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) disappeared under N deprivation. The FA flux, measured by the rate of incorporation of 14C-palmitic acid (PlA), suggests partial suppression of phosphatidylcholine (PC) acyl editing and an enhanced turnover of the FA pool and of total digalactosyl-diacylglycerol (DGDG) during N deprivation. Taken together, these results imply that FA biosynthesis is a major rate-controlling stage in TAG biosynthesis in D. tertiolecta and that acyl transfer through PL such as PC and DGDG is the major FA assimilation pathway into TAG in that alga and possibly in other green microalgae. Increasing the availability of FA could lead to enhanced TAG biosynthesis and to improved production of high-value products from microalgae. Full article
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Article
Low Temperature and Cold Stress Significantly Increase Saxitoxins (STXs) and Expression of STX Biosynthesis Genes sxtA4 and sxtG in the Dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(6), 291; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19060291 - 21 May 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1832
Abstract
Toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium spp. produce saxitoxins (STXs), whose biosynthesis pathway is affected by temperature. However, the link between the regulation of the relevant genes and STXs’ accumulation and temperature is insufficiently understood. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of temperature on [...] Read more.
Toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium spp. produce saxitoxins (STXs), whose biosynthesis pathway is affected by temperature. However, the link between the regulation of the relevant genes and STXs’ accumulation and temperature is insufficiently understood. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of temperature on cellular STXs and the expression of two core STX biosynthesis genes (sxtA4 and sxtG) in the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella Alex03 isolated from Korean waters. We analyzed the growth rate, toxin profiles, and gene responses in cells exposed to different temperatures, including long-term adaptation (12, 16, and 20 °C) and cold and heat stresses. Temperature significantly affected the growth of A. catenella, with optimal growth (0.49 division/day) at 16 °C and the largest cell size (30.5 µm) at 12 °C. High concentration of STXs eq were detected in cells cultured at 16 °C (86.3 fmol/cell) and exposed to cold stress at 20→12 °C (96.6 fmol/cell) compared to those at 20 °C and exposed to heat stress. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed significant gene expression changes of sxtA4 in cells cultured at 16 °C (1.8-fold) and cold shock at 20→16 °C (9.9-fold). In addition, sxtG was significantly induced in cells exposed to cold shocks (20→16 °C; 19.5-fold) and heat stress (12→20 °C; 25.6-fold). Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that low temperature (12 and 16 °C) and cold stress were positively related with STXs’ production and gene expression levels. These results suggest that temperature may affect the toxicity and regulation of STX biosynthesis genes in dinoflagellates. Full article
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Article
Synthesis and Bioactivities of Marine Pyran-Isoindolone Derivatives as Potential Antithrombotic Agents
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(4), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19040218 - 15 Apr 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1336
Abstract
2,5-Bis-[8-(4,8-dimethyl-nona-3,7-dienyl)-5,7-dihydroxy-8-methyl-3-keto-1,2,7,8-teraahydro-6H-pyran[a]isoindol-2-yl]-pentanoic acid (FGFC1) is a marine pyran-isoindolone derivative isolated from a rare marine microorganism Stachybotrys longispora FG216, which showed moderate antithrombotic(fibrinolytic) activity. To further enhance its antithrombotic effect, a series of new FGFC1 derivatives (F1F7) [...] Read more.
2,5-Bis-[8-(4,8-dimethyl-nona-3,7-dienyl)-5,7-dihydroxy-8-methyl-3-keto-1,2,7,8-teraahydro-6H-pyran[a]isoindol-2-yl]-pentanoic acid (FGFC1) is a marine pyran-isoindolone derivative isolated from a rare marine microorganism Stachybotrys longispora FG216, which showed moderate antithrombotic(fibrinolytic) activity. To further enhance its antithrombotic effect, a series of new FGFC1 derivatives (F1F7) were synthesized via chemical modification at C-2 and C-2′ phenol groups moieties and C-1″ carboxyl group. Their fibrinolytic activities in vitro were evaluated. Among the derivatives, F1F4 and F6 showed significant fibrinolytic activities with EC50 of 59.7, 87.1, 66.6, 82.8, and 42.3 μM, respectively, via enhancement of urokinase activity. Notably, derivative F6 presented the most remarkable fibrinolytic activity (2.72-fold than that of FGFC1). Furthermore, the cytotoxicity of derivative F6 was tested as well as expression of Fas/Apo-1 and IL-1 on HeLa cells. The results showed that, compared to FGFC1, derivative F6 possessed moderate cytotoxicity and apoptotic effect on HeLa cells (statistical significance p > 0.1), making F6 a potential antithrombotic agent towards clinical application. Full article
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Review

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Review
Marine Heterocyclic Compounds That Modulate Intracellular Calcium Signals: Chemistry and Synthesis Approaches
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(2), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19020078 - 31 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1574
Abstract
Intracellular Ca2+ plays a pivotal role in the control of a large series of cell functions in all types of cells, from neurotransmitter release and muscle contraction to gene expression, cell proliferation and cell death. Ca2+ is transported through specific channels [...] Read more.
Intracellular Ca2+ plays a pivotal role in the control of a large series of cell functions in all types of cells, from neurotransmitter release and muscle contraction to gene expression, cell proliferation and cell death. Ca2+ is transported through specific channels and transporters in the plasma membrane and subcellular organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. Therefore, dysregulation of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis may lead to cell dysfunction and disease. Accordingly, chemical compounds from natural origin and/or synthesis targeting directly or indirectly these channels and proteins may be of interest for the treatment of cell dysfunction and disease. In this review, we show an overview of a group of marine drugs that, from the structural point of view, contain one or various heterocyclic units in their core structure, and from the biological side, they have a direct influence on the transport of calcium in the cell. The marine compounds covered in this review are divided into three groups, which correspond with their direct biological activity, such as compounds with a direct influence in the calcium channel, compounds with a direct effect on the cytoskeleton and drugs with an effect on cancer cell proliferation. For each target, we describe its bioactive properties and synthetic approaches. The wide variety of chemical structures compiled in this review and their significant medical properties may attract the attention of many different researchers. Full article
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Review
Synthesis and Biological Activities of Cyclodepsipeptides of Aurilide Family from Marine Origin
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(2), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19020055 - 23 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2053
Abstract
Aurilides are a class of depsipeptides occurring mainly in marine cyanobacteria. Members of the aurilide family have shown to exhibit strong cytotoxicity against various cancer cell lines. These compounds bear a pentapeptide, a polyketide, and an α-hydroxy ester subunit in their structure. A [...] Read more.
Aurilides are a class of depsipeptides occurring mainly in marine cyanobacteria. Members of the aurilide family have shown to exhibit strong cytotoxicity against various cancer cell lines. These compounds bear a pentapeptide, a polyketide, and an α-hydroxy ester subunit in their structure. A large number of remarkable studies on aurilides have emerged since 1996. This comprehensive account summarizes the biological activities and total syntheses of natural compounds of the aurilide family as well as their synthetic analogues. Full article
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