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Mar. Drugs, Volume 19, Issue 12 (December 2021) – 65 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Chitosan is among the most studied natural origin polymers for biomedical applications. Due to its mucoadhesiveness, chitosan enables a prolonged residence time at mucosal sites; its wound-healing properties open possibilities to utilize chitosan as wound dressings with multitargeted activities and more. This review focuses on the potential of chitosan in localized antimicrobial therapy to address the challenges of current rising antimicrobial resistance. We provide an in-depth overview of state-of-the-art chitosan-based delivery systems for skin and vaginal infections, and a brief overview of chitosan’s potential in treating ocular, buccal and dental, and nasal infections. View this paper
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Article
Mansouramycins E–G, Cytotoxic Isoquinolinequinones from Marine Streptomycetes
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(12), 715; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19120715 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1821
Abstract
Chemical investigation of the ethyl acetate extract from the marine-derived Streptomyces sp. isolate B1848 resulted in three new isoquinolinequinone derivatives, the mansouramycins E–G (1a3a), in addition to the previously reported mansouramycins A (5) and D (6 [...] Read more.
Chemical investigation of the ethyl acetate extract from the marine-derived Streptomyces sp. isolate B1848 resulted in three new isoquinolinequinone derivatives, the mansouramycins E–G (1a3a), in addition to the previously reported mansouramycins A (5) and D (6). Their structures were elucidated by computer-assisted interpretation of 1D and 2D NMR spectra, high-resolution mass spectrometry, and by comparison with related compounds. Cytotoxicity profiling of the mansouramycins in a panel of up to 36 tumor cell lines indicated a significant cytotoxicity and good tumor selectivity for mansouramycin F (2a), while the activity profile of E (1a) was less attractive. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Microbial Diversity as Source of Bioactive Compounds)
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Article
Structure Revision and Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Inhibitory Activity of Drazepinone
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(12), 714; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19120714 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1655
Abstract
From the marine-derived fungus Penicillium sumatrense (Trichocomaceae), a pair of enantiomers [(+)-1 and (−)-1] were isolated with identical 1D NMR data to drazepinone, which was originally reported to have a trisubstituted naphthofuroazepinone skeleton. In this study, we confirmed the structures [...] Read more.
From the marine-derived fungus Penicillium sumatrense (Trichocomaceae), a pair of enantiomers [(+)-1 and (−)-1] were isolated with identical 1D NMR data to drazepinone, which was originally reported to have a trisubstituted naphthofuroazepinone skeleton. In this study, we confirmed the structures of the two enantiomers as drazepinone and revised their structures by detailed analysis of extensive 2D NMR data and a comparison of the calculated 13C chemical shifts, ECD, VCD, and ORD spectra with those of the experiment ones. (+)-1 and (−)-1 were evaluated for their PTP inhibitory activity in vitro. (−)-1 showed selective PTP inhibitory activity against PTP1B and TCPTP with IC50 values of 1.56 and 12.5 μg/mL, respectively. Full article
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Review
Carotenoid Production from Microalgae: Biosynthesis, Salinity Responses and Novel Biotechnologies
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(12), 713; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19120713 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3268
Abstract
Microalgae are excellent biological factories for high-value products and contain biofunctional carotenoids. Carotenoids are a group of natural pigments with high value in social production and human health. They have been widely used in food additives, pharmaceutics and cosmetics. Astaxanthin, β-carotene and lutein [...] Read more.
Microalgae are excellent biological factories for high-value products and contain biofunctional carotenoids. Carotenoids are a group of natural pigments with high value in social production and human health. They have been widely used in food additives, pharmaceutics and cosmetics. Astaxanthin, β-carotene and lutein are currently the three carotenoids with the largest market share. Meanwhile, other less studied pigments, such as fucoxanthin and zeaxanthin, also exist in microalgae and have great biofunctional potentials. Since carotenoid accumulation is related to environments and cultivation of microalgae in seawater is a difficult biotechnological problem, the contributions of salt stress on carotenoid accumulation in microalgae need to be revealed for large-scale production. This review comprehensively summarizes the carotenoid biosynthesis and salinity responses of microalgae. Applications of salt stress to induce carotenoid accumulation, potentials of the Internet of Things in microalgae cultivation and future aspects for seawater cultivation are also discussed. As the global market share of carotenoids is still ascending, large-scale, economical and intelligent biotechnologies for carotenoid production play vital roles in the future microalgal economy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biotechnology Applications of Microalgae)
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Article
Protective Effect of Flavonoids from a Deep-Sea-Derived Arthrinium sp. against ox-LDL-Induced Oxidative Injury through Activating the AKT/Nrf2/HO-1 Pathway in Vascular Endothelial Cells
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(12), 712; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19120712 - 18 Dec 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1650
Abstract
Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced oxidative injury in vascular endothelial cells is crucial for the progression of cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis. Several flavonoids have been shown cardiovascular protective effects. Recently, our research group confirmed that the novel flavonoids isolated from the deep-sea-derived fungus Arthrinium [...] Read more.
Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced oxidative injury in vascular endothelial cells is crucial for the progression of cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis. Several flavonoids have been shown cardiovascular protective effects. Recently, our research group confirmed that the novel flavonoids isolated from the deep-sea-derived fungus Arthrinium sp., 2,3,4,6,8-pentahydroxy-1-methylxanthone (compound 1) and arthone C (compound 2) effectively scavenged ROS in vitro. In this study, we further investigated whether these compounds could protect against ox-LDL-induced oxidative injury in endothelial cells and the underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that compounds 1 and 2 inhibited ox-LDL-induced apoptosis and adhesion factors expression in human umbilical vein vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). Mechanistic studies showed that these compounds significantly inhibited the ROS level increase and the NF-κB nuclear translocation induced by ox-LDL. Moreover, compounds 1 and 2 activated the Nrf2 to transfer into nuclei and increased the expression of its downstream antioxidant gene HO-1 by inducing the phosphorylation of AKT in HUVECs. Importantly, the AKT inhibitor MK-2206 2HCl or knockdown of Nrf2 by RNA interference attenuated the inhibition effects of these compounds on ox-LDL-induced apoptosis in HUVECs. Meanwhile, knockdown of Nrf2 abolished the effects of the compounds on ox-LDL-induced ROS level increase and the translocation of NF-κB to nuclei. Collectively, the data showed that compounds 1 and 2 protected endothelial cells against ox-LDL-induced oxidative stress through activating the AKT/Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. Our study provides new strategies for the design of lead compounds for related cardiovascular diseases treatment. Full article
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Article
Volatile Organic Compounds, Indole, and Biogenic Amines Assessment in Two Mediterranean Irciniidae (Porifera, Demospongiae)
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(12), 711; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19120711 - 17 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1601
Abstract
Solid phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was employed for the headspace determination of the volatile organic fraction emitted by two of the most common Mediterranean demosponges, Ircinia variabilis and Sarcotragus spinosulus, and of indole and some biogenic amines [...] Read more.
Solid phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was employed for the headspace determination of the volatile organic fraction emitted by two of the most common Mediterranean demosponges, Ircinia variabilis and Sarcotragus spinosulus, and of indole and some biogenic amines released by sponges in an aqueous medium. A total of 50/30 µm divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane and 75 µm carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane fibers were used for the headspace extraction of low molecular weight sulfur compounds from a hermetically sealed vial containing sponge fragments, while the direct immersion determination of indole and biogenic amines was performed. The biogenic amines were extracted after in-solution derivatization with isobutyl chloroformate. All analytical parameters (linearity, limits of detection, and quantification, precision, and recovery) were evaluated for indole and biogenic amines. SPME-GC-MS proved to be a reliable means of highlighting the differences between molecules released by different sponges, principally responsible for their smell. The combined approaches allowed the identification of several volatile compounds in the headspace and other molecules released by the sponges in an aqueous medium, including indole and the BAs cadaverine, histamine, isobutylamine, isopentylamine, propylamine, 2-phenylethylamine, putrescine and tryptamine. The results obtained represent a further contribution to the picture of odoriferous molecules secreted by sponges. Full article
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Review
Iron-Utilization System in Vibrio vulnificus M2799
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(12), 710; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19120710 - 17 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1843
Abstract
Vibrio vulnificus is a Gram-negative pathogenic bacterium that causes serious infections in humans and requires iron for growth. A clinical isolate, V. vulnificus M2799, secretes a catecholate siderophore, vulnibactin, that captures ferric ions from the environment. In the ferric-utilization system in V [...] Read more.
Vibrio vulnificus is a Gram-negative pathogenic bacterium that causes serious infections in humans and requires iron for growth. A clinical isolate, V. vulnificus M2799, secretes a catecholate siderophore, vulnibactin, that captures ferric ions from the environment. In the ferric-utilization system in V. vulnificus M2799, an isochorismate synthase (ICS) and an outer membrane receptor, VuuA, are required under low-iron conditions, but alternative proteins FatB and VuuB can function as a periplasmic-binding protein and a ferric-chelate reductase, respectively. The vulnibactin-export system is assembled from TolCV1 and several RND proteins, including VV1_1681. In heme acquisition, HupA and HvtA serve as specific outer membrane receptors and HupB is a sole periplasmic-binding protein, unlike FatB in the ferric-vulnibactin utilization system. We propose that ferric-siderophore periplasmic-binding proteins and ferric-chelate reductases are potential targets for drug discovery in infectious diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Siderophores: Structures, Biological Roles and Applications)
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Article
From Crystal Structures of RgIA4 in Complex with Ac-AChBP to Molecular Determinants of Its High Potency of α9α10 nAChR
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(12), 709; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19120709 - 17 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1449
Abstract
α9-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have been shown to play critical roles in neuropathic pain. The α-conotoxin (α-CTx) RgIA and its analog RgIA4 were identified as the most selective inhibitor of α9α10 nAChR. However, the mechanism of their selectivity toward α9α10 nAChR remains [...] Read more.
α9-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have been shown to play critical roles in neuropathic pain. The α-conotoxin (α-CTx) RgIA and its analog RgIA4 were identified as the most selective inhibitor of α9α10 nAChR. However, the mechanism of their selectivity toward α9α10 nAChR remains elusive. Here, we reported the co-crystal structure of RgIA and RgIA4 in complex with Aplysia californica acetylcholine binding protein (Ac-AChBP) at resolution of 2.6 Å, respectively. Based on the structure of the complexes, together with molecular dynamic simulation (MD-simulation), we suggested the key residues of α9α10 nAChR in determining its high affinity for RgIA/RgIA4. This is the first time the complex between pain-related conotoxins and Ac-AChBP was reported and the complementary side of α9 subunit in binding of the antagonists shown. These results provide realistic template for the design of new therapeutic in neuropathic pain. Full article
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Review
Advanced Strategies for 3D Bioprinting of Tissue and Organ Analogs Using Alginate Hydrogel Bioinks
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(12), 708; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19120708 - 15 Dec 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3313
Abstract
Alginate is a natural polysaccharide that typically originates from various species of algae. Due to its low cost, good biocompatibility, and rapid ionic gelation, the alginate hydrogel has become a good option of bioink source for 3D bioprinting. However, the lack of cell [...] Read more.
