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Special Issue "Jasmonic Acid Pathway in Plants"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Plant Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2019).

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Assoc. Prof. Kenji Gomi

Guest Editor
Kagawa University, Takamatsu, Japan
Interests: plants; rice; phytohormones; plant pathology; plant volatile; abiotic response; hormonal crosstalk; signal transduction; gene expression; gene regulatory network
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) and its derivative, an amino acid conjugate of JA (jasmonoyl isoleucine: JA-Ile), are signaling compounds involved in the regulation of defense and development in plants. The number of articles studying JA has been dramatically increasing since the 1990s. JA was recognized as a stress hormone that regulates plant response to biotic stresses such as herbivore and pathogen attacks, as well as abiotic stresses such as wounding and ultraviolet radiation. Recent studies have progressed remarkably in the understanding of the importance of JA in the life cycle of plants. It has been revealed that JA is directly involved in many physiological processes, including stamen growth, senescence, and root growth. Furthermore, JA regulates the production of various metabolites, such as phytoalexins and terpenoids. Many regulatory proteins involved in JA signaling have been identified by screening for Arabidopsis mutants. The discovery of JA receptor (COI1) and central repressors (JAZs) facilitates further efforts to understand the JA signaling pathway in many plant species. However, there is a great deal more to be learned about JA signaling in plants. This Special Issue calls for original research and reviews and perspectives that address the progress and current knowledge in the research on JA in various plant species.

Assoc. Prof. Kenji Gomi
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • JA biosynthesis
  • signal transduction
  • transcriptional regulators
  • gene expression
  • hormonal crosstalk
  • abiotic responses
  • biotic responses
  • JA-responsive factors
  • plant physiology
  • plant development

Published Papers (21 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Jasmonic Acid: An Essential Plant Hormone
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(4), 1261; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21041261 - 13 Feb 2020
Abstract
The plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) and its derivative, an amino acid conjugate of JA (jasmonoyl isoleucine: JA-Ile), are signaling compounds involved in the regulation of cellular defense and development in plants [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Jasmonic Acid Pathway in Plants) Printed Edition available

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle
iTRAQ-Based Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of the Arabidopsis Mutant opr3-1 in Response to Exogenous MeJA
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(2), 571; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21020571 - 16 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Jasmonates (JAs) regulate the defense of biotic and abiotic stresses, growth, development, and many other important biological processes in plants. The comprehensive proteomic profiling of plants under JAs treatment provides insights into the regulation mechanism of JAs. Isobaric tags for relative and absolute [...] Read more.
Jasmonates (JAs) regulate the defense of biotic and abiotic stresses, growth, development, and many other important biological processes in plants. The comprehensive proteomic profiling of plants under JAs treatment provides insights into the regulation mechanism of JAs. Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-based quantitative proteomic analysis was performed on the Arabidopsis wild type (Ws) and JA synthesis deficiency mutant opr3-1. The effects of exogenous MeJA treatment on the proteome of opr3-1, which lacks endogenous JAs, were investigated. A total of 3683 proteins were identified and 126 proteins were differentially regulated between different genotypes and treatment groups. The functional classification of these differentially regulated proteins showed that they were involved in metabolic processes, responses to abiotic stress or biotic stress, the defense against pathogens and wounds, photosynthesis, protein synthesis, and developmental processes. Exogenous MeJA treatment induced the up-regulation of a large number of defense-related proteins and photosynthesis-related proteins, it also induced the down-regulation of many ribosomal proteins in opr3-1. These results were further verified by a quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis of 15 selected genes. Our research provides the basis for further understanding the molecular mechanism of JAs’ regulation of plant defense, photosynthesis, protein synthesis, and development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Jasmonic Acid Pathway in Plants) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Interruption of Jasmonic Acid Biosynthesis Causes Differential Responses in the Roots and Shoots of Maize Seedlings against Salt Stress
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(24), 6202; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20246202 - 09 Dec 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Jasmonates (JAs) together with jasmonic acid and its offshoots are lipid-derived endogenous hormones that play key roles in both developmental processes and different defense responses in plants. JAs have been studied intensively in the past decades for their substantial roles in plant defense [...] Read more.
