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Molecules, Volume 23, Issue 7 (July 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) DNA nanostructures can be simply programmed into a wide variety of shapes. One application of such [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Stereoselective and Simultaneous Analysis of Ginsenosides from Ginseng Berry Extract in Rat Plasma by UPLC-MS/MS: Application to a Pharmacokinetic Study of Ginseng Berry Extract
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1835; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071835
Received: 10 July 2018 / Revised: 18 July 2018 / Accepted: 23 July 2018 / Published: 23 July 2018
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Abstract
The role of ginseng berry extract (GBE) has been attributed to its anti-hyperglycemic effect in humans. However, the pharmacokinetic characteristics of GBE constitutes after oral GBE administration have not been established yet. In this study, stereoselective and simultaneous analytical methods for 10 ginsenosides
[...] Read more.
The role of ginseng berry extract (GBE) has been attributed to its anti-hyperglycemic effect in humans. However, the pharmacokinetic characteristics of GBE constitutes after oral GBE administration have not been established yet. In this study, stereoselective and simultaneous analytical methods for 10 ginsenosides (ginsenoside Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Re, Rg1, S-Rg2, R-Rg2, S-Rg3, and R-Rg3) were developed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography, coupled with electrospray ionization triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), for the pharmacokinetic study of GBE. Furthermore, the pharmacokinetic profiles of 10 ginsenosides after oral GBE were evaluated in rats. All analytes were detected with a linear concentration range of 0.01–10 µg/mL. Lower limits of detection (LLOD) and quantification (LLOQ) were 0.003 and 0.01 µg/mL, respectively, for all 10 ginsenosides. This established method was adequately validated in linearity, sensitivity, intra- and inter-day precision, accuracy, recovery, matrix effect, and stability. Relative standard deviations for all intra- and inter-precision of the 10 ginsenosides were below 11.5% and accuracies were 85.3–111%, which were sufficient to evaluate the pharmacokinetic study of oral GBE in rats. We propose that Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Re, Rg1, S-Rg2, R-Rg2 and/or S-Rg3 were appropriate pharmacokinetic markers of systemic exposure following oral GBE administration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Bioactive Natural Products)
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Open AccessReview Progress in Metabonomics of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1834; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071834
Received: 7 July 2018 / Revised: 18 July 2018 / Accepted: 19 July 2018 / Published: 23 July 2018
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Abstract
With the improvement of living standards and a change in lifestyle, the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing. Its etiology is too complex to be completely understand yet. Metabonomics techniques are used to study the changes of metabolites and metabolic
[...] Read more.
With the improvement of living standards and a change in lifestyle, the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing. Its etiology is too complex to be completely understand yet. Metabonomics techniques are used to study the changes of metabolites and metabolic pathways before and after the onset of diabetes and make it more possible to further understand the pathogenesis of T2DM and improve its prediction, early diagnosis, and treatment. In this review, we summarized the metabonomics study of T2DM in recent years and provided a theoretical basis for the study of pathogenesis and the effective prevention and treatment of T2DM. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperCommunication Shaping Rolling Circle Amplification Products into DNA Nanoparticles by Incorporation of Modified Nucleotides and Their Application to In Vitro and In Vivo Delivery of a Photosensitizer
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1833; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071833
Received: 10 June 2018 / Revised: 17 July 2018 / Accepted: 20 July 2018 / Published: 23 July 2018
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Abstract
Rolling circle amplification (RCA) is a robust way to generate DNA constructs, which are promising materials for biomedical applications including drug delivery because of their high biocompatibility. To be employed as a drug delivery platform, however, the DNA materials produced by RCA need
[...] Read more.
Rolling circle amplification (RCA) is a robust way to generate DNA constructs, which are promising materials for biomedical applications including drug delivery because of their high biocompatibility. To be employed as a drug delivery platform, however, the DNA materials produced by RCA need to be shaped into nanoparticles that display both high cellular uptake efficiency and nuclease resistance. Here, we showed that the DNA nanoparticles (DNPs) can be prepared with RCA and modified nucleotides that have side-chains appended on the nucleobase are capable of interacting with the DNA strands of the resulting RCA products. The incorporation of the modified nucleotides improved cellular uptake efficiency and nuclease resistance of the DNPs. We also demonstrated that these DNPs could be employed as carriers for the delivery of a photosensitizer into cancer cells to achieve photodynamic therapy upon irradiation at both the in vitro and in vivo levels. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Improved Cold Tolerance of Mango Fruit with Enhanced Anthocyanin and Flavonoid Contents
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1832; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071832
Received: 21 June 2018 / Revised: 18 July 2018 / Accepted: 20 July 2018 / Published: 23 July 2018
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Abstract
Red fruits were suggested to be tolerant to cold. To understand cold-storage tolerance of red mango fruit that were subjected to sunlight at the orchard, mango cv. Shelly from inside (green fruit) or outside (red fruit) the tree canopy was stored for 3
[...] Read more.
Red fruits were suggested to be tolerant to cold. To understand cold-storage tolerance of red mango fruit that were subjected to sunlight at the orchard, mango cv. Shelly from inside (green fruit) or outside (red fruit) the tree canopy was stored for 3 weeks at 5, 8 or 12 °C and examined for flavonoids, antioxidant, volatiles and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress. Red fruit from the outer canopy showed significant increases in total anthocyanin and flavonoids, and antioxidant activity. Ripening parameters for red and green mango fruit were similar at harvest and during storage. However, red fruit with high anthocyanin and flavonoid contents were more tolerant to biotic and abiotic stresses. After 3 weeks of suboptimal cold storage, green fruit showed significantly more lipid peroxidation and developed significantly more chilling-injury symptoms—black spots and pitting—than red fruit. Volatiles of red and green peels revealed significant modulations in response to cold-storage. Moreover, red fruit were more tolerant to biotic stress and had reduced general decay incidence. However, during long storage at 10 °C for 4, 5 or 6 weeks, red fruit showed a non-significant reduction in decay and chilling injuries. These results suggest new approaches to avoiding chilling injury during cold storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Anthocyanin Research 2018)
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Open AccessArticle Preparation and Application of Standardized Typical Volatile Components Fraction from Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) by Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Step Molecular Distillation
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1831; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071831
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 18 July 2018 / Accepted: 19 July 2018 / Published: 23 July 2018
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Abstract
A green and reliable method using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and molecular distillation (MD) was optimized for the separation and purification of standardized typical volatile components fraction (STVCF) from turmeric to solve the shortage of reference compounds in quality control (QC) of volatile
[...] Read more.
