Special Issue "Lipids in the Ocean 2021"

A special issue of Marine Drugs (ISSN 1660-3397).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 December 2021) | Viewed by 12107

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Special Issue Editors

Dr. Maria do Rosário Domingues
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
CESAM & Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
Interests: marine lipidomics; food lipidomics; microbial lipidomics; GC-MS; mass spectrometry
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Philippe Soudant
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Laboratoire des Sciences de l’Environnement Marin (LEMAR), UMR 6539 CNRS/UBO/IRD/Ifremer, Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer (IUEM), Rue Dumont d’Urville, 29280 Plouzané, France

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Lipids represent the major constituents of marine organisms, as major players in biological membranes, with key roles in biological processes and acclimation to environmental changes. New research trends aim to contribute to a better knowledge of lipids’ role in the biological matrix, to understand the impact of climate change in marine organisms, and to develop new tools for chemophenotyping, traceability, biomarkers of trophic chains in marine ecosystems, and to disclose the nutritional value or prospective bioactive compounds for health applications.

“Lipids in the Ocean 2021” (http://lipids2021.web.ua.pt), which will be held at the University of Aveiro, from 5 to 7 July 2021 (due to uncertainties regarding the Covid-19 situation, it will be an Online Conference), aiming to go in deep into these research interests covering topics related with lipids from marine organisms, such as marine lipidomics, lipids as biomarkers in trophic webs, green lipids from the ocean (seaweeds, microalgae, and macrophytes), marine lipid biotechnology, and seafood traceability using lipids, from basic research to sustainable production and applications in the food, nutraceutics, feed, cosmetics, and pharma industries.

This Special Issue welcomes not only attendees of “Lipids in the Ocean 2021” to publish their latest research outcomes, but also all researchers in relevant fields to share their exciting works with the community.