Jasmonates (JAs) together with jasmonic acid and its offshoots are lipid-derived endogenous hormones that play key roles in both developmental processes and different defense responses in plants. JAs have been studied intensively in the past decades for their substantial roles in plant defense comebacks against diverse environmental stresses among model plants. However, the role of this phytohormone has been poorly investigated in the monocotyledonous species against abiotic stresses. In this study, a JA biosynthesis mutant opr7opr8 was used for the investigation of JA roles in the salt stress responses of maize seedlings, whose roots were exposed to 0 to 300 mM NaCl. Foliar stomatal observation showed that opr7opr8 had a larger stomatal aperture than wild type (WT) (B73) under salinity stress, indicating that JA positively regulates guard cell movement under salt stress. The results regarding chlorophyll content and leaf senescence showed that opr7opr8 exhibited delayed leaf senescence under salt stress as compared to WT, indicating that JA plays a role in salt-inducing cell death and subsequent leaf senescence. Moreover, the morphological parameters, including the length of the shoots and roots, and the fresh and dry weights of the shoots and roots, showed that after 7 days of salt treatment, opr7opr8 had heavier and longer shoots than WT but slighter and shorter roots than WT. In addition, ion analysis showed that opr7opr8 accumulated less sodium but more potassium in the leaves than WT but more sodium and less potassium in the roots than WT, suggesting that JA deficiency causes higher salt stress to the roots but less stress to the leaves of the seedlings. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) analysis showed that opr7opr8 produced less H2O2 than WT in the leaves but more H2O2 in the roots under salt treatment, and correspondingly, ROS-scavenging enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) showed a similar variation, i.e., opr7opr8 has lower enzymatic activities in the shoots but higher activities in the roots than WT under salt treatment. For osmotic adjustment, opr7opr8 produced less proline in the shoots at 100 and 300 mM NaCl treatments but more in the roots than the WT roots under all salt treatments. In addition, the gene expression for abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis under salt stress was investigated. Results showed that the expression levels of four key enzymes of ABA biosynthesis, ZEP1, NCED5, AO1, and VP10, were significantly downregulated in the shoots as compared to WT under salt treatment. Putting all the data together, we concluded that JA-deficiency in maize seedlings reduced the salt-stress responses in the shoots but exaggerated the responses in the roots. In addition, endogenous JA acted as a positive regulator for the transportation of sodium ions from the roots to the shoots because the mutant opr7opr8 had a higher level of sodium in the roots but a significantly lower level in the shoots than WT. Furthermore, JA may act as a positive regulator for ABA biosynthesis in the leaves under salt stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Jasmonic Acid Pathway in Plants) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
PatJAZ6 Acts as a Repressor Regulating JA-Induced Biosynthesis of Patchouli Alcohol in Pogostemon Cablin
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(23), 6038; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20236038 - 30 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The JASMONATE ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins act as negative regulators in the jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathways of plants, and these proteins have been reported to play key roles in plant secondary metabolism mediated by JA. In this study, we firstly isolated one [...] Read more.
The JASMONATE ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins act as negative regulators in the jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathways of plants, and these proteins have been reported to play key roles in plant secondary metabolism mediated by JA. In this study, we firstly isolated one JAZ from P. cablin, PatJAZ6, which was characterized and revealed based on multiple alignments and a phylogenic tree analysis. The result of subcellular localization indicated that the PatJAZ6 protein was located in the nucleus of plant protoplasts. The expression level of PatJAZ6 was significantly induced by the methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Furthermore, by means of yeast two-hybrid screening, we identified two transcription factors that interact with the PatJAZ6, the PatMYC2b1 and PatMYC2b2. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of PatJAZ6 caused a decrease in expression abundance, resulting in a significant increase in the accumulation of patchouli alcohol. Moreover, we overexpressed PatJAZ6 in P. cablin, which down-regulated the patchoulol synthase expression, and then suppressed the biosynthesis of patchouli alcohol. The results demonstrate that PatJAZ6 probably acts as a repressor in the regulation of patchouli alcohol biosynthesis, contributed to a model proposed for the potential JA signaling pathway in P. cablin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Jasmonic Acid Pathway in Plants) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Comprehensive Identification of PTI Suppressors in Type III Effector Repertoire Reveals that Ralstonia solanacearum Activates Jasmonate Signaling at Two Different Steps
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(23), 5992; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20235992 - 28 Nov 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Ralstonia solanacearum is the causative agent of bacterial wilt in many plants. To identify R. solanacearum effectors that suppress pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) in plants, we transiently expressed R. solanacearum RS1000 effectors in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves and evaluated their ability to suppress the production [...] Read more.
