Special Issue "Bioactive Compounds from Brown Algae"

A special issue of Marine Drugs (ISSN 1660-3397).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 June 2021) | Viewed by 22763

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Roland Ulber
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, Technische Universität Kaiserslautern, Kaiserslautern, Germany
Interests: white (industrial) and marine biotechnology; biocatalysis; the development of downstream processes
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Brown algae comprise approx. 2040 species grown in various climatic conditions. They represent a reservoir of various bioactive compounds, including fucoidan, alginate, phlorotannins, and fucoxanthins. They have shown an array of applications in pharmaceutical and medical fields. Hence, the Guest Editor invites all interested authors to submit their contributions to the current issue in Marine Drugs entitled “Bioactive Compounds from Brown Algae”. It aims to highlight different aspects of bioactive compounds found in brown algae, in either research or review articles. Specifically, we are interested in downstream processes, chemistry, biotechnology, and applications of, for example, heteropolysaccharides and other brown algae bioactives. In addition, the structure elucidation and enzymatic modification of these components are also within the scope of the present Issue.

Prof. Dr. Roland Ulber
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Marine Drugs is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Brown algae
  • Heteropolysaccharides
  • Fucoidan
  • Bioactives
  • Cultivation
  • Chemistry
  • Metabolomics
  • Biotechnology
  • Bioengineering
  • Nanomedicine
  • Phlorotannins
  • Alginates
  • Downstream processes
  • Pharmacology of brown algae metabolite
  • Recent applications
  • Structure-activity relationships

Published Papers (10 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Article
Effect of Phlorofucofuroeckol A and Dieckol Extracted from Ecklonia cava on Noise-induced Hearing Loss in a Mouse Model
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(8), 443; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19080443 - 01 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1531
Abstract
One of the well-known causes of hearing loss is noise. Approximately 31.1% of Americans between the ages of 20 and 69 years (61.1 million people) have high-frequency hearing loss associated with noise exposure. In addition, recurrent noise exposure can accelerate age-related hearing loss. [...] Read more.
One of the well-known causes of hearing loss is noise. Approximately 31.1% of Americans between the ages of 20 and 69 years (61.1 million people) have high-frequency hearing loss associated with noise exposure. In addition, recurrent noise exposure can accelerate age-related hearing loss. Phlorofucofuroeckol A (PFF-A) and dieckol, polyphenols extracted from the brown alga Ecklonia cava, are potent antioxidant agents. In this study, we investigated the effect of PFF-A and dieckol on the consequences of noise exposure in mice. In 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay, dieckol and PFF-A both showed significant radical-scavenging activity. The mice were exposed to 115 dB SPL of noise one single time for 2 h. Auditory brainstem response(ABR) threshold shifts 4 h after 4 kHz noise exposure in mice that received dieckol were significantly lower than those in the saline with noise group. The high-PFF-A group showed a lower threshold shift at click and 16 kHz 1 day after noise exposure than the control group. The high-PFF-A group also showed higher hair cell survival than in the control at 3 days after exposure in the apical turn. These results suggest that noise-induced hair cell damage in cochlear and the ABR threshold shift can be alleviated by dieckol and PFF-A in the mouse. Derivatives of these compounds may be applied to individuals who are inevitably exposed to noise, contributing to the prevention of noise-induced hearing loss with a low probability of adverse effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Brown Algae)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Impact of Phlorotannin Extracts from Fucus vesiculosus on Human Gut Microbiota
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(7), 375; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19070375 - 29 Jun 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 1973
Abstract
Recent studies indicate that plant polyphenols could be pointed as potential prebiotic candidates since they may interact with the gut microbiota, stimulating its growth and the production of metabolites. However, little is known about the fate of brown seaweeds’ phlorotannins during their passage [...] Read more.