Prof. Dr. Rosário Domingues
Dr. Philippe Soudant
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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Article
Kinetic and Stoichiometric Modeling-Based Analysis of Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) Production Potential by Crypthecodinium cohnii from Glycerol, Glucose and Ethanol
Mar. Drugs 2022, 20(2), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/md20020115 - 01 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 853
Abstract
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is one of the most important long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs), with numerous health benefits. Crypthecodinium cohnii, a marine heterotrophic dinoflagellate, is successfully used for the industrial production of DHA because it can accumulate DHA at high concentrations within [...] Read more.
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is one of the most important long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs), with numerous health benefits. Crypthecodinium cohnii, a marine heterotrophic dinoflagellate, is successfully used for the industrial production of DHA because it can accumulate DHA at high concentrations within the cells. Glycerol is an interesting renewable substrate for DHA production since it is a by-product of biodiesel production and other industries, and is globally generated in large quantities. The DHA production potential from glycerol, ethanol and glucose is compared by combining fermentation experiments with the pathway-scale kinetic modeling and constraint-based stoichiometric modeling of C. cohnii metabolism. Glycerol has the slowest biomass growth rate among the tested substrates. This is partially compensated by the highest PUFAs fraction, where DHA is dominant. Mathematical modeling reveals that glycerol has the best experimentally observed carbon transformation rate into biomass, reaching the closest values to the theoretical upper limit. In addition to our observations, the published experimental evidence indicates that crude glycerol is readily consumed by C. cohnii, making glycerol an attractive substrate for DHA production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipids in the Ocean 2021)
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Article
Crypthecodinium cohnii Growth and Omega Fatty Acid Production in Mediums Supplemented with Extract from Recycled Biomass
Mar. Drugs 2022, 20(1), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/md20010068 - 12 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 599
Abstract
Crypthecodinium cohnii is a marine heterotrophic dinoflagellate that can accumulate high amounts of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and thus has the potential to replace conventional PUFAs production with eco-friendlier technology. So far, C. cohnii cultivation has been mainly carried out with the [...] Read more.
Crypthecodinium cohnii is a marine heterotrophic dinoflagellate that can accumulate high amounts of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and thus has the potential to replace conventional PUFAs production with eco-friendlier technology. So far, C. cohnii cultivation has been mainly carried out with the use of yeast extract (YE) as a nitrogen source. In the present study, alternative carbon and nitrogen sources were studied: the extraction ethanol (EE), remaining after lipid extraction, as a carbon source, and dinoflagellate extract (DE) from recycled algae biomass C. cohnii as a source of carbon, nitrogen, and vitamins. In mediums with glucose and DE, the highest specific biomass growth rate reached a maximum of 1.012 h−1, while the biomass yield from substrate reached 0.601 g·g−1. EE as the carbon source, in comparison to pure ethanol, showed good results in terms of stimulating the biomass growth rate (an 18.5% increase in specific biomass growth rate was observed). DE supplement to the EE-based mediums promoted both the biomass growth (the specific growth rate reached 0.701 h−1) and yield from the substrate (0.234 g·g−1). The FTIR spectroscopy data showed that mediums supplemented with EE or DE promoted the accumulation of PUFAs/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), when compared to mediums containing glucose and commercial YE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipids in the Ocean 2021)
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Article
A 13CO2 Enrichment Experiment to Study the Synthesis Pathways of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids of the Haptophyte Tisochrysis lutea
Mar. Drugs 2022, 20(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/md20010022 - 24 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1042
Abstract
The production of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in Tisochrysis lutea was studied using the gradual incorporation of a 13C-enriched isotopic marker, 13CO2, for 24 h during the exponential growth of the algae. The 13C enrichment of eleven fatty [...] Read more.
The production of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in Tisochrysis lutea was studied using the gradual incorporation of a 13C-enriched isotopic marker, 13CO2, for 24 h during the exponential growth of the algae. The 13C enrichment of eleven fatty acids was followed to understand the synthetic pathways the most likely to form the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids 20:5n-3 (EPA) and 22:6n-3 (DHA) in T. lutea. The fatty acids 16:0, 18:1n-9 + 18:3n-3, 18:2n-6, and 22:5n-6 were the most enriched in 13C. On the contrary, 18:4n-3 and 18:5n-3 were the least enriched in 13C after long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids such as 20:5n-3 or 22:5n-3. The algae appeared to use different routes in parallel to form its polyunsaturated fatty acids. The use of the PKS pathway was hypothesized for polyunsaturated fatty acids with n-6 configuration (such as 22:5n-6) but might also exist for n-3 PUFA (especially 20:5n-3). With regard to the conventional n-3 PUFA pathway, Δ6 desaturation of 18:3n-3 appeared to be the most limiting step for T. lutea, “stopping” at the synthesis of 18:4n-3 and 18:5n-3. These two fatty acids were hypothesized to not undergo any further reaction of elongation and desaturation after being formed and were therefore considered “end-products”. To circumvent this limiting synthetic route, Tisochrysis lutea seemed to have developed an alternative route via Δ8 desaturation to produce longer chain fatty acids such as 20:5n-3 and 22:5n-3. 22:6n-3 presented a lower enrichment and appeared to be produced by a combination of different pathways: the conventional n-3 PUFA pathway by desaturation of 22:5n-3, the alternative route of ω-3 desaturase using 22:5n-6 as precursor, and possibly the PKS pathway. In this study, PKS synthesis looked particularly effective for producing long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The rate of enrichment of these compounds hypothetically synthesized by PKS is remarkably fast, making undetectable the 13C incorporation into their precursors. Finally, we identified a protein cluster gathering PKS sequences of proteins that are hypothesized allowing n-3 PUFA synthesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipids in the Ocean 2021)
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Article
Chitosan-Based Anti-Oxidation Delivery Nano-Platform: Applications in the Encapsulation of DHA-Enriched Fish Oil
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(8), 470; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19080470 - 22 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1283
Abstract
Refined cobia liver oil is a nutritional supplement (CBLO) that is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as DHA and EPA; however, PUFAs are prone to oxidation. In this study, the fabrication of chitosan-TPP-encapsulated CBLO nanoparticles ([email protected] NPs) was achieved by a [...] Read more.
Refined cobia liver oil is a nutritional supplement (CBLO) that is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as DHA and EPA; however, PUFAs are prone to oxidation. In this study, the fabrication of chitosan-TPP-encapsulated CBLO nanoparticles ([email protected] NPs) was achieved by a two-step method, including emulsification and the ionic gelation of chitosan with sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP). The obtained nanoparticles were inspected by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and showed a positively charged surface with a z-average diameter of between 174 and 456 nm. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results showed the three-stage weight loss trends contributing to the water evaporation, chitosan decomposition, and CBLO decomposition. The loading capacity (LC) and encapsulation efficiency (EE) of the CBLO loading in [email protected] NPs were 17.77–33.43% and 25.93–50.27%, respectively. The successful encapsulation of CBLO in [email protected] NPs was also confirmed by the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The oxidative stability of CBLO and [email protected] NPs was monitored by FTIR. As compared to CBLO, [email protected] NPs showed less oxidation with a lower generation of hydroperoxides and secondary oxidation products after four weeks of storage. [email protected] NPs are composed of two ingredients that are beneficial for health, chitosan and fish oil in a nano powdered fish oil form, with an excellent oxidative stability that will enhance its usage in the functional food and pharmaceutical industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipids in the Ocean 2021)
