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Special Issue "Natural Polyphenols and Health"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Products Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Margarida Castell Escuer

Secció de Fisiologia, Departament de Bioquímica i Fisiologia, Facultat de Farmàcia i Ciències de l’Alimentació, Universitat de Barcelona (UB), Av. Joan XXIII 27-31, 08028 Barcelona, Espanya
Institut de Recerca en Nutrició i Seguretat Alimentària (INSA-UB), UB, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +93 403 59 01
Interests: flavonoids; antioxidants; allergy; inflammation; immunomodulation; methylxanthines; sport
Guest Editor
Dr. Mariona Camps-Bossacoma

Secció de Fisiologia, Departament de Bioquímica i Fisiologia, Facultat de Farmàcia i Ciències de l’Alimentació, Universitat de Barcelona (UB), Av. Joan XXIII 27-31, 08028 Barcelona, Espanya
Institut de Recerca en Nutrició i Seguretat Alimentària (INSA-UB), UB, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: allergy; antibody; cocoa; flavonoids; hesperidin; immunoglobulin; immune system; microbiota; nutraceutical; polyphenols; prebiotic; sentitization; theobromine; tolerance

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Polyphenols, found in vegetables as secondary metabolites, are abundant micronutrients in our diet. In the last few decades, there has been a growing interest in their potential health benefits. This Special Issue of Molecules entitled “Natural Polyphenols and Health” will focus on the relevant current knowledge of polyphenols in the improvement or prevention of some diseases, as well as in a healthy status, to provide the most recent perspectives of this area. Papers of interest include research of any polyphenol, either as a pure compound or included in a food in in vitro and in vivo studies. Study designs can include clinical and preclinical aspects developed at in any stage of life and any health threats. Observational studies as well as those establishing the preventive effects of polyphenols for human and animal models are also welcome. Health aspects can include nervous, cardiovascular, intestinal, immune systems or any physiological system. It is a pleasure to invite original research as well as review articles that describe or detail the influence of polyphenols on health.

Prof. Dr. Margarida Castell Escuer
Dr. Mariona Camps-Bossacoma
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Antioxidant
  • Cardiovascular system
  • Flavonoids
  • Immune system
  • Intestinal system
  • Microbiota
  • Nervous system
  • Physiology

Published Papers (17 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Recovery of Antimicrobials and Bioaccessible Isoflavones and Phenolics from Soybean (Glycine max) Meal by Aqueous Extraction
Received: 3 December 2018 / Revised: 17 December 2018 / Accepted: 17 December 2018 / Published: 26 December 2018
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Abstract
Soybeans display strategic potential in food security as a source of protein and functional bioactives for human consumption. Polyphenols and other bioactive compounds can be recovered after an aqueous extraction from soybean meal, a byproduct of soy oil refining. The objective of the
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Soybeans display strategic potential in food security as a source of protein and functional bioactives for human consumption. Polyphenols and other bioactive compounds can be recovered after an aqueous extraction from soybean meal, a byproduct of soy oil refining. The objective of the present study was to compile and quantify compounds from soybean oil refinery by-products, providing information about valuable bioactive phytochemicals, their bioaccessibility and potential bioactivities. Genistin, daidzin, glycitin and malonylgenistin were the predominant isoflavones, and the overall bioaccessibility of their glycosidic forms was of nearly 75%. Sixteen phenolics were identified and caffeic acid, 5-caffeoylquinic chlorogenic acid and hesperidin were the most predominant. Approximately 30% of gallic acid, syringic acid, vanillic acid and myricetin were released and the antioxidant capacity of aqueous extract was enhanced after simulated in vitro gastro intestinal digestion. The ability of aqueous soybean meal extract to inhibit lipid peroxidation was higher than natural and synthetic food antioxidants. Antimicrobial activity against several foodborne pathogens and antitumoral activity towards human glioblastoma cell line were also observed, but the aqueous extract showed no cytotoxicity to healthy murine cells. Compounds derived from the aqueous soybean meal extract have the potential to be used as health promoting agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polyphenols and Health)