Recent studies indicate that plant polyphenols could be pointed as potential prebiotic candidates since they may interact with the gut microbiota, stimulating its growth and the production of metabolites. However, little is known about the fate of brown seaweeds’ phlorotannins during their passage throughout the gastrointestinal tract. This work aimed to evaluate the stability and bioaccessibility of Fucus vesiculosus phlorotannins after being submitted to a simulated digestive process, as well as their possible modulatory effects on gut microbiota and short-chain fatty acids production following a fermentation procedure using fecal inoculates to mimic the conditions of the large intestine. The stability of phlorotannins throughout the gastrointestinal tract was reduced, with a bioaccessibility index between 2 and 14%. Moreover, slight alterations in the growth of certain commensal bacteria were noticed, with Enterococcus spp. being the most enhanced group. Likewise, F. vesiculosus phlorotannins displayed striking capacity to enhance the levels of propionate and butyrate, which are two important short-chain fatty acids known for their role in intestinal homeostasis. In summary, this work provides valuable information regarding the behavior of F. vesiculosus phlorotannins along the gastrointestinal tract, presenting clear evidence that these compounds can positively contribute to the maintenance of a healthy gastrointestinal condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Brown Algae)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Screening of In-Vitro Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Activity of Sargassum ilicifolium Crude Lipid Extracts from Different Coastal Areas in Indonesia
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(5), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19050252 - 28 Apr 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1643
Abstract
Sargassum brown seaweed is reported to exhibit several biological activities which promote human health, such as anticancer, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activity. This study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of crude lipid extracts of Sargassum ilicifolium obtained from four [...] Read more.
Sargassum brown seaweed is reported to exhibit several biological activities which promote human health, such as anticancer, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activity. This study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of crude lipid extracts of Sargassum ilicifolium obtained from four different coastal areas in Indonesia, namely Awur Bay–Jepara (AB), Pari Island–Seribu Islands (PI), Sayang Heulang Beach–Garut (SHB), and Ujung Genteng Beach–Sukabumi (UGB). Results showed that treatment of RAW 264.7 macrophage cells with UGB and AB crude lipid extracts (12.5–50 µg/mL) significantly suppressed the nitric oxide production after lipopolysaccharide stimulation, both in pre-incubated and co-incubated cell culture model. The anti-inflammatory effect was most marked in the pre-incubated cell culture model. Both two crude lipid extracts showed 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and high ferric reducing antioxidant power, which were amounted to 36.93–37.87 µmol Trolox equivalent/g lipid extract and 681.58–969.81 µmol FeSO4/g lipid extract, respectively. From this study, we can conclude that crude lipid extract of tropical S. ilicifolium can be further developed as a source of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Brown Algae)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Effect of Oversulfation on the Composition, Structure, and In Vitro Anti-Lung Cancer Activity of Fucoidans Extracted from Sargassum aquifolium
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(4), 215; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19040215 - 12 Apr 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1651
Abstract
Intensive efforts have been undertaken in the fields of prevention, diagnosis, and therapy of lung cancer. Fucoidans exhibit a wide range of biological activities, which are dependent on the degree of sulfation, sulfation pattern, glycosidic branches, and molecular weight of fucoidan. The determination [...] Read more.
Intensive efforts have been undertaken in the fields of prevention, diagnosis, and therapy of lung cancer. Fucoidans exhibit a wide range of biological activities, which are dependent on the degree of sulfation, sulfation pattern, glycosidic branches, and molecular weight of fucoidan. The determination of oversulfation of fucoidan and its effect on anti-lung cancer activity and related signaling cascades is challenging. In this investigation, we used a previously developed fucoidan (SCA), which served as a native fucoidan, to generate two oversulfated fucoidan derivatives (SCA-S1 and SCA-S2). SCA, SCA-S1, and SCA-S2 showed differences in compositions and had the characteristic structural features of fucoidan by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses. The anticancer properties of SCA, SCA-S1, and SCA-S2 against human lung carcinoma A-549 cells were analyzed in terms of cytotoxicity, cell cycle, Bcl-2 expression, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), expression of caspase-3, cytochrome c release, Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) staining, DNA fragmentation, and the underlying signaling cascades. Our findings indicate that the oversulfation of fucoidan promotes apoptosis of lung cancer cells and the mechanism may involve the Akt/mTOR/S6 pathway. Further in vivo research is needed to establish the precise mechanism whereby oversulfated fucoidan mitigates the progression of lung cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Brown Algae)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Inhibition Effect of the Seaweed Polyphenol, 7-Phloro-Eckol from Ecklonia Cava on Alcohol-Induced Oxidative Stress in HepG2/CYP2E1 Cells
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(3), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19030158 - 17 Mar 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1831
Abstract
The liver is vulnerable to oxidative stress-induced damage, which leads to many diseases, including alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Liver disease endanger people’s health, and the incidence of ALD is increasing; therefore, prevention is very important. 7-phloro-eckol (7PE) is a seaweed polyphenol, which was [...] Read more.