Alginate is a natural polysaccharide that typically originates from various species of algae. Due to its low cost, good biocompatibility, and rapid ionic gelation, the alginate hydrogel has become a good option of bioink source for 3D bioprinting. However, the lack of cell adhesive moieties, erratic biodegradability, and poor printability are the critical limitations of alginate hydrogel bioink. This review discusses the pivotal properties of alginate hydrogel as a bioink for 3D bioprinting technologies. Afterward, a variety of advanced material formulations and biofabrication strategies that have recently been developed to overcome the drawbacks of alginate hydrogel bioink will be focused on. In addition, the applications of these advanced solutions for 3D bioprinting of tissue/organ mimicries such as regenerative implants and in vitro tissue models using alginate-based bioink will be systematically summarized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Origin Polymers as Biomaterials for Bioprinting)
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Article
A Novel Pseudoalteromonas xiamenensis Marine Isolate as a Potential Probiotic: Anti-Inflammatory and Innate Immune Modulatory Effects against Thermal and Pathogenic Stresses
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(12), 707; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19120707 - 15 Dec 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1984
Abstract
A marine bacterial strain was isolated from seawater and characterized for it beneficial probiotic effects using zebrafish as a model system. The strain was identified by morphological, physiological, biochemical, and phylogenetic analyses. The strain was most closely related to Pseudoalteromonas xiamenensis Y2, with [...] Read more.
A marine bacterial strain was isolated from seawater and characterized for it beneficial probiotic effects using zebrafish as a model system. The strain was identified by morphological, physiological, biochemical, and phylogenetic analyses. The strain was most closely related to Pseudoalteromonas xiamenensis Y2, with 99.66% similarity; thus, we named it Pseudoalteromonas xiamenensis S1131. Improvement of host disease tolerance for the P. xiamenensis isolate was adapted in a zebrafish model using Edwardsiella piscicida challenge. The larvae were pre-exposed to P. xiamenensis prior to E. piscicida challenge, resulting in a 73.3% survival rate compared to a 46.6% survival for the control. The treated larvae tolerated elevated temperatures at 38 °C, with 85% survival, compared to 60% survival for the control. Assessment of immunomodulatory responses at the mRNA level demonstrated the suppression of pro-inflammatory markers tnfα and il6, and upregulation of heat shock protein hsp90 and mucin genes. The same effect was corroborated by immunoblot analysis, revealing significant inhibition of Tnfα and an enhanced expression of the Hsp90 protein. The antibacterial activity of P. xiamenensis may be related to mucin overexpression, which can suppress bacterial biofilm formation and enhance macrophage uptake. This phenomenon was evaluated using nonstimulated macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Further studies may be warranted to elucidate a complete profile of the probiotic effects, to expand the potential applications of the present P. xiamenensis isolate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Natural Products Modulating the Immune System)
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Article
Comparison of Biochemical Characteristics, Action Models, and Enzymatic Mechanisms of a Novel Exolytic and Two Endolytic Lyases with Mannuronate Preference
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(12), 706; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19120706 - 14 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1561
Abstract
Recent explorations of tool-like alginate lyases have been focused on their oligosaccharide-yielding properties and corresponding mechanisms, whereas most were reported as endo-type with α-L-guluronate (G) preference. Less is known about the β-D-mannuronate (M) preference, whose commercial production and enzyme application is limited. In [...] Read more.
Recent explorations of tool-like alginate lyases have been focused on their oligosaccharide-yielding properties and corresponding mechanisms, whereas most were reported as endo-type with α-L-guluronate (G) preference. Less is known about the β-D-mannuronate (M) preference, whose commercial production and enzyme application is limited. In this study, we elucidated Aly6 of Flammeovirga sp. strain MY04 as a novel M-preferred exolytic bifunctional lyase and compared it with AlgLs of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pae-AlgL) and Azotobacter vinelandii (Avi-AlgL), two typical M-specific endolytic lyases. This study demonstrated that the AlgL and heparinase_II_III modules play indispensable roles in determining the characteristics of the recombinant exo-type enzyme rAly6, which is preferred to degrade M-enriched substrates by continuously cleaving various monosaccharide units from the nonreducing end, thus yielding various size-defined ΔG-terminated oligosaccharides as intermediate products. By contrast, the endolytic enzymes Pae-rAlgL and Avi-rAlgL varied their action modes specifically against M-enriched substrates and finally degraded associated substrate chains into various size-defined oligosaccharides with a succession rule, changing from ΔM to ΔG-terminus when the product size increased. Furthermore, site-directed mutations and further protein structure tests indicated that H195NHSTW is an active, half-conserved, and essential enzyme motif. This study provided new insights into M-preferring lyases for novel resource discoveries, oligosaccharide preparations, and sequence determinations. Full article
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Article
The 3/4- and 3/6-Subfamily Variants of α-Conotoxins GI and MI Exhibit Potent Inhibitory Activity against Muscular Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(12), 705; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19120705 - 14 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1307
Abstract
α-Conotoxins GI and MI belong to the 3/5 subfamily of α-conotoxins and potently inhibit muscular nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). To date, no 3/4- or 3/6-subfamily α-conotoxins have been reported to inhibit muscular nAChRs. In the present study, a series of new 3/4-, 3/6-, [...] Read more.