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Open AccessArticle Nutraceutical Oils Produced by Olives and Citrus Peel of Tuscany Varieties as Sources of Functional Ingredients
Received: 26 November 2018 / Revised: 17 December 2018 / Accepted: 23 December 2018 / Published: 25 December 2018
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Abstract
The essential oils extracted from the peels of two Tuscany Citrus of the Massa province have been characterised. Moreover, the flavedo of these species has been used in the production of two Citrus olive oils (COOs) obtained with an innovative method
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The essential oils extracted from the peels of two Tuscany Citrus of the Massa province have been characterised. Moreover, the flavedo of these species has been used in the production of two Citrus olive oils (COOs) obtained with an innovative method in which the citrus peels are cryomacerated and then pressed with the olives. The presence of functional compounds, such as carotenoids, naringenin and minor phenolics, classifies these COOs as nutraceuticals with the potential to develop enriched foods able to promote a healthy diet. Moreover, the increased presence of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol, compared to the unflavoured oil, further highlights the nutritional value to the two COOs, being these phenolic compounds recognized as good possible therapeutic candidates for the inhibition of neurodegenerative diseases as the Parkinson’s disease. In this perspective, the citrus peels, rich in bioactive compounds, have been valued transforming their waste nature in an innovative resource. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polyphenols and Health)
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Open AccessArticle Comparison of Phenols Content and Antioxidant Activity of Fruits from Different Maturity Stages of Ribes stenocarpum Maxim
Molecules 2018, 23(12), 3148; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23123148
Received: 12 November 2018 / Revised: 24 November 2018 / Accepted: 29 November 2018 / Published: 30 November 2018
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Abstract
Differences in the content of nine phenols and the antioxidant capacity of Ribes stenocarpum Maxim (RSM) fruits at different stages of maturity were investigated, and the extraction process of polyphenols from RSM was also optimized using Box-Behnken design method. Results showed that the
[...] Read more.
Differences in the content of nine phenols and the antioxidant capacity of Ribes stenocarpum Maxim (RSM) fruits at different stages of maturity were investigated, and the extraction process of polyphenols from RSM was also optimized using Box-Behnken design method. Results showed that the content of the nine phenols varied considerably at different ripening stages; catechin, chlorogenic acid, coumaric acid, and ferulic acid were abundant in immature fruits but decreased with fruit ripening, whereas the levels of rosemary acid and querctin acid were low in immature fruits and increased with time, reaching the highest value after the fruit was completely mature. The phenols extracted from RSM fruits possessed good antioxidant activities for effective and rapid scavenging of DPPH and ABTS free radicals, as well as intracellular ROS. Analysis of the phenols content at different maturity stages indicated that the unripe fruits had significantly higher polyphenols content than mature fruits. Consequently, unripe fruits possessed higher antioxidant activities. According to the overall results of the extraction process optimization, the selected optimal conditions for extracting polyphenols from RSM were as follows: extraction time, 95 min; solvent concentration, 60%; ratio of sample to solvent, 1:25. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polyphenols and Health)
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Open AccessArticle Phenolic Profiles, Antioxidant Capacities, and Inhibitory Effects on Digestive Enzymes of Different Kiwifruits
Molecules 2018, 23(11), 2957; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23112957
Received: 11 October 2018 / Revised: 9 November 2018 / Accepted: 9 November 2018 / Published: 13 November 2018
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Abstract
In order to obtain high-quality kiwifruits with health-promoting characteristics, physicochemical properties, phenolic profiles, antioxidant capacities, and inhibitory effects on digestive enzymes (pancreatic lipase and α-glucosidase), of fourteen different types of kiwifruit obtained from China were systematically investigated and compared. Noticeable variations in the
[...] Read more.