A green and reliable method using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and molecular distillation (MD) was optimized for the separation and purification of standardized typical volatile components fraction (STVCF) from turmeric to solve the shortage of reference compounds in quality control (QC) of volatile components. A high quality essential oil with 76.0% typical components of turmeric was extracted by SFE. A sequential distillation strategy was performed by MD. The total recovery and purity of prepared STVCF were 97.3% and 90.3%, respectively. Additionally, a strategy, i.e., STVCF-based qualification and quantitative evaluation of major bioactive analytes by multiple calibrated components, was proposed to easily and effectively control the quality of turmeric. Compared with the individual calibration curve method, the STVCF-based quantification method was demonstrated to be credible and was effectively adapted for solving the shortage of reference volatile compounds and improving the QC of typical volatile components in turmeric, especially its functional products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Extraction, Separation and Purification Processes)
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Open AccessArticle Strategy for Screening of Antioxidant Compounds from Two Ulmaceae Species Based on Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1830; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071830
Received: 12 July 2018 / Revised: 19 July 2018 / Accepted: 20 July 2018 / Published: 23 July 2018
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Abstract
Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based untargeted metabolomics implies that annotated metabolites can serve as potential markers of the associated bioactivities of plant extracts. Firstly, we selected Aphananthe aspera and Zelkova serrata (Family: Ulmaceae) from 16 Korean plant species based on their distinct principal component
[...] Read more.
Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based untargeted metabolomics implies that annotated metabolites can serve as potential markers of the associated bioactivities of plant extracts. Firstly, we selected Aphananthe aspera and Zelkova serrata (Family: Ulmaceae) from 16 Korean plant species based on their distinct principal component analysis (PCA) patterns in LC-MS datasets and antioxidant activity assays. Further, we chose 40% solid-phase extraction (SPE) extracts of the two species displaying the highest antioxidant activities coupled with distinct PCA patterns. Examining the metabolite compositions of the 40% SPE extracts, we observed relatively higher abundances of quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin O-glucosides for A. aspera, whereas quercetin, isorhamnetin O-glucuronides, and procyanidin dimer were relatively higher in Z. serrata. These metabolites were clearly distinguished in pathway map and displayed strong positive correlations with antioxidant activity. Further, we performed preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (prep-HPLC) analysis coupled with the 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assay to validate their functional correlations. As a result, quercetin O-sophoroside was determined as the main antioxidant in A. aspera, while isorhamnetin O-glucuronide and procyanidin dimer were the primary antioxidants in Z. serrata. The current study suggests that the LC-MS-based untargeted metabolomics strategy can be used to illuminate subtle metabolic disparities as well as compounds associated with bioactivities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Decomposing the Mechanism of Qishen Granules in the Treatment of Heart Failure by a Quantitative Pathway Analysis Method
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1829; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071829
Received: 24 June 2018 / Revised: 17 July 2018 / Accepted: 18 July 2018 / Published: 23 July 2018
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Abstract
Qishen granules (QSG) have beneficial therapeutic effects for heart failure, but the effects of decomposed recipes, including Wenyang Yiqi Huoxue (WYH) and Qingre Jiedu (QJ), are not clear. In this study, the efficacy of WYH and QJ on heart failure is evaluated by
[...] Read more.
Qishen granules (QSG) have beneficial therapeutic effects for heart failure, but the effects of decomposed recipes, including Wenyang Yiqi Huoxue (WYH) and Qingre Jiedu (QJ), are not clear. In this study, the efficacy of WYH and QJ on heart failure is evaluated by using transverse aortic constriction (TAC) induced mice and the significantly changed genes in heart tissues were screened with a DNA array. Furthermore, a new quantitative pathway analysis tool is developed to evaluate the differences of pathways in different groups and to identify the pharmacological contributions of the decomposed recipes. Finally, the related genes in the significantly changed pathways are verified by a real-time polymerase chain reaction and a Western blot. Our data show that both QJ and WYH improve the left ventricular ejection fraction, which explain their contributions to protect against heart failure. In the energy metabolism, QJ achieves the therapeutic effects of QSG through nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (Nnt)-mediated mechanisms. In ventricular remodeling and inflammation reactions, QJ and WYH undertake the therapeutic effects through 5′-nucleotidase ecto (Nt5e)-mediated mechanisms. Together, QJ and WYH constitute the therapeutic effects of QSG and play important roles in myocardial energy metabolism and inflammation, which can exert therapeutic effects for heart failure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Product Pharmacology and Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Identification of Potential Nematicidal Compounds against the Pine Wood Nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus through an In Silico Approach
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1828; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071828
Received: 7 June 2018 / Revised: 18 July 2018 / Accepted: 18 July 2018 / Published: 23 July 2018
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Abstract
Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is a destructive phytophagous nematode that mainly infects pine species and causes pine wilt disease (PWD). PWD is one of the most devastating diseases that has damaged the pine forests of eastern Asia and Portugal for the last four decades. B.
[...] Read more.
Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is a destructive phytophagous nematode that mainly infects pine species and causes pine wilt disease (PWD). PWD is one of the most devastating diseases that has damaged the pine forests of eastern Asia and Portugal for the last four decades. B. xylophilus infects healthy pine trees through Monochamus beetles and its subsequent proliferation results in destruction of the infected pine trees. The poor water solubility and high cost of currently used trunk-injected chemicals such as avermectin and abamectin for the prevention of PWD are major concerns. Thus, for the identification of new compounds targeting the different targets, five proteins including cathepsin L-like cystein proteinase, peroxiredoxins, hsp90, venome allergen protein and tubulin that are known to be important for development and pathogenicity of B. xylophilus were selected. The compounds were virtually screened against five proposed targets through molecular docking into hypothetical binding sites located in a homology-built protein model. Of the fifteen nematicides screened, amocarzine, mebendazole and flubendazole were judged to bind best. For these best docked compounds, structural and electronic properties were calculated through density functional theory studies. The results emphasize that these compounds could be potential lead compounds that can be further developed into nematicidal chemical against B. xylophilus. However, further studies are required to ascertain the nematicidal activity of these compounds against phytophagous nematode. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Interaction between Different Pharmaceutical Excipients in Liquid Dosage Forms—Assessment of Cytotoxicity and Antimicrobial Activity
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1827; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071827
Received: 25 June 2018 / Revised: 12 July 2018 / Accepted: 19 July 2018 / Published: 23 July 2018
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Abstract
Nowadays, the safety of parabens as pharmaceutical preservatives is debated. Recent studies investigated their interference with the oestrogen receptors, nevertheless their carcinogenic activity was also proved. That was the reason why the re-evaluation of the biocompatibility and antimicrobial activity of parabens is required
[...] Read more.
Nowadays, the safety of parabens as pharmaceutical preservatives is debated. Recent studies investigated their interference with the oestrogen receptors, nevertheless their carcinogenic activity was also proved. That was the reason why the re-evaluation of the biocompatibility and antimicrobial activity of parabens is required using modern investigation methods. We aimed to test the cytotoxic, antifungal and antibacterial effect of parabens on Caco-2 cells, C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. Two complex systems (glycerol—Polysorbate 20; ethanol—Capryol PGMC™) were formulated to study—with the MTT-assay and microdilution method, respectively—how other excipients may modify the biocompatibility and antimicrobial effect of parabens. In the case of cytotoxicity, the toxicity of these two systems was highly influenced by co-solvents and surfactants. The fungi and bacteria had significantly different resistance in the formulations and in some cases the excipients could highly modify the effectiveness of parabens both in an agonistic and in a counteractive way. These results indicate that with appropriate selection, non-preservative excipients can contribute to the antimicrobial safety of the products, thus they may decrease the required preservative concentration. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Assessing the Antioxidant Properties of Larrea tridentata Extract as a Potential Molecular Therapy against Oxidative Stress
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1826; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071826
Received: 19 June 2018 / Revised: 13 July 2018 / Accepted: 18 July 2018 / Published: 23 July 2018
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Abstract
Oxidative stress has been linked to neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington’s, Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis diseases. Larrea tridentata (LT) also known as Creosote Bush is an evergreen shrub found in the Chihuahuan desert which has been used medicinally by Native American
[...] Read more.
Oxidative stress has been linked to neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington’s, Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis diseases. Larrea tridentata (LT) also known as Creosote Bush is an evergreen shrub found in the Chihuahuan desert which has been used medicinally by Native American tribes in southwestern North America and the Amerindians of South America. However, studies of the antioxidant capacity of the crude extract of LT towards the discovery of novel molecular therapies bearing antioxidants and drug-like properties are lacking. In this study, we assessed the antioxidant properties of Larrea tridentata, collected specifically from the Chihuahuan desert in the region of El Paso del Norte, TX, USA. LT phytochemicals were obtained from three different extracts (ethanol; ethanol: water (60:40) and water). Then the extracts were evaluated in eight different assays (DPPH, ABTS, superoxide; FRAP activity, nitric oxide, phenolic content, UV visible absorption and cytotoxicity in non-cancerous HS27 cells). The three extracts were not affecting the HS27 cells at concentrations up to 120 µg/mL. Among the three extracts, we found that the mixture of ethanol: water (60:40) LT extract has the most efficient antioxidant properties (IC50 (DPPH at 30 min) = 111.7 ± 3.8 μg/mL; IC50 (ABTS) = 8.49 ± 2.28 μg/mL; IC50 (superoxide) = 0.43 ± 0.17 μg/mL; IC50 (NO) = 230.4 ± 130.4 μg/mL; and the highest phenolic content was estimated to 212.46 ± 7.05 mg GAE/L). In addition, there was a strong correlation between phenolic content and the free-radical scavenging activity assays. HPLC-MS study identified nine compounds from the LT-ethanol: water extract including Justicidin B and Beta peltain have been previously reported as secondary metabolites of Larrea tridentata. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Directed Drug Design and Molecular Therapy)
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Open AccessArticle Delivery of miRNA-Targeted Oligonucleotides in the Rat Striatum by Magnetofection with Neuromag®
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1825; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071825
Received: 19 June 2018 / Revised: 17 July 2018 / Accepted: 21 July 2018 / Published: 23 July 2018
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Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression at posttranscriptional level by triggering RNA interference. In such a sense, aberrant expressions of miRNAs play critical roles in the pathogenesis of many disorders, including Parkinson’s disease (PD). Controlling the level of specific miRNAs in the brain is
[...] Read more.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression at posttranscriptional level by triggering RNA interference. In such a sense, aberrant expressions of miRNAs play critical roles in the pathogenesis of many disorders, including Parkinson’s disease (PD). Controlling the level of specific miRNAs in the brain is thus a promising therapeutic strategy for neuroprotection. A fundamental need for miRNA regulation (either replacing or inhibition) is a carrier capable of delivering oligonucleotides into brain cells. This study aimed to examine a polymeric magnetic particle, Neuromag®, for delivery of synthetic miRNA inhibitors in the rat central nervous system. We injected the miRNA inhibitor complexed with Neuromag® into the lateral ventricles next to the striatum, by stereotaxic surgery. Neuromag efficiently delivered oligonucleotides in the striatum and septum areas, as shown by microscopy imaging of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled oligos in astrocytes and neurons. Transfected oligos showed efficacy concerning miRNA inhibition. Neuromag®-structured miR-134 antimiR (0.36 nmol) caused a significant 0.35 fold decrease of striatal miR-134, as revealed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). In conclusion, the polymeric magnetic particle Neuromag® efficiently delivered functional miRNA inhibitors in brain regions surrounding lateral ventricles, particularly the striatum. This delivery system holds potential as a promising miRNA-based disease-modifying drug and merits further pre-clinical studies using animal models of PD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gene Delivery)
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Open AccessArticle Seasonal Variation and Possible Biosynthetic Pathway of Ginsenosides in Korean Ginseng Panax ginseng Meyer
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1824; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071824
Received: 28 June 2018 / Revised: 18 July 2018 / Accepted: 20 July 2018 / Published: 23 July 2018
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Abstract
Whereas Korean ginseng, Panax ginseng Meyer, is harvested in the fall, the variation of ginsenoside content in field-grown ginseng across seasonal development has never been investigated in Korea. Thus, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) analysis of nine major ginsenosides, including ginsenoside Rg1, Re,
[...] Read more.
