molecules-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Natural Products Used as Foods and Food Ingredients"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Products Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2019.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Mingfu Wang
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong
Interests: functional foods; traditional chinese herbal medicines; natural products; disease prevention; food chemistry and toxicology; maillard reaction; enzymatic browning and cosmetic chemistry
Prof. Dr. Yueliang Zhao
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Food Science and Technology, Shanghai Ocean University, No.999 Hu-Cheng-Huan Road, Shanghai 201306, China
Interests: functional foods and nutraceuticals; natural products and cancer; food chemistry and toxicology; agro-food quality control

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Natural products are a rich source of biologically/pharmacologically-active compounds. Natural products have been used as food ingredients/additives to improve food quality, inhibit the formation of toxic compounds such as heterocyclic amines, acrylamide, AGEs, etc., and for their purported medical benefits. Their incorporation in foods may also raise some issues related to food safety and their health benefits. Under food processing, they may go through thermal degradation, be metabolized and turned into novel compounds during fermentation, and participate into complex reactions in food systems, such as maillard reaction, lipid peroxidation, and caramelization reaction subsequently inducing different toxicological/beneficial effects from what we are expecting.

This Special Issue on “Natural Products Used as Foods and Food Ingredients” welcomes original research and reviews on: (1) The safety and regulation of natural products used as foods and food ingredients as “poison is in everything, and nothing is without poison. The dosage makes it either a poison or a remedy”. (2) The inhibitory effects and mechanisms of natural products on food toxic compounds formation during food storage/processing. (3) The benefical effects of natural products, such as improvement of food quality and prevention of cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, cancers, etc. (4) The chemical and bioactivity change of nature products during food processing. (5) The release of natural products under different types of food processing.

Prof. Dr. Mingfu Wang
Prof. Dr. Yueliang Zhao

Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Natural products
  • Dietary supplements
  • Food ingredients
  • Safety and regulation
  • Food quality control
  • Health benefits
  • Chemical and bioactivity change
  • Release of nature products
  • Food processing.

Published Papers (32 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle
ε-Polylysine Inhibits Shewanella putrefaciens with Membrane Disruption and Cell Damage
Molecules 2019, 24(20), 3727; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24203727 - 16 Oct 2019
Abstract
ε-Polylysine (ε-PL) was studied for the growth inhibition of Shewanella putrefaciens (S. putrefaciens). The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ε-PL against S. putrefaciens was measured by the broth dilution method, while the membrane permeability and metabolism of S. putrefaciens were assessed [...] Read more.
ε-Polylysine (ε-PL) was studied for the growth inhibition of Shewanella putrefaciens (S. putrefaciens). The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ε-PL against S. putrefaciens was measured by the broth dilution method, while the membrane permeability and metabolism of S. putrefaciens were assessed after ε-PL treatment. Additionally, growth curves, the content of alkaline phosphatase (AKP), the electrical conductivity (EC), the UV absorbance and scanning electron microscope (SEM) data were used to study cellular morphology. The impact of ε-PL on cell metabolism was also investigated by different methods, such as enzyme activity (peroxidase [POD], catalase [CAT], succinodehydrogenase [SDH] and malic dehydrogenase [MDH]) and cell metabolic activity. The results showed that the MIC of ε-PL against S. putrefaciens was 1.0 mg/mL. When S. putrefaciens was treated with ε-PL, the growth of the bacteria was inhibited and the AKP content, electrical conductivity and UV absorbance were increased, which demonstrated that ε-PL could damage the cell structure. The enzyme activities of POD, CAT, SDH, and MDH in the bacterial solution with ε-PL were decreased compared to those in the ordinary bacterial solution. As the concentration of ε-PL was increased, the enzyme activity decreased further. The respiratory activity of S. putrefaciens was also inhibited by ε-PL. The results suggest that ε-PL acts on the cell membrane of S. putrefaciens, thereby increasing membrane permeability and inhibiting enzyme activity in relation to respiratory metabolism and cell metabolism. This leads to inhibition of cell growth, and eventually cell death. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products Used as Foods and Food Ingredients)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Physicochemical Changes of Air-Dried and Salt-Processed Ulva rigida over Storage Time
Molecules 2019, 24(16), 2955; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24162955 - 15 Aug 2019
Abstract
The impact of air-drying at 25 °C, brining at 25%, and dry-salting (at 28% and 40%) on the quality and nutritional parameters of Ulva rigida were evaluated over six months of storage. Overall, the main changes occurred in physical aspects during storage time, [...] Read more.
The impact of air-drying at 25 °C, brining at 25%, and dry-salting (at 28% and 40%) on the quality and nutritional parameters of Ulva rigida were evaluated over six months of storage. Overall, the main changes occurred in physical aspects during storage time, with U. rigida intensifying its yellow/browning tones, which were more evident in salt-treated samples. The force necessary to fracture the seaweed also increased under all the preservative conditions in the first month. Conversely, the nutritional parameters of U. rigida remained stable during the 180 days of storage. All processed samples showed a high content of insoluble and soluble fibers, overall accounting for 55%–57% dw, and of proteins (17.5%–19.2% dw), together with significant amounts of Fe (86–92 mg/kg dw). The total fatty acids pool only accounted for 3.9%–4.3% dw, but it was rich in unsaturated fatty acids (44%–49% total fatty acids), namely palmitoleic (C16:1), oleic (C18:1), linoleic (C18:2), linolenic (C18:3), and stearidonic (18:4) acids, with an overall omega 6/omega 3 ratio below 0.6, a fact that highlights their potential health-promoting properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products Used as Foods and Food Ingredients)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Resveratrol Maintains Lipid Metabolism Homeostasis via One of the Mechanisms Associated with the Key Circadian Regulator Bmal1
Molecules 2019, 24(16), 2916; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24162916 - 12 Aug 2019
Abstract
Resveratrol (RES) possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities, and it can prevent liver lipid metabolism disorders in obese and diabetic individuals. This study elucidated the mechanisms of brain and muscle Arnt-like protein-1 (Bmal1) in the protective effects of RES against liver lipid metabolism disorders. [...] Read more.
Resveratrol (RES) possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities, and it can prevent liver lipid metabolism disorders in obese and diabetic individuals. This study elucidated the mechanisms of brain and muscle Arnt-like protein-1 (Bmal1) in the protective effects of RES against liver lipid metabolism disorders. The results indicated that RES ameliorated free fatty acid (FFA)-induced (oleic acid (OA): palmitic acid (PA) = 2:1) glycolipid metabolic disorders in hepatocytes. Simultaneously, RES partially reverted the relatively shallow daily oscillations of FFA-induced circadian clock gene transcription and protein expression in HepG2 cells. RES also attenuated FFA-triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) secretion and restored mitochondrial membrane potential consumption, as well as the restoration of mitochondrial respiratory complex expression. This study provides compelling evidence that RES controls intracellular lipid metabolic imbalance in a Bmal1-dependent manner. Overall, RES may serve as a promising natural nutraceutical for the regulation of lipid metabolic disorders relevant to the circadian clock. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products Used as Foods and Food Ingredients)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Ultrasonic Degradation of Konjac Glucomannan and the Effect of Freezing Combined with Alkali Treatment on Their Rheological Profiles
Molecules 2019, 24(10), 1860; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24101860 - 14 May 2019
Abstract
The effect of freezing combined with alkali treatment on physicochemical property of konjac glucomannan (KGM) with different molecular weight was investigated in this work. The properties and structure of degraded KGM was characterized by means of intrinsic viscosity measurement, atomic force microscope (AFM) [...] Read more.