In order to obtain high-quality kiwifruits with health-promoting characteristics, physicochemical properties, phenolic profiles, antioxidant capacities, and inhibitory effects on digestive enzymes (pancreatic lipase and α-glucosidase), of fourteen different types of kiwifruit obtained from China were systematically investigated and compared. Noticeable variations in the fruits’ physicochemical properties and phenolic profiles were observed among them. The total phenolic content of Actinidia chinensis cv. Hongshi, A. chinensis cv. Jinshi, and A. chinensis cv. Jinlong were 16.52 ± 0.26 mg GAE/g DW (dry weight), 13.38 ± 0.20 mg GAE/g DW, and 11.02 ± 0.05 mg GAE/g DW, respectively, which were much higher than those of the other tested kiwifruits. According to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, phenolic compounds, including procyanidin B1, procyanidin B2, (−)-epicatechin, chlorogenic acid, gallic acid, and quercetin-3-rhamnoside, were found to be the major compounds in kiwifruits, while procyanidin B1, procyanidin B2, and chlorogenic acid were the most abundant phenolic compounds. Furthermore, all the tested kiwifruits exerted remarkable antioxidant capacities and inhibitory effects on pancreatic lipase and α-glucosidase. Indeed, A. chinensis cv. Hongshi, Actinidia chinensis cv. Jinshi, and Actinidia chinensis cv. Jinlong exhibited much better antioxidant capacities and inhibitory effects on digestive enzymes than those of the other tested kiwifruits. Particularly, A. polygama showed the highest inhibitory activity on α-glucosidase. Therefore, Actinidia chinensis cv. Hongshi, Actinidia chinensis cv. Jinshi, and Actinidia chinensis cv. Jinlong, as well as A. polygama could be important dietary sources of natural antioxidants and natural inhibitors against pancreatic lipase and α-glucosidase, which is helpful for meeting the growing demand for high-quality kiwifruits with health-promoting characteristics in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polyphenols and Health)
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Open AccessArticle Analytical Profiling of Proanthocyanidins from Acacia mearnsii Bark and In Vitro Assessment of Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Potential
Molecules 2018, 23(11), 2891; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23112891
Received: 16 October 2018 / Revised: 31 October 2018 / Accepted: 1 November 2018 / Published: 6 November 2018
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Abstract
The proanthocyanidins from ethanol extracts (80%, v/v) of Acacia mearnsii (A. mearnsii) bark on chemical-based and cellular antioxidant activity assays as well as carbolytic enzyme inhibitory activities were studied. About 77% of oligomeric proanthocyanidins in ethanol extracts of
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The proanthocyanidins from ethanol extracts (80%, v/v) of Acacia mearnsii (A. mearnsii) bark on chemical-based and cellular antioxidant activity assays as well as carbolytic enzyme inhibitory activities were studied. About 77% of oligomeric proanthocyanidins in ethanol extracts of A. mearnsii bark were found by using normal-phase HPLC. In addition, HPLC-ESI-TOF/MS and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS analyses indicated that proanthocyanidins from A. mearnsii bark exhibited with a degree of polymerization ranging from 1 to 11. These results of combined antioxidant activity assays, as well as carbolytic enzyme inhibitory activities of proanthocyanidins from A. mearnsii bark, indicated an encouraging antioxidant capacity for the high polyphenol content and a potential for use as alternative drugs for lowering the glycemic response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polyphenols and Health)
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Open AccessArticle Preventive Effect of Raw Liubao Tea Polyphenols on Mouse Gastric Injuries Induced by HCl/Ethanol via Anti-Oxidative Stress
Molecules 2018, 23(11), 2848; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23112848
Received: 19 October 2018 / Revised: 30 October 2018 / Accepted: 31 October 2018 / Published: 1 November 2018
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Abstract
Liubao tea is a type of traditional Chinese tea, belonging to the dark teas. This study is a basic research of the contained polyphenols (active substances) and detected preventive effects of polyphenols of raw Liubao tea (PRLT) on mouse gastric injuries induced by
[...] Read more.