The liver is vulnerable to oxidative stress-induced damage, which leads to many diseases, including alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Liver disease endanger people’s health, and the incidence of ALD is increasing; therefore, prevention is very important. 7-phloro-eckol (7PE) is a seaweed polyphenol, which was isolated from Ecklonia cava in a previous study. In this study, the antioxidative stress effect of 7PE on HepG2/CYP2E1 cells was evaluated by alcohol-induced cytotoxicity, DNA damage, and expression of related inflammation and apoptosis proteins. The results showed that 7PE caused alcohol-induced cytotoxicity to abate, reduced the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO), and effectively inhibited DNA damage in HepG2/CYP2E1 cells. Additionally, the expression levels of glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), and Akt increased, while γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), Bcl-2 related x (Bax), cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and JNK decreased. Finally, molecular docking proved that 7PE could bind to BCL-2 and GSH protein. These results indicate that 7PE can alleviate the alcohol-induced oxidative stress injury of HepG2 cells and that 7PE may have a potential application prospect in the future development of antioxidants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Brown Algae)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Evaluation of a Brown Seaweed Extract from Dictyosiphon foeniculaceus as a Potential Therapeutic Agent for the Treatment of Glioblastoma and Uveal Melanoma
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(12), 625; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18120625 - 08 Dec 2020
Viewed by 1463
Abstract
Ingredients of brown seaweed like fucoidans are often described for their beneficial biological effects, that might be interesting for a medical application. In this study, we tested an extract from Dictyosiphon foeniculaceus (DF) to evaluate the effects in glioblastoma and uveal melanoma, looking [...] Read more.
Ingredients of brown seaweed like fucoidans are often described for their beneficial biological effects, that might be interesting for a medical application. In this study, we tested an extract from Dictyosiphon foeniculaceus (DF) to evaluate the effects in glioblastoma and uveal melanoma, looking for a possible anti-cancer treatment. We investigated toxicity, VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) secretion and gene expression of tumor and non-tumor cells. SVGA (human fetal astrocytes), the human RPE (retinal pigment epithelium) cell line ARPE-19, the tumor cell line OMM-1 (human uveal melanoma), and two different human primary glioblastoma cultures (116-14 and 118-14) were used. Tests for cell viability were conducted with MTS-Assay (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium), and the proliferation rate was determined with cell counting. VEGF secretion was assessed with ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). The gene expression of VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1), VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and VEGF-A was determined with real-time qPCR (quantitative polymerase chain reaction). DF lowered the cell viability of OMM-1. Proliferation rates of ARPE-19 and OMM-1 were decreased. The VEGF secretion was inhibited in ARPE-19 and OMM-1, whereas it was increased in SVGA and 116-14. The expression of VEGFR1 was absent and not influenced in OMM-1 and ARPE-19. VEGFR2 expression was lowered in 116-14 after 24 h, whereas VEGF-A was increased in 118-14 after 72 h. The extract lowered cell viability slightly and was anti-proliferative depending on the cell type investigated. VEGF was heterogeneously affected. The results in glioblastoma were not promising, but the anti-tumor properties in OMM-1 could make them interesting for further research concerning cancer diseases in the human eye. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Brown Algae)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Diphlorethohydroxycarmalol Attenuates Palmitate-Induced Hepatic Lipogenesis and Inflammation
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(9), 475; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18090475 - 18 Sep 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1874
Abstract
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common cause of chronic liver disease, encompassing a range of conditions caused by lipid deposition within liver cells, and is also associated with obesity and metabolic diseases. Here, we investigated the protective effects of diphlorethohydroxycarmalol (DPHC), [...] Read more.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common cause of chronic liver disease, encompassing a range of conditions caused by lipid deposition within liver cells, and is also associated with obesity and metabolic diseases. Here, we investigated the protective effects of diphlorethohydroxycarmalol (DPHC), which is a polyphenol isolated from an edible seaweed, Ishige okamurae, on palmitate-induced lipotoxicity in the liver. DPHC treatment repressed palmitate-induced cytotoxicity, triglyceride content, and lipid accumulation. DPHC prevented palmitate-induced mRNA and protein expression of SREBP (sterol regulatory element-binding protein) 1, C/EBP (CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein) α, ChREBP (carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein), and FAS (fatty acid synthase). In addition, palmitate treatment reduced the expression levels of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and sirtuin (SIRT)1 proteins, and DPHC treatment rescued this reduction. Moreover, DPHC protected palmitate-induced liver toxicity and lipogenesis, as well as inflammation, and enhanced AMPK and SIRT1 signaling in zebrafish. These results suggest that DPHC possesses protective effects against palmitate-induced toxicity in the liver by preventing lipogenesis and inflammation. DPHC could be used as a potential therapeutic or preventive agent for fatty liver diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Brown Algae)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Review
Brown Algae Carbohydrates: Structures, Pharmaceutical Properties, and Research Challenges
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(11), 620; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19110620 - 31 Oct 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3071
Abstract
Brown algae (Phaeophyceae) have been consumed by humans for hundreds of years. Current studies have shown that brown algae are rich sources of bioactive compounds with excellent nutritional value, and are considered functional foods with health benefits. Polysaccharides are the main [...] Read more.