Whereas Korean ginseng, Panax ginseng Meyer, is harvested in the fall, the variation of ginsenoside content in field-grown ginseng across seasonal development has never been investigated in Korea. Thus, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) analysis of nine major ginsenosides, including ginsenoside Rg1, Re, Rf, Rg2, Rb1, Rc, Rb2, Rd, and Ro, in the roots of five-year-old P. ginseng cultivated in Bongwha, Korea in 2017 was performed. The total ginsenoside content changed as many as three times throughout the year, ranging from 1.37 ± 0.02 (dry wt %) in January to 4.26 ± 0.03% in May. Total ginsenoside content in the harvest season was 2.49 ± 0.03%. Seasonal variations of panaxadiol-type ginsenosides (PPD) and panaxatriol-type ginsenosides (PPT) were found to be similar, but more PPD was always measured. However, the seasonal variation of oleanolic acid-type ginsenoside, Ro, was different from that of PPD and PPT, and the highest Ro content was observed in May. The ratio of PPD/PPT, as well as other representative ginsenosides, was compared throughout the year. Moreover, the percent composition of certain ginsenosides in both PPD and PPT types was found to be in a complementary relationship each other, which possibly reflected the biosynthetic pathway of the related ginsenosides. This finding would not only provide scientific support for the production and quality control of the value-added ginseng products, but also facilitate the elucidation of the ginsenoside biosynthetic pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products Used as Foods and Food Ingredients)
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Open AccessArticle Quantitative and Chemical Fingerprint Analysis for the Quality Evaluation of Platycodi Radix Collected from Various Regions in China by HPLC Coupled with Chemometrics
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1823; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071823
Received: 7 June 2018 / Revised: 14 July 2018 / Accepted: 16 July 2018 / Published: 23 July 2018
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Abstract
Platycodi Radix (PR) is the root of Platycodon grandiflorum (Jacq.) A. DC., which has been used for a long time in China to treat pulmonary diseases. The present study aimed to evaluate the quality of PR samples collected from 23 regions of 11
[...] Read more.
Platycodi Radix (PR) is the root of Platycodon grandiflorum (Jacq.) A. DC., which has been used for a long time in China to treat pulmonary diseases. The present study aimed to evaluate the quality of PR samples collected from 23 regions of 11 provinces in China. Eight saponins were quantified using HPLC coupled with evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD). The samples with the highest total contents of saponins were from southern China, such as Yunnan, Guangxi, Jiangxi, and Guangzhou. The fingerprint analysis of PR samples was conducted by HPLC-UV method. Nineteen common peaks were selected and the similarity values varied from 0.607 to 0.921. These findings indicated that the saponins contents of PR from different regions varied significantly, with PR samples from southern China having the highest contents of saponins. These comprehensive methods were successful in evaluating the quality of PR samples from northern and southern China, which will serve as a guide for the development of PR as a clinical medication. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Formation of Lignin Nanoparticles by Combining Organosolv Pretreatment of Birch Biomass and Homogenization Processes
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1822; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071822
Received: 27 June 2018 / Revised: 18 July 2018 / Accepted: 20 July 2018 / Published: 23 July 2018
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Abstract
Valorization of lignocellulosic biomass into a biorefinery scheme requires the use of all biomass components; in this, the lignin fraction is often underutilized. Conversion of lignin to nanoparticles is an attractive solution. Here, we investigated the effect of different lignin isolation processes and
[...] Read more.
Valorization of lignocellulosic biomass into a biorefinery scheme requires the use of all biomass components; in this, the lignin fraction is often underutilized. Conversion of lignin to nanoparticles is an attractive solution. Here, we investigated the effect of different lignin isolation processes and a post-treatment homogenization step on particle formation. Lignin was isolated from birch chips by using two organosolv processes, traditional organosolv (OS) and hybrid organosolv-steam explosion (HOS-SE) at various ethanol contents. For post-treatment, lignin was homogenized at 500 bar using different ethanol:water ratios. Isolation of lignin with OS resulted in unshaped lignin particles, whereas after HOS-SE, lignin micro-particles were formed directly. Addition of an acidic catalyst during HOS-SE had a negative impact on the particle formation, and the optimal ethanol content was 50–60% v/v. Homogenization had a positive effect as it transformed initially unshaped lignin into spherical nanoparticles and reduced the size of the micro-particles isolated by HOS-SE. Ethanol content during homogenization affected the size of the particles, with the optimal results obtained at 75% v/v. We demonstrate that organosolv lignin can be used as an excellent starting material for nanoparticle preparation, with a simple method without the need for extensive chemical modification. It was also demonstrated that tuning of the operational parameters results in nanoparticles of smaller size and with better size homogeneity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lignin for Energy, Chemicals and Materials)
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Open AccessArticle A Novel AgNPs/Sericin/Agar Film with Enhanced Mechanical Property and Antibacterial Capability
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1821; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071821
Received: 17 June 2018 / Revised: 5 July 2018 / Accepted: 11 July 2018 / Published: 23 July 2018
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Abstract
Silk sericin is a protein from a silkworm’s cocoon. It has good biocompatibility, hydrophilicity, bioactivity, and biodegradability. However, sericin could not be used in biomedical materials directly because of its frangible characteristic. To develop multifunctional sericin-based materials for biomedical purposes, we prepared a
[...] Read more.