Ralstonia solanacearum is the causative agent of bacterial wilt in many plants. To identify R. solanacearum effectors that suppress pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) in plants, we transiently expressed R. solanacearum RS1000 effectors in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves and evaluated their ability to suppress the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) triggered by flg22. Out of the 61 effectors tested, 11 strongly and five moderately suppressed the flg22-triggered ROS burst. Among them, RipE1 shared homology with the Pseudomonas syringae cysteine protease effector HopX1. By yeast two-hybrid screening, we identified jasmonate-ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins, which are transcriptional repressors of the jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway in plants, as RipE1 interactors. RipE1 promoted the degradation of JAZ repressors and induced the expressions of JA-responsive genes in a cysteine–protease-activity-dependent manner. Simultaneously, RipE1, similarly to the previously identified JA-producing effector RipAL, decreased the expression level of the salicylic acid synthesis gene that is required for the defense responses against R. solanacearum. The undecuple mutant that lacks 11 effectors with a strong PTI suppression activity showed reduced growth of R. solanacearum in Nicotiana plants. These results indicate that R. solanacearum subverts plant PTI responses using multiple effectors and manipulates JA signaling at two different steps to promote infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Jasmonic Acid Pathway in Plants) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Sorghum MSD3 Encodes an ω-3 Fatty Acid Desaturase that Increases Grain Number by Reducing Jasmonic Acid Levels
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(21), 5359; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20215359 - 28 Oct 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Grain number per panicle is an important component of grain yield in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.)) and other cereal crops. Previously, we reported that mutations in multi-seeded 1 (MSD1) and MSD2 genes result in a two-fold increase in grain number per [...] Read more.
Grain number per panicle is an important component of grain yield in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.)) and other cereal crops. Previously, we reported that mutations in multi-seeded 1 (MSD1) and MSD2 genes result in a two-fold increase in grain number per panicle due to the restoration of the fertility of the pedicellate spikelets, which invariably abort in natural sorghum accessions. Here, we report the identification of another gene, MSD3, which is also involved in the regulation of grain numbers in sorghum. Four bulked F2 populations from crosses between BTx623 and each of the independent msd mutants p6, p14, p21, and p24 were sequenced to 20× coverage of the whole genome on a HiSeq 2000 system. Bioinformatic analyses of the sequence data showed that one gene, Sorbi_3001G407600, harbored homozygous mutations in all four populations. This gene encodes a plastidial ω-3 fatty acid desaturase that catalyzes the conversion of linoleic acid (18:2) to linolenic acid (18:3), a substrate for jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis. The msd3 mutants had reduced levels of linolenic acid in both leaves and developing panicles that in turn decreased the levels of JA. Furthermore, the msd3 panicle phenotype was reversed by treatment with methyl-JA (MeJA). Our characterization of MSD1, MSD2, and now MSD3 demonstrates that JA-regulated processes are critical to the msd phenotype. The identification of the MSD3 gene reveals a new target that could be manipulated to increase grain number per panicle in sorghum, and potentially other cereal crops, through the genomic editing of MSD3 functional orthologs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Jasmonic Acid Pathway in Plants) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Evolutionary Analysis of JAZ Proteins in Plants: An Approach in Search of the Ancestral Sequence
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(20), 5060; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20205060 - 12 Oct 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Jasmonates are phytohormones that regulate development, metabolism and immunity. Signal transduction is critical to activate jasmonate responses, but the evolution of some key regulators such as jasmonate-ZIM domain (JAZ) repressors is not clear. Here, we identified 1065 JAZ sequence proteins in 66 lower [...] Read more.
Jasmonates are phytohormones that regulate development, metabolism and immunity. Signal transduction is critical to activate jasmonate responses, but the evolution of some key regulators such as jasmonate-ZIM domain (JAZ) repressors is not clear. Here, we identified 1065 JAZ sequence proteins in 66 lower and higher plants and analyzed their evolution by bioinformatics methods. We found that the TIFY and Jas domains are highly conserved along the evolutionary scale. Furthermore, the canonical degron sequence LPIAR(R/K) of the Jas domain is conserved in lower and higher plants. It is noteworthy that degron sequences showed a large number of alternatives from gymnosperms to dicots. In addition, ethylene-responsive element binding factor-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motifs are displayed in all plant lineages from liverworts to angiosperms. However, the cryptic MYC2-interacting domain (CMID) domain appeared in angiosperms for the first time. The phylogenetic analysis performed using the Maximum Likelihood method indicated that JAZ ortholog proteins are grouped according to their similarity and plant lineage. Moreover, ancestral JAZ sequences were constructed by PhyloBot software and showed specific changes in the TIFY and Jas domains during evolution from liverworts to dicots. Finally, we propose a model for the evolution of the ancestral sequences of the main eight JAZ protein subgroups. These findings contribute to the understanding of the JAZ family origin and expansion in land plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Jasmonic Acid Pathway in Plants) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Fertility of Pedicellate Spikelets in Sorghum Is Controlled by a Jasmonic Acid Regulatory Module
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(19), 4951; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20194951 - 08 Oct 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
As in other cereal crops, the panicles of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) comprise two types of floral spikelets (grass flowers). Only sessile spikelets (SSs) are capable of producing viable grains, whereas pedicellate spikelets (PSs) cease development after initiation and eventually abort. [...] Read more.