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Article
Screening for Health-Promoting Fatty Acids in Ascidians and Seaweeds Grown under the Influence of Fish Farming Activities
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(8), 469; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19080469 - 22 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 859
Abstract
The present study aimed to contrast the fatty acid (FA) profile of ascidians (Ascidiacea) and seaweeds (sea lettuce, Ulva spp. and bladderwrack, Fucus sp.) occurring in a coastal lagoon with versus without the influence of organic-rich effluents from fish farming activities. Our results [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to contrast the fatty acid (FA) profile of ascidians (Ascidiacea) and seaweeds (sea lettuce, Ulva spp. and bladderwrack, Fucus sp.) occurring in a coastal lagoon with versus without the influence of organic-rich effluents from fish farming activities. Our results revealed that ascidians and seaweeds from these contrasting environments displayed significant differences in their FA profiles. The n-3/n-6 ratio of Ascidiacea was lower under the influence of fish farming conditions, likely a consequence of the growing level of terrestrial-based ingredients rich on n-6 FA used in the formulation of aquafeeds. Unsurprisingly, these specimens also displayed significantly higher levels of 18:1(n-7+n-9) and 18:2n-6, as these combined accounted for more than 50% of the total pool of FAs present in formulated aquafeeds. The dissimilarities recorded in the FAs of seaweeds from these different environments were less marked (≈5%), with these being more pronounced in the FA classes of the brown seaweed Fucus sp. (namely PUFA). Overall, even under the influence of organic-rich effluents from fish farming activities, ascidians and seaweeds are a valuable source of health-promoting FAs, which confirms their potential for sustainable farming practices, such as integrated multi-trophic aquaculture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipids in the Ocean 2021)
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Article
The Negative Relationship between Fouling Organisms and the Content of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid in Cultivated Pacific Oysters, Crassostrea gigas
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(7), 369; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19070369 - 25 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 723
Abstract
Bivalves serve as an important aquaculture product, as they are the source of essential fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in our diet. However, their cultivation in the wild can be affected by fouling organisms that, in turn, [...] Read more.
Bivalves serve as an important aquaculture product, as they are the source of essential fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in our diet. However, their cultivation in the wild can be affected by fouling organisms that, in turn, affect their EPA and DHA content. The effects of fouling organisms on the EPA and DHA contents of cultivated bivalves have not been well documented. We examined the effects of fouling organisms on the EPA and DHA contents and condition index of cultured oysters, Crassostrea gigas, in an aquaculture system. We sampled two-year-old oysters from five sites in Shizugawa Bay, Japan, in August 2014. Most of the fouling organisms were sponges, macroalgae, and Mytilus galloprovincialis. A significant negative relationship existed between the DHA content in C. gigas and the presence of sponges and macroalgae. A lower C. gigas EPA content corresponded to a higher M. galloprovincialis fouling mass and a lower C. gigas condition index. This can be explained by dietary competition between C. gigas and M. galloprovincialis for diatoms, which were the main producer of EPA in our study sites. Our findings indicate that fouling organisms likely reduce the EPA and DHA content in cultivated oysters. Therefore, our results suggest that the current efforts to remove fouling organisms from oyster clusters is an effective strategy to enhance the content of EPA and DHA in oysters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipids in the Ocean 2021)
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Article
Fish Oil Increases Diet-Induced Thermogenesis in Mice
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(5), 278; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19050278 - 17 May 2021
Viewed by 1071
Abstract
Increasing energy expenditure (EE) is beneficial for preventing obesity. Diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) is one of the components of total EE. Therefore, increasing DIT is effective against obesity. We examined how much fish oil (FO) increased DIT by measuring absolute values of DIT in [...] Read more.
Increasing energy expenditure (EE) is beneficial for preventing obesity. Diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) is one of the components of total EE. Therefore, increasing DIT is effective against obesity. We examined how much fish oil (FO) increased DIT by measuring absolute values of DIT in mice. C57BL/6J male mice were given diets of 30 energy% fat consisting of FO or safflower oil plus butter as control oil (Con). After administration for 9 days, respiration in mice was monitored, and then the data were used to calculate DIT and EE. DIT increased significantly by 1.2-fold in the FO-fed mice compared with the Con-fed mice. Body weight gain was significantly lower in the FO-fed mice. FO increased the levels of uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) mRNA and UCP1 protein in brown adipose tissue (BAT) by 1.5- and 1.2-fold, respectively. In subcutaneous white adipose tissue (subWAT), the levels of Ucp1 mRNA and UCP1 protein were increased by 6.3- and 2.7-fold, respectively, by FO administration. FO also significantly increased the expression of markers of browning in subWAT such as fibroblast growth factor 21 and cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation factor α-like effector a. Thus, dietary FO seems to increase DIT in mice via the increased expressions of Ucp1 in BAT and induced browning of subWAT. FO might be a promising dietary fat in the prevention of obesity by upregulation of energy metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipids in the Ocean 2021)
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Article
Laminariales Host Does Impact Lipid Temperature Trajectories of the Fungal Endophyte Paradendryphiella salina (Sutherland.)
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(8), 379; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18080379 - 22 Jul 2020
Viewed by 1188
Abstract
Kelps are colonized by a wide range of microbial symbionts. Among them, endophytic fungi remain poorly studied, but recent studies evidenced yet their high diversity and their central role in algal defense against various pathogens. Thus, studying the metabolic expressions of kelp endophytes [...] Read more.
Kelps are colonized by a wide range of microbial symbionts. Among them, endophytic fungi remain poorly studied, but recent studies evidenced yet their high diversity and their central role in algal defense against various pathogens. Thus, studying the metabolic expressions of kelp endophytes under different conditions is important to have a better understanding of their impacts on host performance. In this context, fatty acid composition is essential to a given algae fitness and of interest to food web studies either to measure its nutritional quality or to infer about its contribution to consumers diets. In the present study, Paradendryphiella salina, a fungal endophyte was isolated from Saccharina latissima (L.) and Laminaria digitata (Hudson.) and its fatty acid composition was assessed at increasing salinity and temperature conditions. Results showed that fungal composition in terms of fatty acids displayed algal-dependent trajectories in response to temperature increase. This highlights that C18 unsaturated fatty acids are key components in the host-dependant acclimation of P. salina to salinity and temperature changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipids in the Ocean 2021)
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Review