α-Conotoxins GI and MI belong to the 3/5 subfamily of α-conotoxins and potently inhibit muscular nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). To date, no 3/4- or 3/6-subfamily α-conotoxins have been reported to inhibit muscular nAChRs. In the present study, a series of new 3/4-, 3/6-, and 3/7-subfamily GI and MI variants were synthesized and functionally characterized by modifications of loop2. The results show that the 3/4-subfamily GI variant GI[∆8G]-II and the 3/6-subfamily variants GI[+13A], GI[+13R], and GI[+13K] displayed potent inhibition of muscular nAChRs expressed in Xenopus oocytes, with an IC50 of 45.4–73.4 nM, similar to or slightly lower than that of wild-type GI (42.0 nM). The toxicity of these GI variants in mice appeared to be about a half to a quarter of that of wild-type GI. At the same time, the 3/7-subfamily GI variants showed significantly lower in vitro potency and toxicity. On the other hand, similar to the 3/6-subfamily GI variants, the 3/6-subfamily MI variants MI[+14R] and MI[+14K] were also active after the addition of a basic amino acid, Arg or Lys, in loop2, but the activity was not maintained for the 3/4-subfamily MI variant MI[∆9G]. Interestingly, the disulfide bond connectivity “C1–C4, C2–C3” in the 3/4-subfamily variant GI[∆8G]-II was significantly more potent than the “C1–C3, C2–C4” connectivity found in wild-type GI and MI, suggesting that disulfide bond connectivity is easily affected in the rigid 3/4-subfamily α-conotoxins and that the disulfide bonds significantly impact the variants’ function. This work is the first to demonstrate that 3/4- and 3/6-subfamily α-conotoxins potently inhibit muscular nAChRs, expanding our knowledge of α-conotoxins and providing new motifs for their further modifications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Invertebrate Toxins: Evolution and Drug Discovery)
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Article
Comparative Analysis of the Functional Properties of Films Based on Carrageenans, Chitosan, and Their Polyelectrolyte Complexes
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(12), 704; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19120704 - 12 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1774
Abstract
The influence of the structural features of carrageenan on the functional properties of the films was studied. The carrageenans and chitosan films, as well as three-layer films containing a polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) of the two, were prepared. The X-ray diffractograms of carrageenan films [...] Read more.
The influence of the structural features of carrageenan on the functional properties of the films was studied. The carrageenans and chitosan films, as well as three-layer films containing a polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) of the two, were prepared. The X-ray diffractograms of carrageenan films reflected its amorphous structure, whereas chitosan and three-layer films were characterized by strong reflection in the regions of 20° and 15° angles, respectively. The SEM of the cross-sectional morphology showed dense packing of the chitosan film, as well as the layer-by-layer structure of different densities for the PEC. Among the tested samples, κ/β-carrageenan and chitosan films showed the highest tensile strength and maximum elongation. Films containing the drug substance echinochrome were obtained. Mucoadhesive properties were assessed as the ability of the films to swell on the mucous tissue and their erosion after contact with the mucosa. All studied films exhibited mucoadhesive properties. All studied films exhibited mucoadhesive properties which depended on the carrageenans structure. Multilayer films are stronger than single-layer carrageenan films due to PEC formation. The resulting puncture strength of the obtained films was comparable to that of commercial samples described in the literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carbohydrate-Based Compounds with Medicinal Properties II)
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Review
Recent Advancements and Future Perspectives of Microalgae-Derived Pharmaceuticals
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(12), 703; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19120703 - 12 Dec 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2125
Abstract
Microalgal cells serve as solar-powered factories that produce pharmaceuticals, recombinant proteins (vaccines and drugs), and valuable natural byproducts that possess medicinal properties. The main advantages of microalgae as cell factories can be summarized as follows: they are fueled by photosynthesis, are carbon dioxide-neutral, [...] Read more.
Microalgal cells serve as solar-powered factories that produce pharmaceuticals, recombinant proteins (vaccines and drugs), and valuable natural byproducts that possess medicinal properties. The main advantages of microalgae as cell factories can be summarized as follows: they are fueled by photosynthesis, are carbon dioxide-neutral, have rapid growth rates, are robust, have low-cost cultivation, are easily scalable, pose no risk of human pathogenic contamination, and their valuable natural byproducts can be further processed. Despite their potential, there are many technical hurdles that need to be overcome before the commercial production of microalgal pharmaceuticals, and extensive studies regarding their impact on human health must still be conducted and the results evaluated. Clearly, much work remains to be done before microalgae can be used in the large-scale commercial production of pharmaceuticals. This review focuses on recent advancements in microalgal biotechnology and its future perspectives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceutical Potential of Microalgae)
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Article
Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Fucoidan Extracts In Vitro
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(12), 702; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19120702 - 11 Dec 2021
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2943
Abstract
Fucoidans are sulfated, complex, fucose-rich polymers found in brown seaweeds. Fucoidans have been shown to have multiple bioactivities, including anti-inflammatory effects, and are known to inhibit inflammatory processes via a number of pathways such as selectin blockade and enzyme inhibition, and have demonstrated [...] Read more.
Fucoidans are sulfated, complex, fucose-rich polymers found in brown seaweeds. Fucoidans have been shown to have multiple bioactivities, including anti-inflammatory effects, and are known to inhibit inflammatory processes via a number of pathways such as selectin blockade and enzyme inhibition, and have demonstrated inhibition of inflammatory pathologies in vivo. In this current investigation, fucoidan extracts from Undaria pinnatifida, Fucus vesiculosus, Macrocystis pyrifera, Ascophyllum nodosum, and Laminaria japonica were assessed for modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine production (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and in a human macrophage line (THP-1). Fucoidan extracts exhibited no signs of cytotoxicity in THP-1 cells after incubation of 48 h. Additionally, all fucoidan extracts reduced cytokine production in LPS stimulated PBMCs and human THP-1 cells in a dose-dependent fashion. Notably, the 5–30 kDa subfraction from Macrocystis pyrifera was a highly effective inhibitor at lower concentrations. Fucoidan extracts from all species had significant anti-inflammatory effects, but the lowest molecular weight subfractions had maximal effects at low concentrations. These observations on various fucoidan extracts offer insight into strategies that improve their efficacy against inflammation-related pathology. Further studies should be conducted to elucidate the mechanism of action of these extracts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fucoidans Ⅱ: Immunomodulating Activity of Fucoidans)
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Article
Cyclic Peptides from the Soft Coral-Derived Fungus Aspergillus sclerotiorum SCSIO 41031
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(12), 701; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19120701 - 10 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1679
Abstract
Three novel cyclic hexapeptides, sclerotides C–E (13), and a new lipodepsipeptide, scopularide I (4), together with a known cyclic hexapeptide sclerotide A (5), were isolated from fermented rice cultures of a soft coral-derived fungus: Aspergillus [...] Read more.