Silk sericin is a protein from a silkworm’s cocoon. It has good biocompatibility, hydrophilicity, bioactivity, and biodegradability. However, sericin could not be used in biomedical materials directly because of its frangible characteristic. To develop multifunctional sericin-based materials for biomedical purposes, we prepared a sericin/agar (SS/agar) composite film through the blending of sericin and agar and repetitive freeze-thawing. Then, we synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in situ on the surface of the composite film to endow it with antibacterial activity. Water contact angle, swelling and losing ratio, and mechanical properties analysis indicated that the composite film had excellent mechanical property, hydrophilicity, hygroscopicity, and stability. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis confirmed the successful modification of AgNPs on the composite film. X-ray powder diffraction showed the face-centered cubic structures of the AgNPs. This AgNPs modified composite film exhibited an excellent antibacterial capability against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Our study develops a novel AgNPs/sericin/agar composite film with enhanced mechanical performance and an antimicrobial property for potential biomedical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanocomposites of Polymers and Inorganic Particles)
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Open AccessArticle Theoretical Prediction of the Complex P-Glycoprotein Substrate Efflux Based on the Novel Hierarchical Support Vector Regression Scheme
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1820; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071820
Received: 7 July 2018 / Revised: 19 July 2018 / Accepted: 20 July 2018 / Published: 22 July 2018
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Abstract
P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a membrane-bound transporter, can eliminate xenobiotics by transporting them out of the cells or blood–brain barrier (BBB) at the expense of ATP hydrolysis. Thus, P-gp mediated efflux plays a pivotal role in altering the absorption and disposition of a wide range
[...] Read more.
P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a membrane-bound transporter, can eliminate xenobiotics by transporting them out of the cells or blood–brain barrier (BBB) at the expense of ATP hydrolysis. Thus, P-gp mediated efflux plays a pivotal role in altering the absorption and disposition of a wide range of substrates. Nevertheless, the mechanism of P-gp substrate efflux is rather complex since it can take place through active transport and passive permeability in addition to multiple P-gp substrate binding sites. A nonlinear quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) model was developed in this study using the novel machine learning-based hierarchical support vector regression (HSVR) scheme to explore the perplexing relationships between descriptors and efflux ratio. The predictions by HSVR were found to be in good agreement with the observed values for the molecules in the training set (n = 50, r2 = 0.96, qCV2 = 0.94, RMSE = 0.10, s = 0.10) and test set (n = 13, q2 = 0.80–0.87, RMSE = 0.21, s = 0.22). When subjected to a variety of statistical validations, the developed HSVR model consistently met the most stringent criteria. A mock test also asserted the predictivity of HSVR. Consequently, this HSVR model can be adopted to facilitate drug discovery and development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Computing and Bioinformatics)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Melatonin in Heart Failure: A Promising Therapeutic Strategy?
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1819; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071819
Received: 30 June 2018 / Revised: 16 July 2018 / Accepted: 17 July 2018 / Published: 22 July 2018
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Abstract
Heart failure is a multifactorial clinical syndrome characterized by the inability of the heart to pump sufficient blood to the body. Despite recent advances in medical management, poor outcomes in patients with heart failure remain very high. This highlights a need for novel
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Heart failure is a multifactorial clinical syndrome characterized by the inability of the heart to pump sufficient blood to the body. Despite recent advances in medical management, poor outcomes in patients with heart failure remain very high. This highlights a need for novel paradigms for effective, preventive and curative strategies. Substantial evidence supports the importance of endogenous melatonin in cardiovascular health and the benefits of melatonin supplementation in various cardiac pathologies and cardiometabolic disorders. Melatonin plays a crucial role in major pathological processes associated with heart failure including ischemic injury, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and cardiac remodeling. In this review, available evidence for the role of melatonin in heart failure is discussed. Current challenges and possible limitations of using melatonin in heart failure are also addressed. While few clinical studies have investigated the role of melatonin in the context of heart failure, current findings from experimental studies support the potential use of melatonin as preventive and adjunctive curative therapy in heart failure. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial Special Issue: Kinase inhibitors
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1818; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071818
Received: 16 July 2018 / Accepted: 16 July 2018 / Published: 22 July 2018
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(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinase Inhibitors)
Open AccessArticle Insights into Tissue-specific Specialized Metabolism in Tieguanyin Tea Cultivar by Untargeted Metabolomics
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1817; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071817
Received: 3 July 2018 / Revised: 18 July 2018 / Accepted: 19 July 2018 / Published: 21 July 2018
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Abstract
Tea plants produce extremely diverse and abundant specialized metabolites, the types and levels of which are developmentally and environmentally regulated. However, little is known about how developmental cues affect the synthesis of many of these molecules. In this study, we conducted a comparative
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Tea plants produce extremely diverse and abundant specialized metabolites, the types and levels of which are developmentally and environmentally regulated. However, little is known about how developmental cues affect the synthesis of many of these molecules. In this study, we conducted a comparative profiling of specialized metabolites from six different tissues in a premium oolong tea cultivar, Tieguanyin, which is gaining worldwide popularity due to its uniquely rich flavors and health benefits. UPLC-QTOF MS combined with multivariate analyses tentatively identified 68 metabolites belonging to 11 metabolite classes, which exhibited sharp variations among tissues. Several metabolite classes, such as flavonoids, alkaloids, and hydroxycinnamic acid amides were detected predominantly in certain plant tissues. In particular, tricoumaroyl spermidine and dicoumaroyl putrescine were discovered as unique tea flower metabolites. This study offers novel insights into tissue-specific specialized metabolism in Tieguanyin, which provides a good reference point to explore gene-metabolite relationships in this cultivar. Full article