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Review
Bioactivities of Lipid Extracts and Complex Lipids from Seaweeds: Current Knowledge and Future Prospects
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(12), 686; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19120686 - 30 Nov 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1177
Abstract
While complex lipids of seaweeds are known to display important phytochemical properties, their full potential is yet to be explored. This review summarizes the findings of a systematic survey of scientific publications spanning over the years 2000 to January 2021 retrieved from Web [...] Read more.
While complex lipids of seaweeds are known to display important phytochemical properties, their full potential is yet to be explored. This review summarizes the findings of a systematic survey of scientific publications spanning over the years 2000 to January 2021 retrieved from Web of Science (WoS) and Scopus databases to map the state of the art and identify knowledge gaps on the relationship between the complex lipids of seaweeds and their reported bioactivities. Eligible publications (270 in total) were classified in five categories according to the type of studies using seaweeds as raw biomass (category 1); studies using organic extracts (category 2); studies using organic extracts with identified complex lipids (category 3); studies of extracts enriched in isolated groups or classes of complex lipids (category 4); and studies of isolated complex lipids molecular species (category 5), organized by seaweed phyla and reported bioactivities. Studies that identified the molecular composition of these bioactive compounds in detail (29 in total) were selected and described according to their bioactivities (antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and others). Overall, to date, the value for seaweeds in terms of health and wellness effects were found to be mostly based on empirical knowledge. Although lipids from seaweeds are little explored, the published work showed the potential of lipid extracts, fractions, and complex lipids from seaweeds as functional ingredients for the food and feed, cosmeceutical, and pharmaceutical industries. This knowledge will boost the use of the chemical diversity of seaweeds for innovative value-added products and new biotechnological applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipids in the Ocean 2021)
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Review
Advances in Technologies for Highly Active Omega-3 Fatty Acids from Krill Oil: Clinical Applications
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(6), 306; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19060306 - 26 May 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2209
Abstract
Euphausia superba, commonly known as krill, is a small marine crustacean from the Antarctic Ocean that plays an important role in the marine ecosystem, serving as feed for most fish. It is a known source of highly bioavailable omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids [...] Read more.
Euphausia superba, commonly known as krill, is a small marine crustacean from the Antarctic Ocean that plays an important role in the marine ecosystem, serving as feed for most fish. It is a known source of highly bioavailable omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid). In preclinical studies, krill oil showed metabolic, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and chemo preventive effects, while in clinical trials it showed significant metabolic, vascular and ergogenic actions. Solvent extraction is the most conventional method to obtain krill oil. However, different solvents must be used to extract all lipids from krill because of the diversity of the polarities of the lipid compounds in the biomass. This review aims to provide an overview of the chemical composition, bioavailability and bioaccessibility of krill oil, as well as the mechanisms of action, classic and non-conventional extraction techniques, health benefits and current applications of this marine crustacean. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipids in the Ocean 2021)
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