Three novel cyclic hexapeptides, sclerotides C–E (13), and a new lipodepsipeptide, scopularide I (4), together with a known cyclic hexapeptide sclerotide A (5), were isolated from fermented rice cultures of a soft coral-derived fungus: Aspergillus sclerotiorum SCSIO 41031. The structures of the new peptides were determined by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis, Marfey’s method, ESIMS/MS analysis, and single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Scopularide I (4) exhibited acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 15.6 μM, and weak cytotoxicity against the human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line HONE-EBV with IC50 value of 10.1 μM. Full article
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Article
Oral Bioavailability of Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Carotenoids from the Microalgae Phaeodactylum tricornutum in Healthy Young Adults
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(12), 700; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19120700 - 10 Dec 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2376
Abstract
The microalgae Phaeodactylum tricornutum (PT) contains valuable nutrients such as proteins, polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), particularly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and some docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), carotenoids such as fucoxanthin (FX), and beta-glucans, which may confer health benefits. In a randomized [...] Read more.
The microalgae Phaeodactylum tricornutum (PT) contains valuable nutrients such as proteins, polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), particularly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and some docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), carotenoids such as fucoxanthin (FX), and beta-glucans, which may confer health benefits. In a randomized intervention trial involving 22 healthy individuals, we administered for two weeks in a crossover manner the whole biomass of PT (5.3 g/day), or fish oil (FO) containing equal amounts of EPA and DHA (together 300 mg/day). In an additional experiment, sea fish at 185 g/week resulting in a similar EPA and DHA intake was administered in nine individuals. We determined the bioavailability of fatty acids and carotenoids and assessed safety parameters. The intake of PT resulted in a similar increase in the n-3 PUFA and EPA content and a decrease in the PUFA n-6:n-3 ratio in plasma. PT intake caused an uptake of FX that is metabolized to fucoxanthinol (FXOH) and amarouciaxanthin A (AxA). No relevant adverse effects occurred following PT consumption. The study shows that PT is a safe and effective source of EPA and FX—and likely other nutrients—and therefore should be considered as a future sustainable food item. Full article
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Article
Soluble Polysaccharide Derived from Laminaria japonica Attenuates Obesity-Related Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Associated with Gut Microbiota Regulation
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(12), 699; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19120699 - 09 Dec 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2039
Abstract
In this study, the effects of a polysaccharide derived from Laminaria japonica (LJP) on obesity were investigated in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). LJP significantly attenuated obesity-related features, lowering serum triglycerides, glucose, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. HFD-induced liver steatosis [...] Read more.
In this study, the effects of a polysaccharide derived from Laminaria japonica (LJP) on obesity were investigated in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). LJP significantly attenuated obesity-related features, lowering serum triglycerides, glucose, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. HFD-induced liver steatosis and hepatocellular ballooning were significantly attenuated by LJP. Additionally, LJP was found to significantly modulate hepatic gene expressions of AMPK and HMGCR, which are key regulators of lipid and cholesterol metabolism. We further found that LJP ameliorated HFD-induced gut microbiota (GM) dysbiosis by significantly reducing the obesity-related Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio, meanwhile promoting the growth of Verrucomicrobia at the phylum level. At the genus level, propionate-producing bacteria Bacteroides and Akkermansia were elevated by LJP, which might explain the result that LJP elevated fecal propionate concentration. Taken together, these findings suggest that dietary intake of LJP modulates hepatic energy homeostasis to alleviate obesity-related nonalcoholic fatty liver disease associated with GM regulation. Full article
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Article
Dysidenin from the Marine Sponge Citronia sp. Affects the Motility and Morphology of Haemonchus contortus Larvae In Vitro
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(12), 698; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19120698 - 09 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1917
Abstract
High-throughput screening of the NatureBank marine extract library (n = 7616) using a phenotypic assay for the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus identified an active extract derived from the Australian marine sponge Citronia sp. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the CH2Cl2/MeOH [...] Read more.
High-throughput screening of the NatureBank marine extract library (n = 7616) using a phenotypic assay for the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus identified an active extract derived from the Australian marine sponge Citronia sp. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the CH2Cl2/MeOH extract from Citronia sp. resulted in the purification of two known hexachlorinated peptides, dysidenin (1) and dysideathiazole (2). Compound 1 inhibited the growth/development of H. contortus larvae and induced multiple phenotypic changes, including a lethal evisceration (Evi) phenotype and/or somatic cell and tissue destruction. This is the first report of anthelmintic activity for these rare and unique polychlorinated peptides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Natural Product of the South Pacific Area II)
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Review
The Expanded Role of Chitosan in Localized Antimicrobial Therapy
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(12), 697; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19120697 - 08 Dec 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3261
Abstract
Chitosan is one of the most studied natural origin polymers for biomedical applications. This review focuses on the potential of chitosan in localized antimicrobial therapy to address the challenges of current rising antimicrobial resistance. Due to its mucoadhesiveness, chitosan offers the opportunity to [...] Read more.
Chitosan is one of the most studied natural origin polymers for biomedical applications. This review focuses on the potential of chitosan in localized antimicrobial therapy to address the challenges of current rising antimicrobial resistance. Due to its mucoadhesiveness, chitosan offers the opportunity to prolong the formulation residence time at mucosal sites; its wound healing properties open possibilities to utilize chitosan as wound dressings with multitargeted activities and more. We provide an unbiased overview of the state-of-the-art chitosan-based delivery systems categorized by the administration site, addressing the site-related challenges and evaluating the representative formulations. Specifically, we offer an in-depth analysis of the current challenges of the chitosan-based novel delivery systems for skin and vaginal infections, including its formulations optimizations and limitations. A brief overview of chitosan’s potential in treating ocular, buccal and dental, and nasal infections is included. We close the review with remarks on toxicity issues and remaining challenges and perspectives. Full article
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Article
Triterpene Glycosides from the Far Eastern Sea Cucumber Psolus chitonoides: Chemical Structures and Cytotoxicities of Chitonoidosides E1, F, G, and H
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(12), 696; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19120696 - 07 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1554
Abstract
Four new triterpene disulfated glycosides, chitonoidosides E1 (1), F (2), G (3), and H (4), were isolated from the Far-Eastern sea cucumber Psolus chitonoides and collected near Bering Island (Commander Islands) at depths of [...] Read more.