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Open AccessArticle New Azaphilones from Nigrospora oryzae Co-Cultured with Beauveria bassiana
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1816; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071816
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 17 July 2018 / Accepted: 18 July 2018 / Published: 21 July 2018
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Abstract
In this study, the co-culture of Nigrospora oryzae and Beauveria bassiana, the endophytes in the seeds of Dendrobium officinale, were examined for metabolite diversity. Five new azaphilones were isolated, and their structures were determined by spectral analysis. In terms of azaphilones,
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In this study, the co-culture of Nigrospora oryzae and Beauveria bassiana, the endophytes in the seeds of Dendrobium officinale, were examined for metabolite diversity. Five new azaphilones were isolated, and their structures were determined by spectral analysis. In terms of azaphilones, compound 2 had an unprecedented skeleton, with a bicyclic oxygen bridge. The antifungal selectivities of the metabolite produced by N. oryzae against its co-culture fungus, B. bassiana, and common pathogens exhibited competitive interaction in this mix-culture. Compounds 1 and 2 showed obvious nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory activity with ratios of 37%, and 39%, respectively, at a concentration of 50 μM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Correlation Analysis of Phenolic Contents and Antioxidation in Yellow- and Black-Seeded Brassica napus
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1815; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071815
Received: 8 July 2018 / Revised: 18 July 2018 / Accepted: 18 July 2018 / Published: 21 July 2018
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Abstract
Brassica napus L. is rich in phenolic components and it has natural antioxidant characteristics which are important to human health. In the present study, the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of developing seeds of yellow- and black-seeded B. napus were compared. Both phenolic
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Brassica napus L. is rich in phenolic components and it has natural antioxidant characteristics which are important to human health. In the present study, the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of developing seeds of yellow- and black-seeded B. napus were compared. Both phenolic and flavonoid contents were significantly higher at 5 weeks after flowering (WAF) in black seeds (6.44 ± 0.97 mg EE/g phenolics and 3.78 ± 0.05 mg EE/g flavonoids) than yellow seeds (2.80 ± 0.13 mg/g phenolics and 0.83 ± 0.01 mg/g flavonoids). HPLC–DAD–ESI/MS analysis revealed different content of 56 phenolic components between yellow and black-seeded B. napus, including kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-sophoroside, procyanidin B2 ([DP 2]), which were significantly reduced in yellow seeds compared with black seeds. Applying the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical assay, we found maximum clearance of DPPH and ABTS in the late developmental stages of yellow and black seeds. Additionally, the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) value maximized at 5 WAF in black seeds (432.52 ± 69.98 μmol Fe (II)/g DW) and 6 WAF in yellow seeds (274.08 ± 2.40 μmol Fe (II)/g DW). Generally, antioxidant ability was significantly reduced in yellow-seeded B. napus compared to black rapeseed, and positive correlations between antioxidation and flavonoid content were found in both yellow- and black-seeded B. napus. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Use of Juçara (Euterpe edulis Mart.) Supplementation for Suppression of NF-κB Pathway in the Hypothalamus after High-Fat Diet in Wistar Rats
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1814; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071814
Received: 12 June 2018 / Revised: 17 July 2018 / Accepted: 18 July 2018 / Published: 21 July 2018
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Abstract
Obesity is associated with modern diets that are rich in saturated fatty acids. These dietary patterns are linked to low-grade proinflammatory mechanisms, such as the toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) pathway rapidly activated through high-fat diets. Juçara is a berry rich in
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Obesity is associated with modern diets that are rich in saturated fatty acids. These dietary patterns are linked to low-grade proinflammatory mechanisms, such as the toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) pathway rapidly activated through high-fat diets. Juçara is a berry rich in anthocyanins and unsaturated fatty acids, which prevents obesity and associated comorbidities. We evaluated the effect of different doses of freeze-dried juçara pulp on NF-κB pathway after the consumption of short-term high-fat diet. Male Wistar rats with ad libitum access to food and water were divided into four groups: Control diet (C), high-fat diet (HFC), high-fat diet with 0.25% juçara (HFJ 0.25%), and high-fat diet with 0.5% juçara (HFJ 0.5%). Energy intake and body weight gain were increased in HFC and HFJ 0.5% groups compared to C group. The hypothalamus weight reduced in the HFC group compared to C and HFJ 0.25% groups. Cytokines, MYD88, TRAF6, and pNF-κBp50 levels in the hypothalamus, serum triacylglycerol, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), and free fatty acid levels were improved in the HFJ 0.25% group. In summary, the HFJ 0.25% group had better protective effects than those in the HFJ 0.5%. Therefore, 0.25% juçara can be used to protect against central inflammation through the high-fat diet-induced NF-κB pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polyphenols and Health)
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Open AccessArticle Phytochemical Analysis of Podospermum and Scorzonera n-Hexane Extracts and the HPLC Quantitation of Triterpenes
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1813; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071813
Received: 22 May 2018 / Revised: 14 July 2018 / Accepted: 16 July 2018 / Published: 21 July 2018
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Abstract
Previously tested n-hexane extracts of the Scorzonera latifolia showed promising bioactivity in vivo. Because triterpenes could account for this activity, n-hexane extracts were analyzed by HPLC to identify and quantify the triterpenes as the most abundant constituents. Other Scorzonera and Podospermum
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Previously tested n-hexane extracts of the Scorzonera latifolia showed promising bioactivity in vivo. Because triterpenes could account for this activity, n-hexane extracts were analyzed by HPLC to identify and quantify the triterpenes as the most abundant constituents. Other Scorzonera and Podospermum species, potentially containing triterpenic aglycones, were included in the study. An HPLC method for simultaneous determination of triterpene aglycones was therefore developed for analysis of Podospermum and Scorzonera species. n-Hexane extracts of root and aerial parts of S. latifolia, ten other Scorzonera species and two Podospermum species were studied to compare the content of triterpenes. HPLC was used for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of α-amyrin, lupeol, lupeol acetate, taraxasteryl acetate, 3-β-hydroxy-fern-7-en-6-one acetate, urs-12-en-11-one-3-acetyl, 3-β-hydroxy-fern-8-en-7-one acetate, and olean-12-en-11-one-3-acetyl. Limits of detection and quantification were determined for each compound. HPLC fingerprinting of n-hexane extracts of Podospermum and Scorzonera species revealed relatively large amounts of triterpenes in a majority of investigated taxa. Lupeol, lupeol acetate, and taraxasteryl acetate were found in a majority of the species, except S. acuminata. The presence of α-amyrin, 3β-hydroxy-fern-7-en-6-one-acetate, urs-12-en-11-one-3-acetyl, 3β-hydroxy-fern-8-en-7-one-acetate, and olean-12-en-11-one-3-acetyl was detected in varying amounts. The triterpene content could correlate with the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Scorzonera, which was previously observed and Scorzonera species that have been determined to contain triterpenes in large amounts and have not yet been tested for their analgesic activity should be tested for their potential analgesic and anti-inflammatory potential. The presented HPLC method can be used for analysis of triterpene aglycones, for example dedicated to chemosystematic studies of the Scorzonerinae. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Bioactive Natural Products)