Liubao tea is a type of traditional Chinese tea, belonging to the dark teas. This study is a basic research of the contained polyphenols (active substances) and detected preventive effects of polyphenols of raw Liubao tea (PRLT) on mouse gastric injuries induced by HCl/ethanol. High-pressure liquid chromatography was used to analyze the components of PRLT. Furthermore, a mouse gastric injury model was established to observe the preventive effects. PRLT was shown to contain gallic acid, EGC (epigallocatechin), catechin, caffeine, EC (epicatechin), EGCG (epigallocatechin gallate), GCG (gallocatechin gallate), and ECG (epicatechin gallate). The results of the in vivo study indicate that PRLT can inhibit the observed increase of gastric juice volume and decrease of gastric juice pH caused by gastric injury. PRLT can decrease the serum levels of IL-6 (interleukin-6), IL-12 (interleukin-12), TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-α), and IFN-γ (interferon-γ) in mice with gastric injuries. Moreover, it can also increase the serum levels of SS (somatostatin) and VIP (vasoactive intestinal peptide) and reduce the serum levels of both SP (substance P) and ET-1 (endothelin-1). PRLT was also shown to increase SOD (superoxide dismutase) and GSH (glutathione) levels and decrease MDA (malondialdehyde) level. The detection of mRNA and protein in gastric tissues indicates that PRLT could also up-regulate the expression of Cu/Zn-SOD (copper/zinc superoxide dismutase), Mn-SOD (manganese superoxide dismutase), CAT (catalase), nNOS (neuronal nitric oxide synthase), and eNOS (endothelial nitric oxide synthase) and down-regulate the expression of both iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase) and COX-2 (cyclooxygenase-2). Thus, PRLT possess a good preventive effect on gastric injury, which is directly related to the contained active substance. PRLT show good anti-oxidative and preventive effect in gastric injury and offer promising application value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polyphenols and Health)
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Open AccessArticle The Flavonoid Kaempferol Ameliorates Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes by Suppressing Hepatic Glucose Production
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2338; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092338
Received: 24 July 2018 / Revised: 4 September 2018 / Accepted: 8 September 2018 / Published: 13 September 2018
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Abstract
In diabetes mellitus, the excessive rate of glucose production from the liver is considered a primary contributor for the development of hyperglycemia, in particular, fasting hyperglycemia. In this study, we investigated whether kaempferol, a flavonol present in several medicinal herbs and foods, can
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In diabetes mellitus, the excessive rate of glucose production from the liver is considered a primary contributor for the development of hyperglycemia, in particular, fasting hyperglycemia. In this study, we investigated whether kaempferol, a flavonol present in several medicinal herbs and foods, can be used to ameliorate diabetes in an animal model of insulin deficiency and further explored the mechanism underlying the anti-diabetic effect of this flavonol. We demonstrate that oral administration of kaempferol (50 mg/kg/day) to streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice significantly improved hyperglycemia and reduced the incidence of overt diabetes from 100% to 77.8%. This outcome was accompanied by a reduction in hepatic glucose production and an increase in glucose oxidation in the muscle of the diabetic mice, whereas body weight, calorie intake, body composition, and plasma insulin and glucagon levels were not altered. Consistently, treatment with kaempferol restored hexokinase activity in the liver and skeletal muscle of diabetic mice while suppressed hepatic pyruvate carboxylase activity and gluconeogenesis. These results suggest that kaempferol may exert antidiabetic action via promoting glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle and inhibiting gluconeogenesis in the liver. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polyphenols and Health)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Identification of Antiglycative Compounds in Japanese Red Water Pepper (Red Leaf Variant of the Persicaria hydropiper Sprout)
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2319; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092319
Received: 6 August 2018 / Revised: 10 September 2018 / Accepted: 10 September 2018 / Published: 11 September 2018
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Abstract
Glycation, the nonenzymatic reaction between proteins and excess blood sugar, is implicated in multiple disorders and occurs via the formation and accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). In our previous studies, we demonstrated that the red-leaf variant of the Persicaria hydropiper sprout