Four new triterpene disulfated glycosides, chitonoidosides E1 (1), F (2), G (3), and H (4), were isolated from the Far-Eastern sea cucumber Psolus chitonoides and collected near Bering Island (Commander Islands) at depths of 100–150 m. Among them there are two hexaosides (1 and 3), differing from each other by the terminal (sixth) sugar residue, one pentaoside (4) and one tetraoside (2), characterized by a glycoside architecture of oligosaccharide chains with shortened bottom semi-chains, which is uncommon for sea cucumbers. Some additional distinctive structural features inherent in 14 were also found: the aglycone of a recently discovered new type, with 18(20)-ether bond and lacking a lactone in chitonoidoside G (3), glycoside 3-O-methylxylose residue in chitonoidoside E1 (1), which is rarely detected in sea cucumbers, and sulfated by uncommon position 4 terminal 3-O-methylglucose in chitonoidosides F (2) and H (4). The hemolytic activities of compounds 14 and chitonoidoside E against human erythrocytes and their cytotoxic action against the human cancer cell lines, adenocarcinoma HeLa, colorectal adenocarcinoma DLD-1, and monocytes THP-1, were studied. The glycoside with hexasaccharide chains (1, 3 and chitonoidoside E) were the most active against erythrocytes. A similar tendency was observed for the cytotoxicity against adenocarcinoma HeLa cells, but the demonstrated effects were moderate. The monocyte THP-1 cell line and erythrocytes were comparably sensitive to the action of the glycosides, but the activity of chitonoidosides E and E1 (1) significantly differed from that of 3 in relation to THP-1 cells. A tetraoside with a shortened bottom semi-chain, chitonoidoside F (2), displayed the weakest membranolytic effect in the series. Full article
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Article
The Common Sunstar Crossaster papposus—A Neurotoxic Starfish
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(12), 695; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19120695 - 07 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2426
Abstract
Saxitoxins (STXs) are a family of potent neurotoxins produced naturally by certain species of phytoplankton and cyanobacteria which are extremely toxic to mammalian nervous systems. The accumulation of STXs in bivalve molluscs can significantly impact animal and human health. Recent work conducted in [...] Read more.
Saxitoxins (STXs) are a family of potent neurotoxins produced naturally by certain species of phytoplankton and cyanobacteria which are extremely toxic to mammalian nervous systems. The accumulation of STXs in bivalve molluscs can significantly impact animal and human health. Recent work conducted in the North Sea highlighted the widespread presence of various saxitoxins in a range of benthic organisms, with the common sunstar (Crossaster papposus) demonstrating high concentrations of saxitoxins. In this study, an extensive sampling program was undertaken across multiple seas surrounding the UK, with 146 starfish and 5 brittlestars of multiple species analysed for STXs. All the common sunstars analysed (n > 70) contained quantifiable levels of STXs, with the total concentrations ranging from 99 to 11,245 µg STX eq/kg. The common sunstars were statistically different in terms of toxin loading to all the other starfish species tested. Two distinct toxic profiles were observed in sunstars, a decarbomylsaxitoxin (dcSTX)-dominant profile which encompassed samples from most of the UK coast and an STX and gonyautoxin2 (GTX2) profile from the North Yorkshire coast of England. Compartmentalisation studies demonstrated that the female gonads exhibited the highest toxin concentrations of all the individual organs tested, with concentrations >40,000 µg STX eq/kg in one sample. All the sunstars, male or female, exhibited the presence of STXs in the skin, digestive glands and gonads. This study highlights that the common sunstar ubiquitously contains STXs, independent of the geographical location around the UK and often at concentrations many times higher than the current regulatory limits for STXs in molluscs; therefore, the common sunstar should be considered toxic hereafter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Toxins in Non-traditional Vectors)
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Editorial
Carbohydrate-Containing Marine Compounds of Mixed Biogenesis
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(12), 694; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19120694 - 06 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1416
Abstract
Marine natural compounds, containing rare and enzymatically-modified monosaccharide residues [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrate-Containing Marine Compounds of Mixed Biogenesis)
Article
Eisenia bicyclis Extract Repairs UVB-Induced Skin Photoaging In Vitro and In Vivo: Photoprotective Effects
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(12), 693; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19120693 - 03 Dec 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2684
Abstract
Chronic exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB) is a major cause of skin aging. The aim of the present study was to determine the photoprotective effect of a 30% ethanol extract of Eisenia bicyclis (Kjellman) Setchell (EEB) against UVB-induced skin aging. By treating human [...] Read more.