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Open AccessArticle Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, and Postulated Cytotoxic Activity of Phenolic and Anthocyanin-Rich Fractions from Polana Raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) Fruit and Juice—In Vitro Study
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1812; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071812
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 16 July 2018 / Accepted: 17 July 2018 / Published: 21 July 2018
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Abstract
In this study, the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory potential of crude extracts (CE), anthocyanin-rich fractions (ARF), and phenolic fractions (PF) from raspberry (R) and raspberry juice (J) were evaluated. The antioxidant properties were evaluated with three complementary assays: DPPH radical scavenging activity, chelating Fe(II)
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In this study, the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory potential of crude extracts (CE), anthocyanin-rich fractions (ARF), and phenolic fractions (PF) from raspberry (R) and raspberry juice (J) were evaluated. The antioxidant properties were evaluated with three complementary assays: DPPH radical scavenging activity, chelating Fe(II) power, and ferric reducing power. The highest antioxidant activity was determined for the crude extract from raspberry pulp (RCE) in the case of all methods used. The anti-inflammatory activity was demonstrated by inhibitory effect on lipoxygenase (LOX) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity in vitro. The highest efficiency in inhibiting the activity of both enzymes was exhibited by RCE, 0.79 and 0.59 mg FW/mL, respectively. In turn, JARF had the lowest ability to inhibit LOX (EC50 = 4.5 mg FW/mL) and JPF caused the lowest COX-2 inhibition (1.75 mg FW/mL). Additionally, we have performed a pilot study of in vitro cytotoxic activity using two human leukemia cell lines: J45 and HL60. All examined extracts inhibited the viability of J45 cells more effectively than HL60. The highest cytotoxic effect was observed in the J45.01 cell line after exposure to RCE (EC50 = 0.0375 mg FW/mL). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle HPTLC Fingerprinting—Rapid Method for the Differentiation of Honeys of Different Botanical Origin Based on the Composition of the Lipophilic Fractions
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1811; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071811
Received: 16 June 2018 / Revised: 16 July 2018 / Accepted: 20 July 2018 / Published: 21 July 2018
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Abstract
Bee honey possess various nutritional and medicinal functions, which are the result of its diverse chemical composition. The numerous bioactive compounds in honey come from flower nectar; thus, the identification of the specific chemical profiles of honey samples is of great importance. The
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Bee honey possess various nutritional and medicinal functions, which are the result of its diverse chemical composition. The numerous bioactive compounds in honey come from flower nectar; thus, the identification of the specific chemical profiles of honey samples is of great importance. The lipophilic compounds from eight monofloral honeys (rape, buckwheat, clover, willow, milk thistle, dandelion, raspberry and sweet yellow clover) were investigated. Analyses of the lipophilic fractions obtained by UAE (ultrasound assisted extraction) and SPE (solid phase extraction) extractions were performed using high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). Chromatographic and cluster analyses allowed the identification of a unique, colorful pattern of separated compounds with specific Rf values on the HPTLC plate for each type of monofloral honey. HPTLC is a simple and effective visual method of analysis, and it can serve as a basis for authenticating different types of honey. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Studies of Food and Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle Antioxidation and Melanogenesis Inhibition of Various Dendrobium tosaense Extracts
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1810; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071810
Received: 3 June 2018 / Revised: 17 July 2018 / Accepted: 18 July 2018 / Published: 21 July 2018
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Abstract
This study investigated the polyphenol content, antioxidant activity, and inhibition ability of mushroom tyrosinase and melanogenesis of Dendrobium tosaense (DT) extract. Ground DT was extracted using deionized water (W) or 50% ethanol (50E) at room temperature (RT) or 50 °C (50T) for 20
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This study investigated the polyphenol content, antioxidant activity, and inhibition ability of mushroom tyrosinase and melanogenesis of Dendrobium tosaense (DT) extract. Ground DT was extracted using deionized water (W) or 50% ethanol (50E) at room temperature (RT) or 50 °C (50T) for 20 min. The 50T + 50E extract exhibited the highest total phenol content 47.0 ± 4.0 mg gallic acid equivalent/g DT extract, the highest level of 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) free-radical scavenging 66.0 ± 3.0 mg Trolox equivalent/g DT extract, and the highest reducing power 12.00 ± 0.50 mg vitamin C equivalent/g DT extract. The RT + W extract had the highest total flavonoid content 110.0 ± 3.0 mg quercetin equivalent/g DT extract. The RT + 50E extract had the lowest half maximal inhibitory concentration 1.30 ± 0.00 mg/mL for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free-radical scavenging, and the lowest half maximal inhibitory concentration 6.40 ± 0.30 mg/mL for mushroom tyrosinase inhibition activity. DT extracts, especially RT + W and 50T + W, exhibited potent inhibitory effects on melanogenesis of B16/F10 cells. These results demonstrated the application potential of DT extract for skincare. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants Chemistry and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis of a Reactive Oxygen Species-Responsive Doxorubicin Derivative
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1809; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071809
Received: 28 May 2018 / Revised: 16 July 2018 / Accepted: 18 July 2018 / Published: 21 July 2018
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Abstract
A heterobifunctional reactive oxygen species (ROS)-responsive linker for directed drug assembly onto and delivery from a quantum dot (QD) nanoparticle carrier was synthesized and coupled to doxorubicin using N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N′-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC)/sulfo–NHS coupling. The doxorubicin conjugate was characterized using 1H