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Glycation, the nonenzymatic reaction between proteins and excess blood sugar, is implicated in multiple disorders and occurs via the formation and accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). In our previous studies, we demonstrated that the red-leaf variant of the Persicaria hydropiper sprout (Japanese red water pepper, Benitade) is one of the potent plants that inhibit formation of AGEs. In this study, we aimed to identify antiglycative compounds in Benitade. Benitade extracts were prepared with hot water, then fractionated by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The antiglycative efficacy of each fraction was evaluated by measuring the formation of fluorescent AGEs (Ex 370 nm/Em 440 nm). Two fractions, which contained peaks at 26.4 min and 31.8 min, showed potent antiglycative efficacy. When we hydrolyzed these peaks, they shifted to 32.5 and 41.4 min, which are the same retention times as cyanidin and quercetin, respectively. Based on thin-layer chromatography, both compounds contained galactose. Finally, ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqTOF-MS) analyses were performed to determine the structure of those compounds. Overall, we identified two glycosides, cyanidin 3-O-galactoside (idaein) and quercetin 3-O-galactoside (hyperin), as representative antiglycative compounds in Benitade. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polyphenols and Health)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Storage Conditions on Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Activity of Litchi Pericarp
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2276; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092276
Received: 7 August 2018 / Revised: 29 August 2018 / Accepted: 3 September 2018 / Published: 6 September 2018
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Abstract
Changes of phenolic profiles and antioxidant activity of litchi pericarp during storage at 4 °C for seven days and at room temperature (RT) for 72 h were evaluated in this study. The contents of total phenolic and procyanidin decreased by 20.2% and 24.2%
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Changes of phenolic profiles and antioxidant activity of litchi pericarp during storage at 4 °C for seven days and at room temperature (RT) for 72 h were evaluated in this study. The contents of total phenolic and procyanidin decreased by 20.2% and 24.2% at 4 °C and by 37.8% and 47.8% at RT, respectively. Interestingly, the corresponding reductions of anthocyanins were 41.3% and 73%, respectively. Four phenolic compounds, including epicatechin, procyanidin A2, procyanidin B2, and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside-7-O-α-l-rhamnosidase were detected in litchi pericarp. Their contents after storage at 4 °C and at RT were decreased by 22.1–49.7% and 27.6–48.7%, respectively. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) of litchi pericarp decreased by 17.6% and 58.7% at 4 °C, and by 23.4% and 66.0% at RT, respectively. The results indicated that storage at 4 °C preserved more phenolics and retained higher antioxidant activity in litchi pericarp compared to storage at RT, suggesting that storage at 4 °C should be considered as a more effective method for slowing down the degradation of litchi pericarp phenolics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polyphenols and Health)
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Open AccessArticle Polyphenols from Acorn Leaves (Quercus liaotungensis) Protect Pancreatic Beta Cells and Their Inhibitory Activity against α-Glucosidase and Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2167; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092167
Received: 24 July 2018 / Revised: 22 August 2018 / Accepted: 23 August 2018 / Published: 28 August 2018
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Abstract
Acorn leaves, which possess potential pharmacologic effects, are traditionally consumed as food in China. Phytochemical investigations of acorn leaves yielded one new and 25 known polyphenols, and their structures were identified by extensive spectroscopic analysis. Three antidiabetes assays were conducted. Compound 2 considerably
[...] Read more.
Acorn leaves, which possess potential pharmacologic effects, are traditionally consumed as food in China. Phytochemical investigations of acorn leaves yielded one new and 25 known polyphenols, and their structures were identified by extensive spectroscopic analysis. Three antidiabetes assays were conducted. Compound 2 considerably increased the survival of pancreatic beta cells by reducing the production of reactive oxygen species and enhancing the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione in MIN6 cells damaged by H2O2. The preliminary mechanism by which compound 2 protects pancreatic beta cells was through the nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/heme oxygenase-1 HO-1 pathway. Most of the tested isolates showed strong inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B. The IC50 values of most compounds were much lower than those of the positive control. The results suggest that polyphenols from acorn leaves are potential functional food ingredients that can be used as antidiabetic agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polyphenols and Health)
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Open AccessArticle Raspberry Polyphenolic Extract Regulates Obesogenic Signals in Hepatocytes
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2103; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092103
Received: 20 July 2018 / Revised: 8 August 2018 / Accepted: 18 August 2018 / Published: 21 August 2018
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The aim of this in vitro study was to examine the effect of raspberry polyphenolic extract on the immune-metabolic molecular mechanisms activated by obesity-related signals in hepatocytes (HB-8965®). Alterations in endosomal/lysosomal activity (neutral red uptake assay, NR), the expression of selected
[...] Read more.