Chronic exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB) is a major cause of skin aging. The aim of the present study was to determine the photoprotective effect of a 30% ethanol extract of Eisenia bicyclis (Kjellman) Setchell (EEB) against UVB-induced skin aging. By treating human dermal fibroblasts (Hs68) with EEB after UVB irradiation, we found that EEB had a cytoprotective effect. EEB treatment significantly decreased UVB-induced matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) production by suppressing the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/activator protein 1 (AP-1) signaling and enhancing the protein expression of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). EEB was also found to recover the UVB-induced degradation of pro-collagen by upregulating Smad signaling. Moreover, EEB increased the mRNA expression of filaggrin, involucrin, and loricrin in UVB-irradiated human epidermal keratinocytes (HaCaT). EEB decreased UVB-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by upregulating glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression via nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation in Hs68 cells. In a UVB-induced HR-1 hairless mouse model, the oral administration of EEB mitigated photoaging lesions including wrinkle formation, skin thickness, and skin dryness by downregulating MMP-1 production and upregulating the expression of pro-collagen type I alpha 1 chain (pro-COL1A1). Collectively, our findings revealed that EEB prevents UVB-induced skin damage by regulating MMP-1 and pro-collagen type I production through MAPK/AP-1 and Smad pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Drug Research in Korea)
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Article
Influence of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intake on Kidney Functions of Rats with Chronic Renal Failure
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(12), 692; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19120692 - 03 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1538
Abstract
Arachidonic acid (ARA), an omega-6 (ω-6) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), is involved in the development and maintenance of renal functions, whereas docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an omega-3 (ω-3) PUFA that has anti-inflammatory effects and attenuates nephropathy. However, their effects on the progression of [...] Read more.
Arachidonic acid (ARA), an omega-6 (ω-6) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), is involved in the development and maintenance of renal functions, whereas docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an omega-3 (ω-3) PUFA that has anti-inflammatory effects and attenuates nephropathy. However, their effects on the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) remain unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of feeding ARA, DHA, and ARA and DHA-containing diets on rats with 5/6 nephrectomized kidneys. Urine and feces were collected every 4 weeks, and the kidneys were collected at 16 weeks after surgery. Urinary albumin (U-ALB) excretion increased gradually with nephrectomy, but the U-ALB excretion was attenuated by feeding the rats with an ARA + DHA-containing diet. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in the kidneys were lower in the ARA + DHA group than in the other groups. At 4 weeks after surgery, the lipid peroxide (LPO) levels in the plasma of the ARA + DHA groups decreased significantly after surgery compared to the control CKD group, but this did not happen at 16 weeks post-surgery. There was a significant negative correlation between LPO levels in the plasma at 4 weeks and creatinine clearance, and a positive correlation with urinary albumin levels. These results suggest that the combination of ARA and DHA inhibit the progress of early stage CKD. Full article
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Article
Hemimycalins C–E; Cytotoxic and Antimicrobial Alkaloids with Hydantoin and 2-Iminoimidazolidin-4-one Backbones from the Red Sea Marine Sponge Hemimycale sp.
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(12), 691; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19120691 - 02 Dec 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2024
Abstract
In the course of our continuing efforts to identify bioactive secondary metabolites from Red Sea marine sponges, we have investigated the sponge Hemimycale sp. The cytotoxic fraction of the organic extract of the sponge afforded three new compounds, hemimycalins C–E (1 [...] Read more.
In the course of our continuing efforts to identify bioactive secondary metabolites from Red Sea marine sponges, we have investigated the sponge Hemimycale sp. The cytotoxic fraction of the organic extract of the sponge afforded three new compounds, hemimycalins C–E (13). Their structural assignments were obtained via analyses of their one- and two-dimensional NMR spectra and HRESI mass spectrometry. Hemimycalin C was found to differ from the reported hydantoin compounds in the configuration of the olefinic moiety at C-5–C-6, while hemimycalins D and E were found to contain an 2-iminoimidazolidin-4-one moiety instead of the hydantoin moiety in previously reported compounds from the sponge. Hemimycalins C–E showed significant antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Candida albicans and cytotoxic effects against colorectal carcinoma (HCT 116) and the triple-negative breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Discovery of New Marine Natural Products using Omics approaches)
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Article
Exploring the Potential of Nannochloropsis sp. Extract for Cosmeceutical Applications
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(12), 690; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19120690 - 02 Dec 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3331
Abstract
Recently, there has been emerging interest in various natural products with skin protective effects as they are recognized as safe and efficient. Microalgae have developed chemical defense systems to protect themselves against oxidative stress caused by UV radiation by producing various bioactive compounds [...] Read more.
Recently, there has been emerging interest in various natural products with skin protective effects as they are recognized as safe and efficient. Microalgae have developed chemical defense systems to protect themselves against oxidative stress caused by UV radiation by producing various bioactive compounds including a number of secondary metabolites, which have potential for cosmeceutical applications. In addition, microalgae have various advantages as a sustainable source for bioactive compounds with diverse functions due to their rapid growth rate, high productivity, and use of non-arable land. In this study, we aimed to investigate the cosmeceutical potential of ethanol extract from Nannochloropsis sp. G1-5 (NG15) isolated from the southern West Sea of the Republic of Korea. It contained PUFAs (including EPA), carotenoids (astaxanthin, canthaxanthin, β-carotene, zeaxanthin, violaxanthin), and phenolic compounds, which are known to have various skin protective functions. We confirmed that the NG15 extract showed various skin protective functions with low cytotoxicity, specifically anti-melanogenic, antioxidant, skin-moisturizing, anti-inflammatory, anti-wrinkling, and UV protective function, by measuring tyrosinase inhibition activity; melanin content; DPPH radical scavenging activity; expression of HAS-2, MMP-1, and Col1A1 genes; and elastase inhibition activity as well as cell viability after UV exposure. Our results indicated that the NG15 extract has the potential to be used for the development of natural cosmetics with a broad range of skin protective functions. Full article
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Article
Novel Harziane Diterpenes from Deep-Sea Sediment Fungus Trichoderma sp. SCSIOW21 and Their Potential Anti-Inflammatory Effects
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(12), 689; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19120689 - 01 Dec 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1709
Abstract
Five undescribed harziane-type diterpene derivatives, namely harzianol K (1), harzianol L (4), harzianol M (5), harzianol N (6), harzianol O (7), along with two known compounds, hazianol J (2) and harzianol [...] Read more.