As in other cereal crops, the panicles of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) comprise two types of floral spikelets (grass flowers). Only sessile spikelets (SSs) are capable of producing viable grains, whereas pedicellate spikelets (PSs) cease development after initiation and eventually abort. Consequently, grain number per panicle (GNP) is lower than the total number of flowers produced per panicle. The mechanism underlying this differential fertility is not well understood. To investigate this issue, we isolated a series of ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS)-induced multiseeded (msd) mutants that result in full spikelet fertility, effectively doubling GNP. Previously, we showed that MSD1 is a TCP (Teosinte branched/Cycloidea/PCF) transcription factor that regulates jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis, and ultimately floral sex organ development. Here, we show that MSD2 encodes a lipoxygenase (LOX) that catalyzes the first committed step of JA biosynthesis. Further, we demonstrate that MSD1 binds to the promoters of MSD2 and other JA pathway genes. Together, these results show that a JA-induced module regulates sorghum panicle development and spikelet fertility. The findings advance our understanding of inflorescence development and could lead to new strategies for increasing GNP and grain yield in sorghum and other cereal crops. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Jasmonic Acid Pathway in Plants) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Jasmonic Acid Methyl Ester Induces Xylogenesis and Modulates Auxin-Induced Xylary Cell Identity with NO Involvement
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(18), 4469; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20184469 - 10 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In Arabidopsis basal hypocotyls of dark-grown seedlings, xylary cells may form from the pericycle as an alternative to adventitious roots. Several hormones may induce xylogenesis, as Jasmonic acid (JA), as well as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) auxins, which also affect [...] Read more.
In Arabidopsis basal hypocotyls of dark-grown seedlings, xylary cells may form from the pericycle as an alternative to adventitious roots. Several hormones may induce xylogenesis, as Jasmonic acid (JA), as well as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) auxins, which also affect xylary identity. Studies with the ethylene (ET)-perception mutant ein3eil1 and the ET-precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), also demonstrate ET involvement in IBA-induced ectopic metaxylem. Moreover, nitric oxide (NO), produced after IBA/IAA-treatments, may affect JA signalling and interact positively/negatively with ET. To date, NO-involvement in ET/JA-mediated xylogenesis has never been investigated. To study this, and unravel JA-effects on xylary identity, xylogenesis was investigated in hypocotyls of seedlings treated with JA methyl-ester (JAMe) with/without ACC, IBA, IAA. Wild-type (wt) and ein3eil1 responses to hormonal treatments were compared, and the NO signal was quantified and its role evaluated by using NO-donors/scavengers. Ectopic-protoxylem increased in the wt only after treatment with JAMe(10 μM), whereas in ein3eil1 with any JAMe concentration. NO was detected in cells leading to either xylogenesis or adventitious rooting, and increased after treatment with JAMe(10 μM) combined or not with IBA(10 μM). Xylary identity changed when JAMe was applied with each auxin. Altogether, the results show that xylogenesis is induced by JA and NO positively regulates this process. In addition, NO also negatively interacts with ET-signalling and modulates auxin-induced xylary identity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Jasmonic Acid Pathway in Plants) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
BrTCP7 Transcription Factor Is Associated with MeJA-Promoted Leaf Senescence by Activating the Expression of BrOPR3 and BrRCCR
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(16), 3963; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20163963 - 14 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) has been recognized as an important promoter of leaf senescence in plants. However, upstream transcription factors (TFs) that control JA biosynthesis during JA-promoted leaf senescence remain unknown. In this study, we report the possible involvement of a [...] Read more.
The plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) has been recognized as an important promoter of leaf senescence in plants. However, upstream transcription factors (TFs) that control JA biosynthesis during JA-promoted leaf senescence remain unknown. In this study, we report the possible involvement of a TEOSINTE BRANCHED1/CYCLOIDEA/PCF (TCP) TF BrTCP7 in methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-promoted leaf senescence in Chinese flowering cabbage. Exogenous MeJA treatment reduced maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm) and total chlorophyll content, accompanied by the increased expression of senescence marker and chlorophyll catabolic genes, and accelerated leaf senescence. To further understand the transcriptional regulation of MeJA-promoted leaf senescence, a class I member of TCP TFs BrTCP7 was examined. BrTCP7 is a nuclear protein and possesses trans-activation ability through subcellular localization and transcriptional activity assays. A higher level of BrTCP7 transcript was detected in senescing leaves, and its expression was up-regulated by MeJA. The electrophoretic mobility shift assay and transient expression assay showed that BrTCP7 binds to the promoter regions of a JA biosynthetic gene BrOPR3 encoding OPDA reductase3 (OPR3) and a chlorophyll catabolic gene BrRCCR encoding red chlorophyll catabolite reductase (RCCR), activating their transcriptions. Taken together, these findings reveal that BrTCP7 is associated with MeJA-promoted leaf senescence at least partly by activating JA biosynthesis and chlorophyll catabolism, thus expanding our knowledge of the transcriptional mechanism of JA-mediated leaf senescence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Jasmonic Acid Pathway in Plants) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
JA-Induced Endocytosis of AtRGS1 Is Involved in G-Protein Mediated JA Responses
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(15), 3779; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20153779 - 02 Aug 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Arabidopsis heterotrimeric G proteins regulate diverse plant growth and defense processes by coupling to 7TM AtRGS1 proteins. Although G protein mutants display alterations in response to multiple plant hormones, the underlying mechanism by which G proteins participate in the regulation of hormone responses [...] Read more.
Arabidopsis heterotrimeric G proteins regulate diverse plant growth and defense processes by coupling to 7TM AtRGS1 proteins. Although G protein mutants display alterations in response to multiple plant hormones, the underlying mechanism by which G proteins participate in the regulation of hormone responses remains elusive. Here, we show that genetic disruption of Gα and Gβ subunits results in reduced sensitivity to JA treatment. Furthermore, using confocal microscopy, VA-TIRFM, and FRET-FLIM, we provide evidence that stimulation by JA induces phosphorylation- and C-terminus-dependent endocytosis of AtRGS1, which then promotes dissociation of AtRGS1 from AtGPA1. In addition, SPT analysis reveals that JA treatment affects the diffusion dynamics of AtRGS1 and AtRGS1-ΔCt. Taken together, these findings suggest that the JA signal activates heterotrimeric G proteins through the endocytosis of AtRGS1 and dissociation of AtRGS1 from AtGPA1, thus providing valuable insight into the mechanisms of how the G protein system perceives and transduces phytohormone signals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Jasmonic Acid Pathway in Plants) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessCommunication
Identification of Jasmonic Acid Biosynthetic Genes in Sweet Cherry and Expression Analysis in Four Ancient Varieties from Tuscany
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(14), 3569; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20143569 - 22 Jul 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Sweet cherries are non-climacteric fruits whose early development is characterized by high levels of the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA). Important parameters, such as firmness and susceptibility to cracking, can be affected by pre- and postharvest treatments of sweet cherries with JA. Despite the [...] Read more.
Sweet cherries are non-climacteric fruits whose early development is characterized by high levels of the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA). Important parameters, such as firmness and susceptibility to cracking, can be affected by pre- and postharvest treatments of sweet cherries with JA. Despite the impact of JA on sweet cherry development and fruit characteristics, there are no studies (to the best of our knowledge) identifying the genes involved in the JA biosynthetic pathway in this species. We herein identify the sweet cherry members of the lipoxygenase family (13-LOX); allene oxide synthase, allene oxide cyclase and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid reductase 3, as well as genes encoding the transcriptional master regulator MYC2. We analyze their expression pattern in four non-commercial Tuscan varieties (‘Carlotta’, ‘Maggiola’, ‘Morellona’, ‘Crognola’) having different levels of bioactives (namely phenolics). The highest differences are found in two genes encoding 13-LOX in the variety ‘Maggiola’ and one MYC2 isoform in ‘Morellona’. No statistically-significant variations are instead present in the allene oxide synthase, allene oxide cyclase and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid reductase 3. Our data pave the way to follow-up studies on the JA signaling pathway in these ancient varieties, for example in relation to development and post-harvest storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Jasmonic Acid Pathway in Plants) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Jasmonic Acid-Induced VQ-Motif-Containing Protein OsVQ13 Influences the OsWRKY45 Signaling Pathway and Grain Size by Associating with OsMPK6 in Rice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(12), 2917; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20122917 - 14 Jun 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Jasmonic acid (JA) is a plant hormone that plays an important role in the defense response and stable growth of rice. In this study, we investigated the role of the JA-responsive valine-glutamine (VQ)-motif-containing protein OsVQ13 in JA signaling in rice. OsVQ13 was primarily [...] Read more.