The effect of freezing combined with alkali treatment on physicochemical property of konjac glucomannan (KGM) with different molecular weight was investigated in this work. The properties and structure of degraded KGM was characterized by means of intrinsic viscosity measurement, atomic force microscope (AFM) and Fourier transformation infrared (FT-IR). The results suggested that the intrinsic viscosity of KGM solution gradually decreased during the ultrasonic treatment. The AFM observation indicated that KGM with lower viscosity average molecular weight had smaller height and lateral diameter of molecules. The main repeating units of the KGM chain could not be destroyed no matter how long the KGM was sonicated. Rheometrical studies revealed that with increasing alkali concentration from 0% to 0.36%, both viscosities and shear stress of deacetylated konjac glucomannan (Da-KGM) system were increased and moduli G′ were substantially higher in either freezing or unfreezing samples. Da-KGM system performed a solid-like behavior (G′ > G′′) along the frequency range after freezing treatment. With increasing sonication time, both viscosity and shear stress of unfreezing samples were decreased while had an inverse effect for freezing treated samples. The modulus G′ and G′′ declined for unfreezing samples but rise significantly for freezing treated samples with increase of sonication time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products Used as Foods and Food Ingredients)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Study on the Emulsifying Properties of Pomegranate Peel Pectin from Different Cultivation Areas
Molecules 2019, 24(9), 1819; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24091819 - 10 May 2019
Abstract
Pomegranate peel pectin is an important acidic anionic plant polysaccharide which can be used as a natural emulsifier. In order to study its emulsifying properties, this paper systematically analyses pomegranate peel pectin samples from Chinese Xinjiang, Sichuan and Yunnan provinces, through rheometer, interfacial [...] Read more.
Pomegranate peel pectin is an important acidic anionic plant polysaccharide which can be used as a natural emulsifier. In order to study its emulsifying properties, this paper systematically analyses pomegranate peel pectin samples from Chinese Xinjiang, Sichuan and Yunnan provinces, through rheometer, interfacial rheometer, Zetasizer Nano-ZS and mastersizer. It is shown that pomegranate peel pectin can effectively reduce the oil-water interfacial tension, reaching an emulsion droplet size of only 0.507 μm, 0.669 μm and 0.569 μm, respectively, while the pectin concentration is 1.5% and the oil phase (MCT) is 10%. It has also shown that the extreme conditions of pH and ion strength can not significantly change its emulsion stability. However, freeze-thaw cycles can cause the pomegranate peel pectin emulsion to become less stable. Furthermore, the effects of decolourization, protein removal and dialysis on the emulsifying properties of pomegranate peel pectin are investigated using mastersizer rheometer and interfacial rheometer. It is found that the protein and pigment in pomegranate peel pectin have little effect on its emulsifying properties, while the results from dialyzed pectin show that the small molecule substances can reduce the emulsion particle size and increase the emulsion stability. The research outcomes of this study provide technical support for the further application of pomegranate peel pectin in the food industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products Used as Foods and Food Ingredients)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Extraction of Proanthocyanidins from Chinese Wild Rice (Zizania latifolia) and Analyses of Structural Composition and Potential Bioactivities of Different Fractions
Molecules 2019, 24(9), 1681; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24091681 - 30 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Due to the importance of proanthocyanidin bioactivity and its relationship with chemical structure, ultrasound-assisted extraction and purification schemes were proposed to evaluate the proanthocyanidin content and analyze the structural composition and potential bioactivities of different proanthocyanidin fractions from Chinese wild rice (Zizania [...] Read more.
Due to the importance of proanthocyanidin bioactivity and its relationship with chemical structure, ultrasound-assisted extraction and purification schemes were proposed to evaluate the proanthocyanidin content and analyze the structural composition and potential bioactivities of different proanthocyanidin fractions from Chinese wild rice (Zizania latifolia). Following an optimized extraction procedure, the crude wild rice proanthocyanidins (WRPs) were purified using n-butanol extraction, chromatography on macroporous resins, and further fractionation on Sephadex LH-20 to yield six specific fractions (WRPs-1–WRPs-6) containing proanthocyanidin levels exceeding 524.19 ± 3.56 mg/g extract. Structurally, (+)-catechin, (−)-epicatechin, and (−)-epigallocatechin were present as both terminal and extension units, and (−)-epicatechin was the major extension unit, in each fraction. This is the first preparation of WRP fractions with a different mean degree of polymerization (mDP), ranging from 2.66 ± 0.04 to 10.30 ± 0.46. A comparison of the bioactivities of these fractions revealed that fractions WRPs-1−WRPs-5 had significant DPPH radical scavenging activities, whereas fraction WRPs-6 with a high mDP showed better α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase inhibitory effects. These findings should help define possible applications of WRPs to functional foods or nutraceuticals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products Used as Foods and Food Ingredients)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Phytochemical Characterization of Five Edible Purple-Reddish Vegetables: Anthocyanins, Flavonoids, and Phenolic Acid Derivatives
Molecules 2019, 24(8), 1536; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24081536 - 18 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Vegetables comprise a significant portion of our daily diet with their high content in nutrients including fiber, vitamins, minerals, as well as phenolic compounds. Vegetable consumption has been shown to be positively associated with the prevention of several degenerative diseases thanks to their [...] Read more.
Vegetables comprise a significant portion of our daily diet with their high content in nutrients including fiber, vitamins, minerals, as well as phenolic compounds. Vegetable consumption has been shown to be positively associated with the prevention of several degenerative diseases thanks to their bioactive compounds. Accordingly, five selected vegetables, namely, red chicory, red onion, eggplant, purple sweet potato, and black carrot were thoroughly assessed for their phenolic content in this study. For this purpose, the total phenolic and flavonoid content of these five vegetables and their antioxidant activities that are based on three common methods ABTS radical cation decolorization assay (ABTS), Cupric Ion Reducing Antioxidant Capacity (CUPRAC), and DPPH scavenging activity assay were determined. Additionally, HPLC-PDA/Electrospray ionization coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC-PDA/-ESI+-MS)-based identification and quantification of the members belonging to polyphenols present in each vegetable were determined. Statistical correlations between antioxidant activities and the specific type of phenolic compounds, such as anthocyanins, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and phenolic acids were further elucidated. Phenolic acids (chlorogenic and syringic acids) were found to be the most abundant compounds that are present in all samples. Among the anthocyanins, cyaniding derivatives were present in all vegetables. In terms of their antioxidant activities, the analyzed vegetables were ranked as red chicory > purple sweet potato > black carrot > eggplant > red onion, in descending order. Superior antioxidant activities exhibited by red chicory and purple sweet potato were attributed to the high content of phenolic compounds, especially flavonols (quercetin-3,4-O-diglucoside) in red chicory and anthocyanins (peonidin-3-caffeoyl p-hydroxybenzoylsophoroside-5-glucoside) in purple sweet potato. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products Used as Foods and Food Ingredients)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Anti-Fatigue Activity of Aqueous Extracts of Sonchus arvensis L. in Exercise Trained Mice
Molecules 2019, 24(6), 1168; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24061168 - 25 Mar 2019
Abstract
Sonchus arvensis L. is a nutritious vegetable and herbal medicine that is consumed worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-fatigue effects and underlying effects of aqueous extract of Sonchus arvensis L. (SA). Male C57BL/6 mice from four groups designated [...] Read more.