Five undescribed harziane-type diterpene derivatives, namely harzianol K (1), harzianol L (4), harzianol M (5), harzianol N (6), harzianol O (7), along with two known compounds, hazianol J (2) and harzianol A (3) were isolated from the deep-sea sediment-derived fungus Trichoderma sp. SCSIOW21. The relative configurations were determined by meticulous spectroscopic methods including 1D, 2D NMR spectroscopy, and HR-ESI-MS. The absolute configurations were established by the ECD curve calculations and the X-ray crystallographic analysis. These compounds (1, and 47) contributed to increasing the diversity of the caged harziane type diterpenes with highly congested skeleton characteristics. Harzianol J (2) exhibited a weak anti-inflammatory effect with 81.8% NO inhibition at 100 µM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Product from the Deep Sea)
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Article
Metabolomics Tools Assisting Classic Screening Methods in Discovering New Antibiotics from Mangrove Actinomycetia in Leizhou Peninsula
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(12), 688; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19120688 - 01 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2107
Abstract
Mangrove actinomycetia are considered one of the promising sources for discovering novel biologically active compounds. Traditional bioactivity- and/or taxonomy-based methods are inefficient and usually result in the re-discovery of known metabolites. Thus, improving selection efficiency among strain candidates is of interest especially in [...] Read more.
Mangrove actinomycetia are considered one of the promising sources for discovering novel biologically active compounds. Traditional bioactivity- and/or taxonomy-based methods are inefficient and usually result in the re-discovery of known metabolites. Thus, improving selection efficiency among strain candidates is of interest especially in the early stage of the antibiotic discovery program. In this study, an integrated strategy of combining phylogenetic data and bioactivity tests with a metabolomics-based dereplication approach was applied to fast track the selection process. A total of 521 actinomycetial strains affiliated to 40 genera in 23 families were isolated from 13 different mangrove soil samples by the culture-dependent method. A total of 179 strains affiliated to 40 different genera with a unique colony morphology were selected to evaluate antibacterial activity against 12 indicator bacteria. Of the 179 tested isolates, 47 showed activities against at least one of the tested pathogens. Analysis of 23 out of 47 active isolates using UPLC-HRMS-PCA revealed six outliers. Further analysis using the OPLS-DA model identified five compounds from two outliers contributing to the bioactivity against drug-sensitive A. baumannii. Molecular networking was used to determine the relationship of significant metabolites in six outliers and to find their potentially new congeners. Finally, two Streptomyces strains (M22, H37) producing potentially new compounds were rapidly prioritized on the basis of their distinct chemistry profiles, dereplication results, and antibacterial activities, as well as taxonomical information. Two new trioxacarcins with keto-reduced trioxacarcinose B, gutingimycin B (16) and trioxacarcin G (20), together with known gutingimycin (12), were isolated from the scale-up fermentation broth of Streptomyces sp. M22. Our study demonstrated that metabolomics tools could greatly assist classic antibiotic discovery methods in strain prioritization to improve efficiency in discovering novel antibiotics from those highly productive and rich diversity ecosystems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Microbial Diversity as Source of Bioactive Compounds)
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Review
Algal and Cyanobacterial Lectins and Their Antimicrobial Properties
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(12), 687; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19120687 - 01 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2144
Abstract
Lectins are proteins with a remarkably high affinity and specificity for carbohydrates. Many organisms naturally produce them, including animals, plants, fungi, protists, bacteria, archaea, and viruses. The present report focuses on lectins produced by marine or freshwater organisms, in particular algae and cyanobacteria. [...] Read more.
Lectins are proteins with a remarkably high affinity and specificity for carbohydrates. Many organisms naturally produce them, including animals, plants, fungi, protists, bacteria, archaea, and viruses. The present report focuses on lectins produced by marine or freshwater organisms, in particular algae and cyanobacteria. We explore their structure, function, classification, and antimicrobial properties. Furthermore, we look at the expression of lectins in heterologous systems and the current research on the preclinical and clinical evaluation of these fascinating molecules. The further development of these molecules might positively impact human health, particularly the prevention or treatment of diseases caused by pathogens such as human immunodeficiency virus, influenza, and severe acute respiratory coronaviruses, among others. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Lectins)
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Review
Bioactivities of Lipid Extracts and Complex Lipids from Seaweeds: Current Knowledge and Future Prospects
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(12), 686; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19120686 - 30 Nov 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2402
Abstract
While complex lipids of seaweeds are known to display important phytochemical properties, their full potential is yet to be explored. This review summarizes the findings of a systematic survey of scientific publications spanning over the years 2000 to January 2021 retrieved from Web [...] Read more.
While complex lipids of seaweeds are known to display important phytochemical properties, their full potential is yet to be explored. This review summarizes the findings of a systematic survey of scientific publications spanning over the years 2000 to January 2021 retrieved from Web of Science (WoS) and Scopus databases to map the state of the art and identify knowledge gaps on the relationship between the complex lipids of seaweeds and their reported bioactivities. Eligible publications (270 in total) were classified in five categories according to the type of studies using seaweeds as raw biomass (category 1); studies using organic extracts (category 2); studies using organic extracts with identified complex lipids (category 3); studies of extracts enriched in isolated groups or classes of complex lipids (category 4); and studies of isolated complex lipids molecular species (category 5), organized by seaweed phyla and reported bioactivities. Studies that identified the molecular composition of these bioactive compounds in detail (29 in total) were selected and described according to their bioactivities (antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and others). Overall, to date, the value for seaweeds in terms of health and wellness effects were found to be mostly based on empirical knowledge. Although lipids from seaweeds are little explored, the published work showed the potential of lipid extracts, fractions, and complex lipids from seaweeds as functional ingredients for the food and feed, cosmeceutical, and pharmaceutical industries. This knowledge will boost the use of the chemical diversity of seaweeds for innovative value-added products and new biotechnological applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipids in the Ocean 2021)
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