Jasmonic acid (JA) is a plant hormone that plays an important role in the defense response and stable growth of rice. In this study, we investigated the role of the JA-responsive valine-glutamine (VQ)-motif-containing protein OsVQ13 in JA signaling in rice. OsVQ13 was primarily located in the nucleus and cytoplasm. The transgenic rice plants overexpressing OsVQ13 exhibited a JA-hypersensitive phenotype and increased JA-induced resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), which is the bacteria that causes rice bacterial blight, one of the most serious diseases in rice. Furthermore, we identified a mitogen-activated protein kinase, OsMPK6, as an OsVQ13-associating protein. The expression of genes regulated by OsWRKY45, an important WRKY-type transcription factor for Xoo resistance that is known to be regulated by OsMPK6, was upregulated in OsVQ13-overexpressing rice plants. The grain size of OsVQ13-overexpressing rice plants was also larger than that of the wild type. These results indicated that OsVQ13 positively regulated JA signaling by activating the OsMPK6–OsWRKY45 signaling pathway in rice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Jasmonic Acid Pathway in Plants) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Proteomic Analysis of MeJa-Induced Defense Responses in Rice against Wounding
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(10), 2525; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20102525 - 22 May 2019
Cited by 8
Abstract
The role of jasmonates in defense priming has been widely recognized. Priming is a physiological process by which a plant exposed to low doses of biotic or abiotic elicitors activates faster and/or stronger defense responses when subsequently challenged by a stress. In this [...] Read more.
The role of jasmonates in defense priming has been widely recognized. Priming is a physiological process by which a plant exposed to low doses of biotic or abiotic elicitors activates faster and/or stronger defense responses when subsequently challenged by a stress. In this work, we investigated the impact of MeJA-induced defense responses to mechanical wounding in rice (Oryza sativa). The proteome reprogramming of plants treated with MeJA, wounding or MeJA+wounding has been in-depth analyzed by using a combination of high throughput profiling techniques and bioinformatics tools. Gene Ontology analysis identified protein classes as defense/immunity proteins, hydrolases and oxidoreductases differentially enriched by the three treatments, although with different amplitude. Remarkably, proteins involved in photosynthesis or oxidative stress were significantly affected upon wounding in MeJA-primed plants. Although these identified proteins had been previously shown to play a role in defense responses, our study revealed that they are specifically associated with MeJA-priming. Additionally, we also showed that at the phenotypic level MeJA protects plants from oxidative stress and photosynthetic damage induced by wounding. Taken together, our results add novel insight into the molecular actors and physiological mechanisms orchestrated by MeJA in enhancing rice plants defenses after wounding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Jasmonic Acid Pathway in Plants) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
PgMYB2, a MeJA-Responsive Transcription Factor, Positively Regulates the Dammarenediol Synthase Gene Expression in Panax Ginseng
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(9), 2219; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20092219 - 06 May 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
The MYB transcription factor family members have been reported to play different roles in plant growth regulation, defense response, and secondary metabolism. However, MYB gene expression has not been reported in Panax ginseng. In this study, we isolated a gene from ginseng [...] Read more.
The MYB transcription factor family members have been reported to play different roles in plant growth regulation, defense response, and secondary metabolism. However, MYB gene expression has not been reported in Panax ginseng. In this study, we isolated a gene from ginseng adventitious root, PgMYB2, which encodes an R2R3-MYB protein. Subcellular localization revealed that PgMYB2 protein was exclusively detected in the nucleus of Allium cepa epidermis. The highest expression level of PgMYB2 was found in ginseng root and it was significantly induced by plant hormones methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Furthermore, the binding interaction between PgMYB2 protein and the promoter of dammarenediol synthase (DDS) was found in the yeast strain Y1H Gold. Moreover, the electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) identified the binding site of the interaction and the results of transiently overexpressing PgMYB2 in plants also illustrated that it may positively regulate the expression of PgDDS. Based on the key role of PgDDS gene in ginsenoside synthesis, it is reasonable to believe that this report will be helpful for the future studies on the MYB family in P. ginseng and ultimately improving the ginsenoside production through genetic and metabolic engineering. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Chloroplast Defects on Formation of Jasmonic Acid and Characteristic Aroma Compounds in Tea (Camellia sinensis) Leaves Exposed to Postharvest Stresses
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(5), 1044; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20051044 - 27 Feb 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Characteristic aroma formation in tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves during the oolong tea manufacturing process might result from the defense responses of tea leaves against these various stresses, which involves upregulation of the upstream signal phytohormones related to leaf chloroplasts, such as [...] Read more.
Characteristic aroma formation in tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves during the oolong tea manufacturing process might result from the defense responses of tea leaves against these various stresses, which involves upregulation of the upstream signal phytohormones related to leaf chloroplasts, such as jasmonic acid (JA). Whether chloroplast changes affect the formation of JA and characteristic aroma compounds in tea leaves exposed to stresses is unknown. In tea germplasms, albino-induced yellow tea leaves have defects in chloroplast ultrastructure and composition. Herein, we have compared the differential responses of phytohormone and characteristic aroma compound formation in normal green and albino-induced yellow tea leaves exposed to continuous wounding stress, which is the main stress in oolong tea manufacture. In contrast to single wounding stress (from picking, as a control), continuous wounding stress can upregulate the expression of CsMYC2, a key transcription factor of JA signaling, and activate the synthesis of JA and characteristic aroma compounds in both normal tea leaves (normal chloroplasts) and albino tea leaves (chloroplast defects). Chloroplast defects had no significant effect on the expression levels of CsMYC2 and JA synthesis-related genes in response to continuous wounding stress, but reduced the increase in JA content in response to continuous wounding stress. Furthermore, chloroplast defects reduced the increase in volatile fatty acid derivatives, including jasmine lactone and green leaf volatile contents, in response to continuous wounding stress. Overall, the formation of metabolites derived from fatty acids, such as JA, jasmine lactone, and green leaf volatiles in tea leaves, in response to continuous wounding stress, was affected by chloroplast defects. This information will improve understanding of the relationship of the stress responses of JA and aroma compound formation with chloroplast changes in tea. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Methyl Jasmonate Induced Oxidative Stress and Accumulation of Secondary Metabolites in Plant Cell and Organ Cultures
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(3), 716; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21030716 - 22 Jan 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
Recently, plant secondary metabolites are considered as important sources of pharmaceuticals, food additives, flavours, cosmetics, and other industrial products. The accumulation of secondary metabolites in plant cell and organ cultures often occurs when cultures are subjected to varied kinds of stresses including elicitors [...] Read more.
Recently, plant secondary metabolites are considered as important sources of pharmaceuticals, food additives, flavours, cosmetics, and other industrial products. The accumulation of secondary metabolites in plant cell and organ cultures often occurs when cultures are subjected to varied kinds of stresses including elicitors or signal molecules. Application of exogenous jasmonic acid (JA) and methyl jasmonate (MJ) is responsible for the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent defence mechanisms in cultured cells and organs. It is also responsible for the induction of signal transduction, the expression of many defence genes followed by the accumulation of secondary metabolites. In this review, the application of exogenous MJ elicitation strategies on the induction of defence mechanism and secondary metabolite accumulation in cell and organ cultures is introduced and discussed. The information presented here is useful for efficient large-scale production of plant secondary metabolites by the plant cell and organ cultures. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Jasmonic Acid Signaling Pathway in Response to Abiotic Stresses in Plants
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(2), 621; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21020621 - 17 Jan 2020
Cited by 6
Abstract
Plants as immovable organisms sense the stressors in their environment and respond to them by means of dedicated stress response pathways. In response to stress, jasmonates (jasmonic acid, its precursors and derivatives), a class of polyunsaturated fatty acid-derived phytohormones, play crucial roles in [...] Read more.
Plants as immovable organisms sense the stressors in their environment and respond to them by means of dedicated stress response pathways. In response to stress, jasmonates (jasmonic acid, its precursors and derivatives), a class of polyunsaturated fatty acid-derived phytohormones, play crucial roles in several biotic and abiotic stresses. As the major immunity hormone, jasmonates participate in numerous signal transduction pathways, including those of gene networks, regulatory proteins, signaling intermediates, and proteins, enzymes, and molecules that act to protect cells from the toxic effects of abiotic stresses. As cellular hubs for integrating informational cues from the environment, jasmonates play significant roles in alleviating salt stress, drought stress, heavy metal toxicity, micronutrient toxicity, freezing stress, ozone stress, CO2 stress, and light stress. Besides these, jasmonates are involved in several developmental and physiological processes throughout the plant life. In this review, we discuss the biosynthesis and signal transduction pathways of the JAs and the roles of these molecules in the plant responses to abiotic stresses. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Crosstalk with Jasmonic Acid Integrates Multiple Responses in Plant Development
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(1), 305; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010305 - 02 Jan 2020
Cited by 7
Abstract
To date, extensive studies have identified many classes of hormones in plants and revealed the specific, nonredundant signaling pathways for each hormone. However, plant hormone functions largely overlap in many aspects of plant development and environmental responses, suggesting that studying the crosstalk among [...] Read more.
To date, extensive studies have identified many classes of hormones in plants and revealed the specific, nonredundant signaling pathways for each hormone. However, plant hormone functions largely overlap in many aspects of plant development and environmental responses, suggesting that studying the crosstalk among plant hormones is key to understanding hormonal responses in plants. The phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) is deeply involved in the regulation of plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In addition, a growing number of studies suggest that JA plays an essential role in the modulation of plant growth and development under stress conditions, and crosstalk between JA and other phytohormones involved in growth and development, such as gibberellic acid (GA), cytokinin, and auxin modulate various developmental processes. This review summarizes recent findings of JA crosstalk in the modulation of plant growth and development, focusing on JA–GA, JA–cytokinin, and JA–auxin crosstalk. The molecular mechanisms underlying this crosstalk are also discussed. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Novel Crosstalks between Circadian Clock and Jasmonic Acid Pathway Finely Coordinate the Tradeoff among Plant Growth, Senescence and Defense
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(21), 5254; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20215254 - 23 Oct 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Circadian clock not only functions as a cellular time-keeping mechanism, but also acts as a master regulator to coordinate the tradeoff between plant growth and defense in higher plants by timing a few kinds of phytohormone biosynthesis and signaling, including jasmonic acid (JA). [...] Read more.
Circadian clock not only functions as a cellular time-keeping mechanism, but also acts as a master regulator to coordinate the tradeoff between plant growth and defense in higher plants by timing a few kinds of phytohormone biosynthesis and signaling, including jasmonic acid (JA). Notably, circadian clock and JA pathway have recently been shown to intertwine with each other to ensure and optimize the plant fitness in an ever-changing environment. It has clearly demonstrated that there are multiple crosstalk pathways between circadian clock and JA at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. In this scenario, circadian clock temporally modulates JA-mediated plant development events, herbivory resistance and susceptibility to pathogen. By contrast, the JA signaling regulates clock activity in a feedback manner. In this review, we summarized the cross networks between circadian clock and JA pathway at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. We proposed that the novel crosstalks between circadian clock and JA pathway not only benefit for the understanding the JA-associated circadian outputs including leaf senescence, biotic, and abiotic defenses, but also put timing as a new key factor to investigate JA pathway in the future. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Jasmonic Acid Signaling Pathway in Plants
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(10), 2479; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20102479 - 20 May 2019
Cited by 30
Abstract
Jasmonic acid (JA) and its precursors and dervatives, referred as jasmonates (JAs) are important molecules in the regulation of many physiological processes in plant growth and development, and especially the mediation of plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. JAs biosynthesis, perception, transport, [...] Read more.
Jasmonic acid (JA) and its precursors and dervatives, referred as jasmonates (JAs) are important molecules in the regulation of many physiological processes in plant growth and development, and especially the mediation of plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. JAs biosynthesis, perception, transport, signal transduction and action have been extensively investigated. In this review, we will discuss the initiation of JA signaling with a focus on environmental signal perception and transduction, JA biosynthesis and metabolism, transport of signaling molecules (local transmission, vascular bundle transmission, and airborne transportation), and biological function (JA signal receptors, regulated transcription factors, and biological processes involved). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Jasmonic Acid Pathway in Plants) Printed Edition available
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