Sonchus arvensis L. is a nutritious vegetable and herbal medicine that is consumed worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-fatigue effects and underlying effects of aqueous extract of Sonchus arvensis L. (SA). Male C57BL/6 mice from four groups designated vehicle, exercise, exercise with low dose (250 mg/kg) or high dose of SA (500 mg/kg), were trained by swimming exercise and orally administrated with SA every other day for 28 days. The anti-fatigue activity was determined by exhaustive swimming test, as well as the muscle structure, levels of blood hemoglobin, and metabolites including lactate and urea nitrogen. SA alleviated mice fatigue behaviors by eliminating metabolites, while improving muscle structure and hemoglobin levels. Moreover, SA enhanced glycogen synthesis of liver but not muscle via increasing GCK and PEPCK gene expressions. Importantly, SA improved antioxidant enzymes expression and activities in both liver and muscle, which was possibly related to its primary components polysaccharides and the antioxidant components including chlorogenic acid, luteolin, and chicoric acid. Taken together, the anti-fatigue effects of SA could be partly explained by its antioxidant activity and mediating effects on glycogen synthesis and metabolites elimination. Therefore, SA could be a potential nutraceutical for improving exercise performance and alleviating physical fatigue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products Used as Foods and Food Ingredients)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Study on a Fermented Whole Wheat: Phenolic Content, Activity on PTP1B Enzyme and In Vitro Prebiotic Properties
Molecules 2019, 24(6), 1120; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24061120 - 21 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Fermented cereals, staple foods in Asia and Africa, are recently receiving a growing interest in Western countries. The object of this work is the characterization of a fermented wheat used as a food ingredient and dietary supplement. To this aim, the phenolic composition, [...] Read more.
Fermented cereals, staple foods in Asia and Africa, are recently receiving a growing interest in Western countries. The object of this work is the characterization of a fermented wheat used as a food ingredient and dietary supplement. To this aim, the phenolic composition, the activity on protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), an enzyme overexpressed in type-II diabetes, the in vitro prebiotic properties on Lactobacillus reuteri and the microbial composition were investigated. Basic and acidic hydrolysis were tested for an exhaustive recovery of bound phenols: the acidic hydrolysis gave best yields. Methyl ferulate and neocarlinoside were identified for the first time in wheat. The inhibitory power of the extracts of several batches were investigated on PTP1B enzyme. The product was not able to inhibit the enzyme, otherwise, for the first time, a complete inhibition was observed for schaftoside, a major C-flavonoid of wheat. The microbial composition was assessed identifying Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, and Pediococcus as the main bacterial species. The fermented wheat was a suitable substrate for the grown of L. reuteri, recognized for its health properties in the human gut. The proposed method for phenols is easier compared to those based on strong basic hydrolysis; our results assessed the bound phenols as the major fraction, differently from that suggested by the literature for fermented cereals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products Used as Foods and Food Ingredients)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Nutritional Composition, Anti-Diabetic Properties and Identification of Active Compounds Using UHPLC-ESI-Orbitrap-MS/MS in Mangifera odorata L. Peel and Seed Kernel
Molecules 2019, 24(2), 320; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24020320 - 16 Jan 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Mangifera odorata fruit, the hybrid forms between M. indica (mango) and M. foetida (bacang), has been shown to exhibit potential antioxidant activity, and the fruit waste could demonstrate functional and nutritional potential. In the present study, the nutritional composition (proximate, sugars, [...] Read more.
Mangifera odorata fruit, the hybrid forms between M. indica (mango) and M. foetida (bacang), has been shown to exhibit potential antioxidant activity, and the fruit waste could demonstrate functional and nutritional potential. In the present study, the nutritional composition (proximate, sugars, vitamins and minerals analyses), the anti-diabetic activities and phytochemical profile of M. odorata peel and seed kernel were investigated for the first time. The results indicated that seed kernel rich in fat, protein, carbohydrate, and ash while peel contained significantly greater amount of fiber, minerals, β-Carotene and ascorbic acid compared to seed kernel. The samples were then extracted using different solvents (acetone, ethanol, methanol at 60%, v/v and pure deionized water) and their anti-diabetic activities (α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition assay) were determined. Seed kernel had the lowest IC50 values for α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition assay in 60% ethanol and 60% acetone, respectively. Due to the toxic effect and high volatility of acetone, the ethanolic extracts of samples were further analyses for their phytochemical profile using high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization orbitrap tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-Orbitrap-MS/MS). The most abundant compounds identified were phenolic acid, ellagic acid, and flavonoid. These findings suggest that M. odorata fruit wastes, especially the seed kernel possesses promising ability to be used as functional ingredient in the food industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products Used as Foods and Food Ingredients)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Effect of Weakly Basic Conditions on the Separation and Purification of Flavonoids and Glycosides from Chrysanthemum morifolium Tea
Molecules 2019, 24(2), 297; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24020297 - 15 Jan 2019
Abstract
Tea brewed from chrysanthemum flowers has been widely used in Chinese medicine. The possibly medicinal compounds in Chrysanthemum morifolium tea can be purified by preparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), but this is usually done with acidic conditions, which leads to the hydrolysis [...] Read more.
Tea brewed from chrysanthemum flowers has been widely used in Chinese medicine. The possibly medicinal compounds in Chrysanthemum morifolium tea can be purified by preparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), but this is usually done with acidic conditions, which leads to the hydrolysis of glycosides. In hopes of avoiding this hydrolysis, we explored the effect of weakly basic conditions on the separation and purification of flavonoids and glycosides from Chrysanthemum morifolium. We also explored the effects of weakly basic conditions on chlorogenic acid (3-CQA) and apigenin-7-O-glucoside (A7G). Our results show that the concentration of the weakly basic ammonium hydrogen carbonate and time had no significant effect on A7G, p < 0.01, but it had a significant effect on 3-CQA, p < 0.01. HPLC and ultraviolet (UV) analysis showed that the structure of 3-CQA is destroyed in weakly basic conditions. Caffeic acid, quinic acid, and 3,4-dihydroxymandelic acid, which is a hydrolysate of 3-CQA, were identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS). The results showed that weakly basic conditions could be used for the purification of flavonoids and glycosides but not for caffeoylquinic acids. Moreover, our work clarified the hydrolysis behaviour of caffeoylquinic acids, which can be helpful for research into their functional aspects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products Used as Foods and Food Ingredients)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Small-Seeded Legumes as a Novel Food Source. Variation of Nutritional, Mineral and Phytochemical Profiles in the Chain: Raw Seeds-Sprouted Seeds-Microgreens
Molecules 2019, 24(1), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24010133 - 31 Dec 2018
Abstract
Growing public concerns about health haves prompted the search for novel food sources. The study is focused on the seeds, sprouted seeds and microgreens of Trifolium pratense, T. medium, Medicago sativa, M. lupulina, Onobrychis viciifolia, Astragalus glycyphyllos and A. cicer species [...] Read more.
Growing public concerns about health haves prompted the search for novel food sources. The study is focused on the seeds, sprouted seeds and microgreens of Trifolium pratense, T. medium, Medicago sativa, M. lupulina, Onobrychis viciifolia, Astragalus glycyphyllos and A. cicer species as a potential source of value-added food ingredientsr. The samples were analysed for nutritional (wet chemistry, standard methods) and mineral (atomic absorption spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectrophotometry) profiles, isoflavones (ultra-performance liquid with diode array detector –UPLC-DAD), coumestrol (UPLC-DAD), condensed tannins (CT) (vanillin-H2SO4 assay) and triterpene saponins (UPLC with triple-stage quadrupole MS). In our study, each species displayed high, but species-dependent nutritional, mineral and phytochemical value. All counterparts of legumes were mineral and protein rich. A. glycyphyllos samples, especially seeds, were abundant in iron. Trifolium spp. were found to be important sources of isoflavones, Medicago spp. of coumestrol and saponins, and O. viciifolia of CT. The protein and phytochemical contents increased and total carbohydrates decreased from seeds to microgreens.Our findings proved for the first time that seeds, sprouted seeds, and especially microgreens of small-seeded legumes are promising new sources of ingredients for fortification of staple foods with bioactive compounds, minerals and nutrients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products Used as Foods and Food Ingredients)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Enhanced Antioxidant Activity for Apple Juice Fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC14917
Molecules 2019, 24(1), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24010051 - 24 Dec 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
The present study examined the effect of Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC14917 fermentation on the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of apple juice. Apple juice was fermented and examined of its antioxidant activity using chemical models and cellular antioxidant assay. Furthermore, the chemical composition of [...] Read more.
The present study examined the effect of Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC14917 fermentation on the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of apple juice. Apple juice was fermented and examined of its antioxidant activity using chemical models and cellular antioxidant assay. Furthermore, the chemical composition of fermented apple juice was characterized by LC-MS/MS. Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC14917 fermentation showed an increase in DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity as well as cellular antioxidant activity of apple juice. However, fermentation decreased the total phenolic and flavonoid content. Subsequent LC-MS/MS analysis of the phenolic profile indicated that the content of 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA), quercetin, and phloretin with strong antioxidant activity was increased significantly after fermentation. The modified phenolic composition may contribute to the increased antioxidant activity of fermented apple juice. Our findings showed that Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC14917 fermentation may be an efficient way to enhance the bioavailability of phenolic compounds and to protect cells from oxidative stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products Used as Foods and Food Ingredients)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Formation and Characterization of Lactoferrin-Hyaluronic Acid Conjugates and Their Effects on the Storage Stability of Sesamol Emulsions
Molecules 2018, 23(12), 3291; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23123291 - 11 Dec 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to fabricate biopolymer conjugates from lactoferrin (LF) and hyaluronic acid (HA) and then to investigate their potential as emulsifiers for forming sesamol-loaded emulsions. Initially, LF-HA covalent conjugates were formed using the carbodiimide coupling method in aqueous solutions [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to fabricate biopolymer conjugates from lactoferrin (LF) and hyaluronic acid (HA) and then to investigate their potential as emulsifiers for forming sesamol-loaded emulsions. Initially, LF-HA covalent conjugates were formed using the carbodiimide coupling method in aqueous solutions at pH = 4.5, and then the nature of the conjugates was investigated using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) spectroscopy, and fluorescence spectroscopy. The results demonstrated the formation of an amide link between the amine groups of LF and the carboxyl groups of HA. Sesamol emulsions were prepared using the LF-HA conjugates as emulsifiers and their stability was determined. The conjugates improved both the physical and chemical stability of the emulsions during storage. Optimum stability of the emulsion was obtained at a LF-to-HA molar ratio of 2:1. Our results suggest that LF-HA conjugates may be effective emulsifiers for use in food stuffs and other applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products Used as Foods and Food Ingredients)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Physicochemical Properties of Starches from Nine Chinese Chestnut Varieties
Molecules 2018, 23(12), 3248; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23123248 - 07 Dec 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Chestnut is a popular food in many countries and is also an important starch source. In previous studies, physicochemical properties of starches have been compared among different Chinese chestnut varieties growing under different conditions. In this study, nine Chinese chestnut varieties from the [...] Read more.
Chestnut is a popular food in many countries and is also an important starch source. In previous studies, physicochemical properties of starches have been compared among different Chinese chestnut varieties growing under different conditions. In this study, nine Chinese chestnut varieties from the same farm were investigated for starch physicochemical properties to exclude the effects of growing conditions. The dry kernels had starch contents from 42.7 to 49.3%. Starches from different varieties had similar morphologies and exhibited round, oval, ellipsoidal, and polygonal shapes with a central hilum and smooth surface. Starch had bimodal size distribution and the volume-weighted mean diameter ranged from 7.2 to 8.2 μm among nine varieties. The starches had apparent amylose contents from 23.8 to 27.3% but exhibited the same C-type crystalline structure and similar relative crystallinity, ordered degree, and lamellar structure. The gelatinization onset, peak, and conclusion temperatures ranged from 60.4 to 63.9 °C, from 64.8 to 68.3 °C, and from 70.5 to 74.5 °C, respectively, among nine starches; and the peak, hot, breakdown, final, and setback viscosities ranged from 5524 to 6505 mPa s, from 3042 to 3616 mPa s, from 2205 to 2954 mPa s, from 4378 to 4942 mPa s, and from 1326 to 1788 mPa s, respectively. The rapidly digestible starch, slowly digestible starch, and resistant starch ranged from 2.6 to 3.7%, from 5.7 to 12.7%, and from 84.4 to 90.7%, respectively, for native starch, and from 79.6 to 89.5%, from 1.3 to 3.8%, and from 7.1 to 17.4%, respectively, for gelatinized starch. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products Used as Foods and Food Ingredients)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Dual Role of Oat Bran Water Extract in Bone Homeostasis Through the Regulation of Osteoclastogenesis and Osteoblast Differentiation
Molecules 2018, 23(12), 3119; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23123119 - 28 Nov 2018
Abstract
The number of patients with bone metabolic disorders including osteoporosis is increasing worldwide. These disorders often facilitate bone fractures, which seriously impact the patient’s quality of life and could lead to further health complications. Bone homeostasis is tightly regulated to balance bone resorption [...] Read more.
The number of patients with bone metabolic disorders including osteoporosis is increasing worldwide. These disorders often facilitate bone fractures, which seriously impact the patient’s quality of life and could lead to further health complications. Bone homeostasis is tightly regulated to balance bone resorption and formation. However, many anti-osteoporotic agents are broadly categorized as either bone forming or anti-resorptive, and their therapeutic use is often limited due to unwanted side effects. Therefore, safe and effective therapeutic agents are needed for osteoporosis. This study aims to clarify the bone protecting effects of oat bran water extract (OBWE) and its mode of action. OBWE inhibited RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand)-induced osteoclast differentiation by blocking c-Fos/NFATc1 through the alteration of I-κB. Furthermore, we found that OBWE enhanced BMP-2-stimulated osteoblast differentiation by the induction of Runx2 via Smad signaling molecules. In addition, the anti-osteoporotic activity of OBWE was also evaluated using an in vivo model. OBWE significantly restored ovariectomy-induced bone loss. These in vitro and in vivo results showed that OBWE has the potential to prevent and treat bone metabolic disorders including osteoporosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products Used as Foods and Food Ingredients)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Characteristic of Traditional and Industrial Zhenjiang Aromatic Vinegars during the Aging Process
Molecules 2018, 23(11), 2949; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23112949 - 12 Nov 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar (ZAV) is one of the well-known fermented condiments in China, which is produced by solid-state fermentation. It can be classified into traditional Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar (TZAV) and industrial Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar (IZAV) because of different production methods. The purpose of [...] Read more.
Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar (ZAV) is one of the well-known fermented condiments in China, which is produced by solid-state fermentation. It can be classified into traditional Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar (TZAV) and industrial Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar (IZAV) because of different production methods. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the variations and differences on chemical compositions and antioxidant activities of TZAV and IZAV during the aging process. The proximate composition, organic acids content, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), total antioxidant activity (TAA) and phenolic compounds composition of TZAV and IZAV were detected during the aging process. Organic acids contents, TPC, TFC, TAA and phenolic compounds contents in ZAV were increased during the aging process. Acetic acid, lactic acid and pyroglutamic acid in ZAV were major organic acids. With the extension of aging time, TZAV and IZAV had similar proximate compositions and organic acids content. The values of TPC, TFC and TAA were higher in TZAV than in IZAV when aging is more than 3 years. Rutin and p-coumaric acid were detected in TZAV but not in IZAV. In principal component analysis (PCA), TZAV and IZAV can be divided into two groups according to their phenolic compounds composition. These findings provide references for evaluating TZAV and IZAV on the basis of their characterizations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products Used as Foods and Food Ingredients)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Extraction, Purification, and Hydrolysis Behavior of Apigenin-7-O-Glucoside from Chrysanthemum Morifolium Tea
Molecules 2018, 23(11), 2933; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23112933 - 09 Nov 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Apigenin-7-O-glucoside is an active phenolic compound in Asteraceae flowers and possesses remarkable therapeutic applications. However, its high price and low abundance in plants limit its use, meanwhile it would hydrolyze in the purification process. In this study, apigenin-7-O-glucoside extracted with ultrasound and purified [...] Read more.
Apigenin-7-O-glucoside is an active phenolic compound in Asteraceae flowers and possesses remarkable therapeutic applications. However, its high price and low abundance in plants limit its use, meanwhile it would hydrolyze in the purification process. In this study, apigenin-7-O-glucoside extracted with ultrasound and purified with preparative HPLC from Chrysanthemum morifolium ‘Huangju’ was investigated, as well as its hydrolysis behavior and bioactivities. The optimized extraction conditions were: solid/liquid ratio: 1:20, extraction time: 35 min, temperature: 50 °C, and ultrasound power: 350 W. The content of apigenin-7-O-glucoside was up to 16.04 mg/g. Apigenin-7-O-glucoside was then purified with preparative HPLC from the extract, and confirmed by Q-TOF/MS. Apigenin-7-O-glucoside was partially hydrolyzed in acidic condition, and the hydrolysis rate depended on the pH value and temperature. The antioxidant activity increased as a result of the hydrolysis process. This study provided a green and effective way to obtain apigenin-7-O-glucoside and would be beneficial for further investigations into nutritional and functional aspects apigenin-7-O-glucoside and other glycosides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products Used as Foods and Food Ingredients)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Wasabia koreana Nakai: A Preliminary Study on Nutrients and Chemical Compounds That May Impact Sensory Properties
Molecules 2018, 23(10), 2512; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102512 - 30 Sep 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this study, the nutritional, functional, and chemical measurements of sensory attributes of different parts of wasabi, namely, leaf, petiole, and rhizome, were investigated. Proximate composition analysis showed the presence of high amounts of carbohydrates in the rhizome and amino acid composition analysis [...] Read more.
In this study, the nutritional, functional, and chemical measurements of sensory attributes of different parts of wasabi, namely, leaf, petiole, and rhizome, were investigated. Proximate composition analysis showed the presence of high amounts of carbohydrates in the rhizome and amino acid composition analysis confirmed high proportions of glutamic acid and aspartic acid in all three parts. While proximate composition showed low lipid content in wasabi, ω-3 fatty acids accounted for a high proportion (>44%) of the total lipids. Wasabi leaves had high vitamin C and total phenolic contents, and thus demonstrated antioxidant capacity. Allyl isothiocyanate, which gives wasabi its characteristic pungent taste, was identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and an electronic nose. On an electronic tongue, wasabi leaves showed compounds associated with sourness and saltiness while the petiole had high content of compounds associated with sweetness and bitterness. This study provides basic data for the utilization of wasabi parts as food materials based on their nutritional, functional, and chemical measure of sensory attributes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products Used as Foods and Food Ingredients)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Antioxidant Activities of Different Grape Varieties
Molecules 2018, 23(10), 2432; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102432 - 23 Sep 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
Grapes are widely consumed in the world, and different grape varieties could exhibit distinctly different antioxidant activities. In this study, the free radical-scavenging and antioxidant activities of lipophilic, hydrophilic, and insoluble-bound fractions from 30 grape varieties were evaluated by ferric-reducing antioxidant powers (FRAP), [...] Read more.
Grapes are widely consumed in the world, and different grape varieties could exhibit distinctly different antioxidant activities. In this study, the free radical-scavenging and antioxidant activities of lipophilic, hydrophilic, and insoluble-bound fractions from 30 grape varieties were evaluated by ferric-reducing antioxidant powers (FRAP), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacities (TEAC), total phenolic contents (TPC), and total flavonoid contents (TFC). The results indicated that the 30 grape varieties exhibited diverse FRAP values (1.289–11.767 μmol Fe(II)/g FW), TEAC values (0.339–4.839 μmol Trolox/g FW), TPC values (0.294–1.407 mg GAE/g FW) and TFC values (0.082–0.132 mg QE/g FW). Several grapes, such as Pearl Black Grape (Xinjiang), Summer Black Grape (Shaanxi), Pearl Green Grape (Xinjiang), Seedless Green Grape (Xinjiang), and Seedless Red Grape (Yunnan), exhibited strong free radical-scavenging and antioxidant activities, which could be consumed as good sources of natural antioxidants to prevent several diseases induced by oxidative stress, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Furthermore, several antioxidants were identified and quantified, including caffeic acid, catechin gallate, epicatechin, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid and rutin, which could contribute to the antioxidant activities of grapes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products Used as Foods and Food Ingredients)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Physicochemical Properties of Starches from Flesh and Peel of Green Banana Fruit
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2312; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092312 - 11 Sep 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Green banana fruit is an important starch resource that consists of flesh and peel. The physicochemical properties of flesh starch have been widely studied; however, those of peel starch have hardly been studied, leading to the waste of peel. In this study, the [...] Read more.
Green banana fruit is an important starch resource that consists of flesh and peel. The physicochemical properties of flesh starch have been widely studied; however, those of peel starch have hardly been studied, leading to the waste of peel. In this study, the physicochemical properties of the starches from the flesh and peel of green banana fruit were investigated and compared. The dry flesh and peel had 69.5% and 22.6% starch content, respectively. The starch had oval and irregular granules with eccentric hila. Their starches had similar bimodal size distribution; the volume-weighted mean diameter was approximate 17 μm, and the peel starch had a slightly smaller granule size than the flesh starch. The maximum absorption wavelength was higher in peel starch than in flesh starch. The apparent amylose content of flesh and peel starch was 21.3% and 25.7%, respectively. The flesh and peel starches both exhibited B-type crystalline structures and had similar relative crystallinity, short-range ordered degrees, and lamellar structures. The swelling power was similar between flesh and peel starches, but the water solubility was higher in peel starch than in flesh starch at 95 °C. The peel starch had a higher gelatinization temperature than flesh starch, but their gelatinization temperature range and enthalpy were similar. Both flesh and peel starches showed a diphasic hydrolysis dynamic, but peel starch had higher resistance to porcine pancreatic α-amylase hydrolysis than flesh starch. The contents of rapidly digestible starch, slowly digestible starch, and the resistant starch of flesh and peel were 1.7%, 4.3%, 94.1% and 1.4%, 3.4%, 95.2%, respectively, for native starch, and 73.0%, 5.1%, 21.9%, and 72.3%, 4.5%, 23.2%, respectively, for gelatinized starch. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products Used as Foods and Food Ingredients)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Dihydromyricetin as a Functional Additive to Enhance Antioxidant Capacity and Inhibit the Formation of Thermally Induced Food Toxicants in a Cookie Model
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2184; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092184 - 30 Aug 2018
Abstract
Recently, there is a growing interest in fortifying food products with flavonoids to enhance health benefits. Naringenin, naringin, hesperetin, and dihydromyricetin are four typical flavonoids constituting a natural part of our diet. In the present work, they were fortified into a chia oil [...] Read more.
Recently, there is a growing interest in fortifying food products with flavonoids to enhance health benefits. Naringenin, naringin, hesperetin, and dihydromyricetin are four typical flavonoids constituting a natural part of our diet. In the present work, they were fortified into a chia oil cookie model to evaluate their thermal stability during baking as well as their impact on antioxidant capacity and toxicant formation. Among them dihydromyricetin was the most unstable one (only 36.1% of which was left after baking at 180 °C for 20 min) and led to a loss of brightness in cookie. However, the antioxidant capacity of cookie fortified with dihydromyricetin was significantly enhanced compared with untreated cookie; on the other hand, dihydromyricetin showed the strongest effect to attenuate lipid and protein oxidation as well as decrease the level of fluorescent advanced glycation endproducts and carboxymethyl lysine in cookie model. Overall, among the four selected flavonoids, dihydromyricetin might be the most promising functional bakery additive enhancing the antioxidant capacity while decreasing the formation of toxicants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products Used as Foods and Food Ingredients)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Effects of Different Isolation Media on Structural and Functional Properties of Starches from Root Tubers of Purple, Yellow and White Sweet Potatoes
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2135; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092135 - 24 Aug 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Different-colored sweet potatoes have different contents of pigments and phenolic compounds in their root tubers, which influence the isolation of starch. It is important to justify the identification of the most suitable isolation medium of starch from different colored root tubers. In this [...] Read more.
Different-colored sweet potatoes have different contents of pigments and phenolic compounds in their root tubers, which influence the isolation of starch. It is important to justify the identification of the most suitable isolation medium of starch from different colored root tubers. In this study, starches were isolated from root tubers of purple, yellow and white sweet potatoes using four different extraction media, including H2O, 0.5% Na2S2O5, 0.2% NaOH, and both 0.5% Na2S2O5 and 0.2% NaOH. Their structural and functional properties were investigated and compared among different extraction media. The results showed that the granule size, apparent amylose content, lamellar peak intensity, thermal properties, and pasting properties were different among different-colored sweet potatoes due to their different genotype backgrounds. The four extraction media had no significant effects on starch structural properties, including apparent amylose content, crystalline structure, ordered degree, and lamellar peak intensity, except that the NaOH and Na2S2O5 treatment were able to increase the whiteness of purple and yellow sweet potato starches. The different extraction media had some effects on starch functional properties, including thermal properties, swelling power, water solubility, and pasting properties. The above results indicated that the H2O was the most suitable extraction medium to simply and fast isolate starch from root tubers of different-colored sweet potatoes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products Used as Foods and Food Ingredients)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Physicochemical Properties of C-Type Starch from Root Tuber of Apios fortunei in Comparison with Maize, Potato, and Pea Starches
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2132; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092132 - 24 Aug 2018
Abstract
The dry root tuber of Apios fortunei contained about 75% starch, indicating that it is an important starch resource. Starch displayed spherical, polygonal, and ellipsoidal granules with central hila. Granule sizes ranged from 3 to 30 μm with a 9.6 μm volume-weighted mean [...] Read more.
The dry root tuber of Apios fortunei contained about 75% starch, indicating that it is an important starch resource. Starch displayed spherical, polygonal, and ellipsoidal granules with central hila. Granule sizes ranged from 3 to 30 μm with a 9.6 μm volume-weighted mean diameter. The starch had 35% apparent amylose content and exhibited CA-type crystalline structure with 25.9% relative crystallinity. The short-range ordered degree in the granule external region was approximately 0.65, and the lamellar thickness was approximately 9.6 nm. The swelling power and water solubility began to increase from 70 °C and reached 28.7 g/g and 10.8% at 95 °C. Starch had typical bimodal thermal curve in water with gelatinization temperatures from 61.8 to 83.9 °C. The 7% (w/w) starch-water slurry had peak, hot, breakdown, final, and setback viscosities of 1689, 1420, 269, 2103, and 683 mPa s, respectively. Rapidly digestible starch, slowly digestible starch, and resistant starch were 6.04%, 10.96%, and 83.00% in native starch; 83.16%, 15.23%, and 1.61% in gelatinized starch; and 78.13%, 17.88%, and 3.99% in retrograded starch, respectively. The above physicochemical properties of A. fortunei starch were compared with those of maize A-type starch, potato B-type starch, and pea C-type starch. The hierarchical cluster analysis based on starch structural and functional property parameters showed that A. fortunei and pea starches had similar physicochemical properties and were more related to maize starch than potato starch. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products Used as Foods and Food Ingredients)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Homogeneous Synthesis of Cationic Chitosan via New Avenue
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 1921; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23081921 - 01 Aug 2018
Abstract
Using a solvent formed of alkali and urea, chitosan was successfully dissolved in a new solvent via the freezing–thawing process. Subsequently, quaternized chitosan (QC) was synthesized using 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (CHPTAC) as the cationic reagent under different incubation times and temperatures in [...] Read more.
Using a solvent formed of alkali and urea, chitosan was successfully dissolved in a new solvent via the freezing–thawing process. Subsequently, quaternized chitosan (QC) was synthesized using 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (CHPTAC) as the cationic reagent under different incubation times and temperatures in a homogeneous system. QCs cannot be synthesized at temperatures above 60 °C, as gel formation will occur. The structure and properties of the prepared QC were characterized and quaternary groups were comfirmed to be successfully incorporated onto chitosan backbones. The degree of substitution (DS) ranged from 16.5% to 46.8% and the yields ranged from 32.6% to 89.7%, which can be adjusted by changing the molar ratio of the chitosan unit to CHPTAC and the reaction time. QCs inhibits the growth of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris effectively. Thus, this work offers a simple and green method of functionalizing chitosan and producing quaternized chitosan with an antibacterial effect for potential applications in the food industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products Used as Foods and Food Ingredients)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Ascorbic Acid and Glucosinolate Levels in New Czech Cabbage Cultivars: Effect of Production System and Fungal Infection
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 1855; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23081855 - 25 Jul 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Nutritional value and disease-preventive effects of cabbage are well-known. Levels of the antioxidant compounds ascorbic acid (AA) and glucosinolates (GSL) in new Czech cabbage cultivars were determined in the context of different production systems. The contents of AA and GSLs in cabbage biomass [...] Read more.
Nutritional value and disease-preventive effects of cabbage are well-known. Levels of the antioxidant compounds ascorbic acid (AA) and glucosinolates (GSL) in new Czech cabbage cultivars were determined in the context of different production systems. The contents of AA and GSLs in cabbage biomass were determined by HPLC. Individual GSLs were identified according to their exact masses with sinigrin used as the external standard. Artificial infection with A. brassicicola generally raised the AA levels. The major GSLs (≥10 mg kg−1) were glucobrassicin, sinigrin, and glucoiberin. Indole and aliphatic GSLs were present, but no aromatic ones were detected. Ecological growth conditions and the artificial fungal infection increased the total content of GSLs and, also, of the methoxylated indole GSLs. Sulforaphane, iberin, indole-3-carbinol, and ascorbigen resulting from the hydrolysis of GSLs were found in both cultivars. The amounts and profiles of GSLs present in the two Czech cultivars demonstrated their good nutritional value. The decomposition products sulforaphane, iberin, indole-3-carbinol, and ascorbigen detected improve its health-promoting qualities and represent a suitable component of the human diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products Used as Foods and Food Ingredients)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Seasonal Variation and Possible Biosynthetic Pathway of Ginsenosides in Korean Ginseng Panax ginseng Meyer
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1824; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071824 - 23 Jul 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Whereas Korean ginseng, Panax ginseng Meyer, is harvested in the fall, the variation of ginsenoside content in field-grown ginseng across seasonal development has never been investigated in Korea. Thus, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) analysis of nine major ginsenosides, including ginsenoside Rg1, Re, [...] Read more.
Whereas Korean ginseng, Panax ginseng Meyer, is harvested in the fall, the variation of ginsenoside content in field-grown ginseng across seasonal development has never been investigated in Korea. Thus, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) analysis of nine major ginsenosides, including ginsenoside Rg1, Re, Rf, Rg2, Rb1, Rc, Rb2, Rd, and Ro, in the roots of five-year-old P. ginseng cultivated in Bongwha, Korea in 2017 was performed. The total ginsenoside content changed as many as three times throughout the year, ranging from 1.37 ± 0.02 (dry wt %) in January to 4.26 ± 0.03% in May. Total ginsenoside content in the harvest season was 2.49 ± 0.03%. Seasonal variations of panaxadiol-type ginsenosides (PPD) and panaxatriol-type ginsenosides (PPT) were found to be similar, but more PPD was always measured. However, the seasonal variation of oleanolic acid-type ginsenoside, Ro, was different from that of PPD and PPT, and the highest Ro content was observed in May. The ratio of PPD/PPT, as well as other representative ginsenosides, was compared throughout the year. Moreover, the percent composition of certain ginsenosides in both PPD and PPT types was found to be in a complementary relationship each other, which possibly reflected the biosynthetic pathway of the related ginsenosides. This finding would not only provide scientific support for the production and quality control of the value-added ginseng products, but also facilitate the elucidation of the ginsenoside biosynthetic pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products Used as Foods and Food Ingredients)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Physicochemical Properties of Lutein-Loaded Microcapsules and Their Uptake via Caco-2 Monolayers
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1805; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071805 - 20 Jul 2018
Abstract
Lutein is one of the most important carotenoids that can be utilized in foods as a natural pigment and nutraceutical ingredient to improve eye health. However, its utilization is limited due to its poor solubility. Chemically, the highly unsaturated structure of lutein makes [...] Read more.
Lutein is one of the most important carotenoids that can be utilized in foods as a natural pigment and nutraceutical ingredient to improve eye health. However, its utilization is limited due to its poor solubility. Chemically, the highly unsaturated structure of lutein makes it extremely susceptible to light, oxygen, heat, and pro-oxidants and therefore easily oxidized, decomposed or dissociated. In this study, we aimed to imbed natural lutein to improve its storage stability and enhance its water dispersibility. As two commonly studied water-soluble and water-insoluble food-grade surfactants, sodium caseinate (NaCas) and lecithin were chosen as the wall materials, and lutein-loaded lecithin microcapsules and NaCas microcapsules were prepared, the results revealed the lutein-loaded NaCas microcapsules not only exhibited better dispersibility and stability than those of lutein-loaded lecithin microcapsules, but also were more stable when stored at 4 °C, 25 °C, 37 °C. Moreover, the lutein-loaded NaCas microcapsules were more easily absorbed by the intestinal Caco-2 cells than natural lutein. Considering the dispersibility, stability and cell absorption effect, the NaCas-based microparticle is a potential carrier for lutein. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products Used as Foods and Food Ingredients)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Phytotoxic Activity of Metabolites Isolated from Rutstroemia sp.n., the Causal Agent of Bleach Blonde Syndrome on Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum)
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1734; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071734 - 16 Jul 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
A fungal pathogen soon to be described as Rutstroemia capillus-albis (Rutstroemiaceae, Helotiales, Leotiomycetes) has been identified as the causal agent of ‘bleach blonde syndrome’ on the invasive annual grass weed Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass) in western North America. This apparently common but previously undescribed [...] Read more.
A fungal pathogen soon to be described as Rutstroemia capillus-albis (Rutstroemiaceae, Helotiales, Leotiomycetes) has been identified as the causal agent of ‘bleach blonde syndrome’ on the invasive annual grass weed Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass) in western North America. This apparently common but previously undescribed disease causes premature senescence and sterility, but does not affect seed germination or seedling emergence and growth. This study investigated whether the new species produces phytotoxins that could be implicated in pathogenesis. The compounds 9-O-methylfusarubin, 9-O-methylbostrycoidin, 5-O-methylnectriafurone, trans-methyl-p-coumarate and terpestacin were isolated from the solid culture of this fungus. The undescribed absolute stereochemistry at C-3 of 9-O-methylfusarubin and at C-1’ of 5-O-methylnectriafurone were assigned by applying electronic and vibrational circular dichroism (ECD and VCD) combined with computational methods and the advanced Mosher’s method, respectively. The first three listed compounds are naphtoquinone pigments, while terpestacin is a sesterterpene, and trans-methyl-p-coumarate could be the product of an unusual fungal phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway. In a juvenile plant immersion bioassay, both 9-O-methylfusarubin and terpestacin proved to be highly toxic at 10−4 M, causing wilting and plant death within 10 days. This finding suggests that these two compounds could play a role in pathogenesis on B. tectorum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products Used as Foods and Food Ingredients)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Protein Hydrolysates’ Absorption Characteristics in the Dynamic Small Intestine In Vivo
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1591; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071591 - 29 Jun 2018
Abstract
Background: Dietary proteins are known for their wide range of nutritional, functional and biological properties. Although the total amount of proteins may be obtained from mixtures, its “availability” for absorption in the gut is in many cases quite uncertain or even varies [...] Read more.
Background: Dietary proteins are known for their wide range of nutritional, functional and biological properties. Although the total amount of proteins may be obtained from mixtures, its “availability” for absorption in the gut is in many cases quite uncertain or even varies for the same food depending on processing conditions, the presence of other components, and so on. Methods: To obtain accurate protein hydrolysate absorption data, we have developed a small intestine model (SIM) to test them. Results: The results indicated that the protein hydrolysates were absorbed rapidly during the first 15 min, and then decreased to 90 min, then they were absorbed again from 90 min to the endpoint. The protein absorption was also affected by the protein processing method used. The Enzyme + Ultrasound (EU) processing method group had a higher absorption rate than the Enzyme (E) processing method group, and the absorption of the Enzyme + Artificial gastric juice processing method (EH) and Enzyme + Ultrasound + Artificial gastric juice processing method (EUH) groups was reduced compared to the E group alone. The amino acid analysis results showed that the amino acids were reduced and absorbed by our SIM in almost all groups except for cysteine and methionine. In general, the Pearson relation value of the amino acid contents between before SIM and after SIM was 0.887, which indicated that single amino acid absorption was mainly related to its content in the whole amino acids. The single amino acid absorption ratio among different groups also displayed differences, which ranged from 31% to 46% (E group from 39% to 42%; EU group from 40% to 47%; EH group from 31% to 39%; EUH group from 35% to 41%). Conclusions: The protein hydrolysates’ varied from startpoint to endpoint, and the protein absorption was affected by processing method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products Used as Foods and Food Ingredients)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Identification of Nutritional Components in Black Sesame Determined by Widely Targeted Metabolomics and Traditional Chinese Medicines
Molecules 2018, 23(5), 1180; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23051180 - 15 May 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
Chemical composition of secondary metabolites is of great importance for quality control of agricultural products. Black sesame seeds are significantly more expensive than white sesame seeds, because it is thought that black sesame seeds are more beneficial to human health than white sesame [...] Read more.
Chemical composition of secondary metabolites is of great importance for quality control of agricultural products. Black sesame seeds are significantly more expensive than white sesame seeds, because it is thought that black sesame seeds are more beneficial to human health than white sesame seeds. However, the differences in nutrient composition between black sesame seeds and white sesame seeds are still unknown. The current study examined the levels of different metabolites in black and white sesame seeds via the use of a novel metabolomics strategy. Using widely targeted metabolomics data, we obtained the structure and content of 557 metabolites, out of which 217 metabolites were identified, and discovered 30 metabolic pathways activated by the secondary metabolites in both black and white sesame seeds. Our results demonstrated that the main pathways that were differentially activated included: phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, tyrosine metabolism, and riboflavin metabolism. More importantly, the biomarkers that were significantly different between black seeds and white sesame seeds are highly related to the functions recorded in traditional Chinese medicine. The results of this study may serve as a new theoretical reference for breeding experts to promote the genetic improvement of sesame seeds, and therefore the cultivation of higher quality sesame varieties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products Used as Foods and Food Ingredients)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview
Assessment of Antioxidant Capacity and Putative Healthy Effects of Natural Plant Products Using Soybean Lipoxygenase-Based Methods. An Overview
Molecules 2018, 23(12), 3244; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23123244 - 07 Dec 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
In the last decades, increasing demand of antioxidant-rich foods and growing interest in their putative role in prevention of degenerative diseases have promoted development of methods for measuring Antioxidant Capacity (AC). Nevertheless, most of these assays use radicals and experimental conditions far from [...] Read more.
In the last decades, increasing demand of antioxidant-rich foods and growing interest in their putative role in prevention of degenerative diseases have promoted development of methods for measuring Antioxidant Capacity (AC). Nevertheless, most of these assays use radicals and experimental conditions far from the physiological ones, and are able to estimate only one or a few antioxidant mechanisms. On the other hand, the novel LOX/RNO and LOX–FL methods, based on secondary reactions between the soybean lipoxygenase (LOX)-1 isoenzyme and either 4-nitroso-N,N-dimethylaniline (RNO) or fluorescein (FL), may provide a more comprehensive AC evaluation. In fact, they are able to detect simultaneously many antioxidant functions (scavenging of some physiological radical species, iron ion reducing and chelating activities, inhibition of the pro-oxidant apoenzyme) and to highlight synergism among phytochemicals. They are applied to dissect antioxidant properties of several natural plant products: food-grade antioxidants, cereal and pseudocereal grains, grain-derived products, fruits. Recently, LOX–FL has been used for ex vivo AC measurements of human blood samples after short- and long-term intakes of some of these foods, and the effectiveness in improving serum antioxidant status was evaluated using the novel Antioxidant/Oxidant Balance (AOB) parameter, calculated as an AC/Peroxide Level ratio. An overview of data is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products Used as Foods and Food Ingredients)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Back to TopTop