Brown algae (Phaeophyceae) have been consumed by humans for hundreds of years. Current studies have shown that brown algae are rich sources of bioactive compounds with excellent nutritional value, and are considered functional foods with health benefits. Polysaccharides are the main constituents of brown algae; their diverse structures allow many unique physical and chemical properties that help to moderate a wide range of biological activities, including immunomodulation, antibacterial, antioxidant, prebiotic, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, antitumor, and anticoagulant activities. In this review, we focus on the major polysaccharide components in brown algae: the alginate, laminarin, and fucoidan. We explore how their structure leads to their health benefits, and their application prospects in functional foods and pharmaceuticals. Finally, we summarize the latest developments in applied research on brown algae polysaccharides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Brown Algae)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Antifungal and Larvicidal Activities of Phlorotannins from Brown Seaweeds
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(4), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19040223 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2325
Abstract
Phlorotannins are secondary metabolites produced by brown seaweeds with antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, and larvicidal activities. Phlorotannins’ structures are formed by dibenzodioxin, ether and phenyl, ether, or phenyl linkages. The polymerization of phlorotannins is used to classify and characterize. The structural diversity of phlorotannins [...] Read more.
Phlorotannins are secondary metabolites produced by brown seaweeds with antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, and larvicidal activities. Phlorotannins’ structures are formed by dibenzodioxin, ether and phenyl, ether, or phenyl linkages. The polymerization of phlorotannins is used to classify and characterize. The structural diversity of phlorotannins grows as polymerization increases. They have been characterized extensively with respect to chemical properties and functionality. However, review papers of the biological activities of phlorotannins have focused on their antibacterial and antiviral effects, and reviews of their broad antifungal and larvicidal effects are lacking. Accordingly, evidence for the effectiveness of phlorotannins as antifungal and larvicidal agents is discussed in this review. Online databases (ScienceDirect, PubMed, MEDLINE, and Web of Science) were used to identify relevant articles. In total, 11 articles were retrieved after duplicates were removed and exclusion criteria were applied. Phlorotannins from brown seaweeds show antifungal activity against dermal and plant fungi, and larvicidal activity against mosquitos and marine invertebrate larvae. However, further studies of the biological activity of phlorotannins against fungal and parasitic infections in aquaculture fish, livestock, and companion animals are needed for systematic analyses of their effectiveness. The research described in this review emphasizes the potential applications of phlorotannins as pharmaceutical, functional food, pesticide, and antifouling agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Brown Algae)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Fucoidan Characterization: Determination of Purity and Physicochemical and Chemical Properties
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(11), 571; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18110571 - 19 Nov 2020
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 4071
Abstract
Fucoidans are marine sulfated biopolysaccharides that have heterogenous and complicated chemical structures. Various sugar monomers, glycosidic linkages, molecular masses, branching sites, and sulfate ester pattern and content are involved within their backbones. Additionally, sources, downstream processes, and geographical and seasonal factors show potential [...] Read more.
Fucoidans are marine sulfated biopolysaccharides that have heterogenous and complicated chemical structures. Various sugar monomers, glycosidic linkages, molecular masses, branching sites, and sulfate ester pattern and content are involved within their backbones. Additionally, sources, downstream processes, and geographical and seasonal factors show potential effects on fucoidan structural characteristics. These characteristics are documented to be highly related to fucoidan potential activities. Therefore, numerous chemical qualitative and quantitative determinations and structural elucidation methods are conducted to characterize fucoidans regarding their physicochemical and chemical features. Characterization of fucoidan polymers is considered a bottleneck for further biological and industrial applications. Consequently, the obtained results may be related to different activities, which could be improved afterward by further functional modifications. The current article highlights the different spectrometric and nonspectrometric methods applied for the characterization of native fucoidans, including degree of purity, sugar monomeric composition, sulfation pattern and content, molecular mass, and glycosidic linkages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Brown Algae)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop