ijms-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Natural Anti-Inflammatory Agents 2019"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Bioactives and Nutraceuticals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2019.

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Patrícia Valentão Website E-Mail
Laboratory of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira 228, Porto 4050-313, Portugal
Interests: metabolite profiling of natural matrices; evaluation of bioactive agents from natural sources
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Paula B. Andrade Website E-Mail
Laboratory of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira 228, Porto 4050-313, Portugal
Interests: metabolite profiling of natural matrices; natural agents for inflammation and cancer; neurodegenerative disorders

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Inflammation is the organism’s natural response to stimuli that are perceived as harmful, from germs, toxins, and environmental pollutants, to injury and stress, among others. This complex process involves immune, vascular and cellular biochemical reactions. At a damaged site, the process starts with the migration of immune cells from blood vessels and the release of mediators, followed by the recruitment of inflammatory cells and the release of various oxidative agents and pro-inflammatory cytokines, with arachidonic acid playing a pivotal role. Normal inflammation is self-limiting, but aberrant resolution and prolonged inflammation lead to chronic disorders, as excessive oxidants and inflammatory mediators have deleterious effects, including toxicity, loss of barrier function, abnormal cell proliferation, inhibiting normal function of tissues and organs, finally leading to systemic disorders. The search for new anti-inflammatory drugs has been a current preoccupation, due to the need for effective drugs, with less adverse reactions than those used nowadays. Concerning this issue, there has been increasing awareness of the potential interest in natural products. This Special Issue is devoted to the exploitation of natural matrices as sources of new anti-inflammatory molecules and their mechanism of action.

Prof. Dr. Patrícia Valentão
Prof. Dr. Paula Andrade
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • anti-inflammatory
  • arachidonic acid
  • cytokines
  • eicosanoids
  • gene expression
  • inflammatory cells
  • inflammatory enzymes
  • natural products
  • transcription factors

Published Papers (9 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Open AccessArticle
Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Activity of Pollen Extract Collected by Stingless Bee Melipona fasciculata
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(18), 4512; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20184512 - 12 Sep 2019
Abstract
The stingless bee, Melipona fasciculata Smith (Apidae, Meliponini), is a native species from Brazil. Their products have high biotechnological potential, however there are no studies about the biological activities of pollen collected by M. fasciculata. In this context, the present study investigated [...] Read more.
The stingless bee, Melipona fasciculata Smith (Apidae, Meliponini), is a native species from Brazil. Their products have high biotechnological potential, however there are no studies about the biological activities of pollen collected by M. fasciculata. In this context, the present study investigated the chemical composition, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activities of hydroethanolic pollen extracts collected by M. fasciculata in three cities in Maranhão State, Brazil. We verified the antioxidant activity of the extracts and inhibitory activity against the cyclooxygenase enzyme using in vitro assays and in allowed to select the extract with higher efficiency to be used on in vivo assays. In these trials, the selected extract showed high anti-inflammatory activity as well as nociceptive effects at central and peripheral level, suggesting that this extract acts on inhibition of histamine release and decreased synthesis of prostaglandins and the in-silico study suggested that polyphenols and acids fatty acids in the extract may be associated with these activities. The results of the present study report the high biological potential of pollen extract and we conclude that the pollen collected by M. fasciculata can be considered as the object of research for new pharmacological alternatives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Anti-Inflammatory Agents 2019)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Spilanthol Inhibits Inflammatory Transcription Factors and iNOS Expression in Macrophages and Exerts Anti-inflammatory Effects in Dermatitis and Pancreatitis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(17), 4308; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20174308 - 03 Sep 2019
Abstract
Activated macrophages upregulate inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) leading to the profuse production of nitric oxide (NO) and, eventually, tissue damage. Using macrophage NO production as a biochemical marker of inflammation, we tested different parts (flower, leaf, and stem) of the medicinal plant, [...] Read more.
Activated macrophages upregulate inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) leading to the profuse production of nitric oxide (NO) and, eventually, tissue damage. Using macrophage NO production as a biochemical marker of inflammation, we tested different parts (flower, leaf, and stem) of the medicinal plant, Spilanthes acmella. We found that extracts prepared from all three parts, especially the flowers, suppressed NO production in RAW macrophages in response to interferon-γ and lipopolysaccharide. Follow up experiments with selected bioactive molecules from the plant (α-amyrin, β-caryophylline, scopoletin, vanillic acid, trans-ferulic acid, and spilanthol) indicated that the N-alkamide, spilanthol, is responsible for the NO-suppressive effects and provides protection from NO-dependent cell death. Spilanthol reduced the expression of iNOS mRNA and protein and, as a possible underlying mechanism, inhibited the activation of several transcription factors (NFκB, ATF4, FOXO1, IRF1, ETS, and AP1) and sensitized cells to downregulation of Smad (TF array experiments). The iNOS inhibitory effect translated into an anti-inflammatory effect, as demonstrated in a phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced dermatitis and, to a smaller extent, in cerulein-induced pancreatitis. In summary, we demonstrate that spilanthol inhibits iNOS expression, NO production and suppresses inflammatory TFs. These events likely contribute to the observed anti-inflammatory actions of spilanthol in dermatitis and pancreatitis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Anti-Inflammatory Agents 2019)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Effects of Poncirus fructus on Insulin Resistance and the Macrophage-Mediated Inflammatory Response in High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(12), 2858; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20122858 - 12 Jun 2019
Abstract
Obesity is a chronic low-grade inflammatory condition in which hypertrophied adipocytes and adipose tissue immune cells, mainly macrophages, contribute to increased circulating levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Obesity-associated chronic low-grade systemic inflammation is considered a focal point and a therapeutic target in insulin resistance [...] Read more.
Obesity is a chronic low-grade inflammatory condition in which hypertrophied adipocytes and adipose tissue immune cells, mainly macrophages, contribute to increased circulating levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Obesity-associated chronic low-grade systemic inflammation is considered a focal point and a therapeutic target in insulin resistance and metabolic diseases. We evaluate the effect of Poncirus fructus (PF) on insulin resistance and its mechanism based on inflammatory responses in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Mice were fed an HFD to induce obesity and then administered PF. Body weight, epididymal fat and liver weight, glucose, lipid, insulin, and histologic characteristics were evaluated to determine the effect of PF on insulin resistance by analyzing the proportion of macrophages in epididymal fat and liver and measured inflammatory gene expression. PF administration significantly decreased the fasting and postprandial glucose, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, total-cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. The epididymal fat tissue and liver showed a significant decrease of fat accumulation in histological analysis. PF significantly reduced the number of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs), F4/80+ Kupffer cells, and CD68+ Kupffer cells, increased the proportion of M2 phenotype macrophages, and decreased the gene expression of inflammatory cytokines. These results suggest that PF could be used to improve insulin resistance through modulation of macrophage-mediated inflammation and enhance glucose and lipid metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Anti-Inflammatory Agents 2019)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Inhibitory Effects of a Novel Chrysin-Derivative, CPD 6, on Acute and Chronic Skin Inflammation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(11), 2607; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20112607 - 28 May 2019
Abstract
The skin is an important physiological barrier against external stimuli, such as ultraviolet radiation (UV), xenobiotics, and bacteria. Dermal inflammatory reactions are associated with various skin disorders, including chemical-induced irritation and atopic dermatitis. Modulation of skin inflammatory response is a therapeutic strategy for [...] Read more.
The skin is an important physiological barrier against external stimuli, such as ultraviolet radiation (UV), xenobiotics, and bacteria. Dermal inflammatory reactions are associated with various skin disorders, including chemical-induced irritation and atopic dermatitis. Modulation of skin inflammatory response is a therapeutic strategy for skin diseases. Here, we synthesized chrysin-derivatives and identified the most potent derivative of Compound 6 (CPD 6). We evaluated its anti-inflammatory effects in vitro cells of macrophages and keratinocytes, and in vivo dermatitis mouse models. In murine macrophages stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), CPD 6 significantly attenuated the release of inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO) (IC50 for NO inhibition: 3.613 μM) and other cytokines. In cultured human keratinocytes, CPD 6 significantly attenuated the release of inflammatory cytokines induced by the combination of IFN-γ and TNF-α, UV irradiation, or chemical irritant stimulation. CPD 6 inhibited NFκB and JAK2/STAT1 signaling pathways, and activated Nrf2/HO-1 signaling. In vivo relevancy of anti-inflammatory effects of CPD 6 was observed in acute and chronic skin inflammation models in mice. CPD 6 showed significant anti-inflammatory properties both in vitro cells and in vivo dermatitis animal models, mediated by the inhibition of the NFκB and JAK2-STAT1 pathways and activation of Nrf2/HO-1 signaling. We propose that the novel chrysin-derivative CPD 6 may be a potential therapeutic agent for skin inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Anti-Inflammatory Agents 2019)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Therapeutic Effect of Dipsacus asperoides C. Y. Cheng et T. M. Ai in Ovalbumin-Induced Murine Model of Asthma
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(8), 1855; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20081855 - 15 Apr 2019
Abstract
Dipsacus asperoides C. Y. Cheng et T. M. Ai (DA) has been used in China as a traditional medicine to treat lumbar and knee pain, liver dysfunction, and fractures. We explored the suppressive effect of DA on allergic asthma using an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced [...] Read more.
Dipsacus asperoides C. Y. Cheng et T. M. Ai (DA) has been used in China as a traditional medicine to treat lumbar and knee pain, liver dysfunction, and fractures. We explored the suppressive effect of DA on allergic asthma using an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma model. In the asthma model, female Balb/c mice were sensitized to OVA on day 0 and 14 to boost immune responses and then exposed to OVA solution by using an ultrasonic nebulizer on days 21 to 23. DA (20 and 40 mg/kg) was administered to mice by oral gavage on days 18 to 23. Methacholine responsiveness was determined on day 24 using a plethysmography. On day 25, we collected bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, serum, and lung tissue from animals under anesthesia. DA treatment effectively inhibited methacholine responsiveness, inflammatory cell infiltration, proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13, and immunoglobulin (Ig) E in OVA-induced asthma model. Reductions in airway inflammation and mucus hypersecretion, accompanied by decreases in the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the phosphorylation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), were also observed. Our results indicated that DA attenuated the asthmatic response, and that this attenuation was closely linked to NF-κB suppression. Thus, this study suggests that DA is a potential therapeutic for allergic asthma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Anti-Inflammatory Agents 2019)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Salicylate and Procyanidin-Rich Stem Extracts of Gaultheria procumbens L. Inhibit Pro-Inflammatory Enzymes and Suppress Pro-Inflammatory and Pro-Oxidant Functions of Human Neutrophils Ex Vivo
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(7), 1753; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20071753 - 09 Apr 2019
Abstract
Salicylate-rich plants are an attractive alternative to synthetic anti-inflammatory drugs due to a better safety profile and the advantage of complementary anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of the co-occurring non-salicylate phytochemicals. Here, the phytochemical value and biological effects in vitro and ex vivo of [...] Read more.
Salicylate-rich plants are an attractive alternative to synthetic anti-inflammatory drugs due to a better safety profile and the advantage of complementary anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of the co-occurring non-salicylate phytochemicals. Here, the phytochemical value and biological effects in vitro and ex vivo of the stems of one of such plants, Gaultheria procumbens L., were evaluated. The best extrahent for effective recovery of the active stem molecules was established in comparative studies of five extracts. The UHPLC-PDA-ESI-MS3, HPLC-PDA, and UV-photometric assays revealed that the selected acetone extract (AE) accumulates a rich polyphenolic fraction (35 identified constituents; total content 427.2 mg/g dw), mainly flavanols (catechins and proanthocyanidins; 201.3 mg/g dw) and methyl salicylate glycosides (199.9 mg/g dw). The extract and its model components were effective cyclooxygenase-2, lipoxygenase, and hyaluronidase inhibitors; exhibited strong antioxidant capacity in six non-cellular in vitro models (AE and procyanidins); and also significantly and dose-dependently reduced the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the release of cytokines (IL-1β, IL-8, TNF-α) and proteinases (elastase-2, metalloproteinase-9) in human neutrophils stimulated ex vivo by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (fMLP). The cellular safety of AE was demonstrated by flow cytometry. The results support the application of the plant in traditional medicine and encourage the use of AE for development of new therapeutic agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Anti-Inflammatory Agents 2019)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Autophagy Activation by Crepidiastrum Denticulatum Extract Attenuates Environmental Pollutant-Induced Damage in Dermal Fibroblasts
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(3), 517; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20030517 - 26 Jan 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Pollution-induced skin damage results in oxidative stress; cellular toxicity; inflammation; and, ultimately, premature skin aging. Previous studies suggest that the activation of autophagy can protect oxidation-induced cellular damage and aging-like changes in skin. In order to develop new anti-pollution ingredients, this study screened [...] Read more.
Pollution-induced skin damage results in oxidative stress; cellular toxicity; inflammation; and, ultimately, premature skin aging. Previous studies suggest that the activation of autophagy can protect oxidation-induced cellular damage and aging-like changes in skin. In order to develop new anti-pollution ingredients, this study screened various kinds of natural extracts to measure their autophagy activation efficacy in cultured dermal fibroblast. The stimulation of autophagy flux by the selected extracts was further confirmed both by the expression of proteins associated with the autophagy signals and by electron microscope. Crepidiastrum denticulatum (CD) extract treated cells showed the highest autophagic vacuole formation in the non-cytotoxic range. The phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate kinase (AMPK), but not the inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), was observed by CD-extract treatment. Its anti-pollution effects were further evaluated with model compounds, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and cadmium chloride (CdCl2), and a CD extract treatment resulted in both the protection of cytotoxicity and a reduction of proinflammatory cytokines. These results suggest that the autophagy activators can be a new protection regimen for anti-pollution. Therefore, CD extract can be used for anti-inflammatory and anti-pollution cosmetic ingredients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Anti-Inflammatory Agents 2019)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review

Jump to: Research, Other

Open AccessReview
Animal Models of Inflammation for Screening of Anti-inflammatory Drugs: Implications for the Discovery and Development of Phytopharmaceuticals
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(18), 4367; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20184367 - 05 Sep 2019
Abstract
Inflammation is one of the common events in the majority of acute as well as chronic debilitating diseases and represent a chief cause of morbidity in today’s era of modern lifestyle. If unchecked, inflammation leads to development of rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, cancer, Alzheimer’s [...] Read more.
Inflammation is one of the common events in the majority of acute as well as chronic debilitating diseases and represent a chief cause of morbidity in today’s era of modern lifestyle. If unchecked, inflammation leads to development of rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, and atherosclerosis along with pulmonary, autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases. Inflammation involves a complex network of many mediators, a variety of cells, and execution of multiple pathways. Current therapy for inflammatory diseases is limited to the steroidal and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents. The chronic use of these drugs is reported to cause severe adverse effects like gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and renal abnormalities. There is a massive need to explore new anti-inflammatory agents with selective action and lesser toxicity. Plants and isolated phytoconstituents are promising and interesting sources of new anti-inflammatories. However, drug development from natural sources has been linked with hurdles like the complex nature of extracts, difficulties in isolation of pure phytoconstituents, and the yield of isolated compounds in minute quantities that is insufficient for subsequent lead development. Although various in-vivo and in-vitro models for anti-inflammatory drug development are available, judicious selection of appropriate animal models is a vital step in the early phase of drug development. Systematic evaluation of phytoconstituents can facilitate the identification and development of potential anti-inflammatory leads from natural sources. The present review describes various techniques of anti-inflammatory drug screening with its advantages and limitations, elaboration on biological targets of phytoconstituents in inflammation and biomarkers for the prediction of adverse effects of anti-inflammatory drugs. The systematic approach proposed through present article for anti-inflammatory drug screening can rationalize the identification of novel phytoconstituents at the initial stage of drug screening programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Anti-Inflammatory Agents 2019)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessBrief Report
Aerosolized Bovine Lactoferrin Counteracts Infection, Inflammation and Iron Dysbalance in A Cystic Fibrosis Mouse Model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Chronic Lung Infection
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(9), 2128; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20092128 - 30 Apr 2019
Abstract
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder affecting several organs including airways. Bacterial infection, inflammation and iron dysbalance play a major role in the chronicity and severity of the lung pathology. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of lactoferrin [...] Read more.
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder affecting several organs including airways. Bacterial infection, inflammation and iron dysbalance play a major role in the chronicity and severity of the lung pathology. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of lactoferrin (Lf), a multifunctional iron-chelating glycoprotein of innate immunity, in a CF murine model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa chronic lung infection. To induce chronic lung infection, C57BL/6 mice, either cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-deficient (Cftrtm1UNCTgN(FABPCFTR)#Jaw) or wild-type (WT), were intra-tracheally inoculated with multidrug-resistant MDR-RP73 P. aeruginosa embedded in agar beads. Treatments with aerosolized bovine Lf (bLf) or saline were started five minutes after infection and repeated daily for six days. Our results demonstrated that aerosolized bLf was effective in significantly reducing both pulmonary bacterial load and infiltrated leukocytes in infected CF mice. Furthermore, for the first time, we showed that bLf reduced pulmonary iron overload, in both WT and CF mice. In particular, at molecular level, a significant decrease of both the iron exporter ferroportin and iron storage ferritin, as well as luminal iron content was observed. Overall, bLf acts as a potent multi-targeting agent able to break the vicious cycle induced by P. aeruginosa, inflammation and iron dysbalance, thus mitigating the severity of CF-related pathology and sequelae. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Anti-Inflammatory Agents 2019)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Back to TopTop