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A heterobifunctional reactive oxygen species (ROS)-responsive linker for directed drug assembly onto and delivery from a quantum dot (QD) nanoparticle carrier was synthesized and coupled to doxorubicin using N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N′-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC)/sulfo–NHS coupling. The doxorubicin conjugate was characterized using 1H NMR and LC-MS and subsequently reacted under conditions of ROS formation (Cu2+/H2O2) resulting in successful and rapid thioacetal oxidative cleavage, which was monitored using 1H NMR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle A UPLC-ESI-MS/MS Method for Simultaneous Quantitation of Chlorogenic Acid, Scutellarin, and Scutellarein in Rat Plasma: Application to a Comparative Pharmacokinetic Study in Sham-Operated and MCAO Rats after Oral Administration of Erigeron breviscapus Extract
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1808; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071808
Received: 25 June 2018 / Revised: 14 July 2018 / Accepted: 17 July 2018 / Published: 21 July 2018
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Abstract
Erigeron breviscapus, a traditional Chinese medicine, is clinically used for the treatment of occlusive cerebral vascular diseases. We developed a sensitive and reliable ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method for simultaneous quantitation of chlorogenic acid, scutellarin, and scutellarein, the main active
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Erigeron breviscapus, a traditional Chinese medicine, is clinically used for the treatment of occlusive cerebral vascular diseases. We developed a sensitive and reliable ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method for simultaneous quantitation of chlorogenic acid, scutellarin, and scutellarein, the main active constituents in Erigeron breviscapus, and compared the pharmacokinetics of these active ingredients in sham-operated and middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rats orally administrated with Erigeron breviscapus extract. Plasma samples were collected at 15 time points after oral administration of the Erigeron breviscapus extract. The levels of chlorogenic acid, scutellarin, and scutellarein in rat plasma at various time points were determined by a UPLC-ESI-MS/MS method, and the drug concentration versus time plots were constructed to estimate pharmacokinetic parameters. The concentration of chlorogenic acid in the plasma reached the maximum plasma drug concentration in about 15 min and was below the limit of detection after 4 h. Scutellarin and scutellarein showed the phenomenon of multiple absorption peaks in sham-operated and MCAO rats, respectively. Compared with the sham-operated rats, the terminal elimination half-life of scutellarein in the MCAO rats was prolonged by more than two times and the area under the curve of each component in the MCAO rats was significantly increased. The results showed chlorogenic acid, scutellarin, and scutellarein in MCAO rats had higher drug exposure than that in sham-operated rats, which provided a reference for the development of innovative drugs, optimal dosing regimens, and clinical rational drug use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Bioactive Natural Products)
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Open AccessArticle Identification and Growth Inhibitory Activity of the Chemical Constituents from Imperata Cylindrica Aerial Part Ethyl Acetate Extract
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1807; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071807
Received: 27 June 2018 / Revised: 16 July 2018 / Accepted: 16 July 2018 / Published: 21 July 2018
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Abstract
Imperata cylindrica (L.) Raeusch. (IMP) aerial part ethyl acetate extract has anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, and pro-oxidative effects towards colorectal cancer in vitro. The chemical constituents of IMP aerial part ethyl acetate extract were isolated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and identified with tandem mass
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Imperata cylindrica (L.) Raeusch. (IMP) aerial part ethyl acetate extract has anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, and pro-oxidative effects towards colorectal cancer in vitro. The chemical constituents of IMP aerial part ethyl acetate extract were isolated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and identified with tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) in combination with ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry and 400 MHz NMR. The growth inhibitory effects of each identified component on BT-549 (breast) and HT-29 (colon) cancer cell lines were evaluated after 48/72 h treatment by MTT assay. Four isolated compounds were identified as trans-p-Coumaric acid (1); 2-Methoxyestrone (2); 11, 16-Dihydroxypregn-4-ene-3, 20-dione (3); and Tricin (4). Compounds (2), (3), and (4) exhibited considerable growth inhibitory activities against BT-549 and HT-29 cancer cell lines. Compounds (2), (3), and (4) are potential candidates for novel anti-cancer agents against breast and colorectal cancers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products and Drug Discovery)
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Open AccessArticle Linking Temperature, Cation Concentration and Water Activity for the B to Z Conformational Transition in DNA
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1806; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071806
Received: 18 June 2018 / Revised: 18 July 2018 / Accepted: 19 July 2018 / Published: 21 July 2018
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Abstract
High concentrations of Na+ or [Co(NH3)6]3+ can induce the B to Z conformational transition in alternating (dC-dG) oligo and polynucleotides. The use of short DNA oligomers (dC-dG)4 and (dm5C-dG)4 as models can allow
[...] Read more.
High concentrations of Na+ or [Co(NH3)6]3+ can induce the B to Z conformational transition in alternating (dC-dG) oligo and polynucleotides. The use of short DNA oligomers (dC-dG)4 and (dm5C-dG)4 as models can allow a thermodynamic characterization of the transition. Both form right handed double helical structures (B-DNA) in standard phosphate buffer with 115 mM Na+ at 25 °C. However, at 2.0 M Na+ or 200 μM [Co(NH3)6]3+, (dm5C-dG)4 assumes a left handed double helical structure (Z-DNA) while the unmethylated (dC-dG)4 analogue remains right handed under those conditions. We have previously demonstrated that the enthalpy of the transition at 25 °C for either inducer can be determined using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Here, ITC is used to investigate the linkages between temperature, water activity and DNA conformation. We found that the determined enthalpy for each titration varied linearly with temperature allowing determination of the heat capacity change (ΔCp) between the initial and final states. As expected, the ΔCp values were dependent upon the cation (i.e., Na+ vs. [Co(NH3)6]3+) as well as the sequence of the DNA oligomer (i.e., methylated vs. unmethylated). Osmotic stress experiments were carried out to determine the gain or loss of water by the oligomer induced by the titration. The results are discussed in terms of solvent accessible surface areas, electrostatic interactions and the role of water. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection New Frontiers in Nucleic Acid Chemistry)
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