The aim of this in vitro study was to examine the effect of raspberry polyphenolic extract on the immune-metabolic molecular mechanisms activated by obesity-related signals in hepatocytes (HB-8965®). Alterations in endosomal/lysosomal activity (neutral red uptake assay, NR), the expression of selected genes involved with lipid oxidation, and metabolism and inflammation processes in the liver were studied. Hepatocytes were treated with plasma collected from Wistar rats that were fed a high-fat diet (HF), raspberry polyphenolic extract (PP), serine-type protease inhibitors as an agonist of TLR4 (TD) or a combination of PP with HF or TD treatments. The PP added to the experimental treatments modulated hepatic immune-metabolic mechanisms through the upregulation of STAT1, ANGPTL4, and CD44, as well as considerably reducing the NR uptake and downregulation of COX-2 and the multifunctional protein AhR. The kinetic analysis of AhR expression revealed that HF-related molecular mechanisms activated AhR mRNA expression earlier than PP initiated the regulatory effect. In conclusion, PP might be considered a valuable dietary agent that regulates obesity-related signals in hepatocytes. Moreover, taking AhR kinetic behavior into consideration, it can be assumed that PP might modulate the severity of the HF-induced downstream metabolic signaling of AhR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polyphenols and Health)
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Open AccessArticle Nontargeted Metabolomics for Phenolic and Polyhydroxy Compounds Profile of Pepper (Piper nigrum L.) Products Based on LC-MS/MS Analysis
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 1985; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23081985
Received: 16 July 2018 / Revised: 3 August 2018 / Accepted: 7 August 2018 / Published: 9 August 2018
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In the present study, nontargeted metabolomics was used to screen the phenolic and polyhydroxy compounds in pepper products. A total of 186 phenolic and polyhydroxy compounds, including anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, catechin derivatives, flavanones, flavones, flavonols, isoflavones and 3-O-p-coumaroyl quinic acid
[...] Read more.
In the present study, nontargeted metabolomics was used to screen the phenolic and polyhydroxy compounds in pepper products. A total of 186 phenolic and polyhydroxy compounds, including anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, catechin derivatives, flavanones, flavones, flavonols, isoflavones and 3-O-p-coumaroyl quinic acid O-hexoside, quinic acid (polyhydroxy compounds), etc. For the selected 50 types of phenolic compound, except malvidin 3,5-diglucoside (malvin), l-epicatechin and 4′-hydroxy-5,7-dimethoxyflavanone, other compound contents were present in high contents in freeze-dried pepper berries, and pinocembrin was relatively abundant in two kinds of pepper products. The score plots of principal component analysis indicated that the pepper samples can be classified into four groups on the basis of the type pepper processing. This study provided a comprehensive profile of the phenolic and polyhydroxy compounds of different pepper products and partly clarified the factors responsible for different metabolite profiles in ongoing studies and the changes of phenolic compounds for the browning mechanism of black pepper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polyphenols and Health)
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Open AccessArticle Antioxidant Activity of Selected Polyphenolics in Yeast Cells: The Case Study of Montenegrin Merlot Wine
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 1971; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23081971
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 30 July 2018 / Accepted: 31 July 2018 / Published: 7 August 2018
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Abstract
Screens of antioxidant activity (AA) of various natural products have been a focus of the research community worldwide. This work aimed to differentiate selected samples of Merlot wines originated from Montenegro, with regard to phenolic profile and antioxidant capacity studied by survival rate,
[...] Read more.
Screens of antioxidant activity (AA) of various natural products have been a focus of the research community worldwide. This work aimed to differentiate selected samples of Merlot wines originated from Montenegro, with regard to phenolic profile and antioxidant capacity studied by survival rate, total sulfhydryl groups and activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase and catalase in H2O2–stressed Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. In this study, DPPH assay was also performed. Higher total phenolic content leads to an enhanced AA under both conditions. The same trend was observed for catechin and gallic acid, the most abundant phenolics in the examined wine samples. Finally, the findings of an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model were in a good agreement (r2 = 0.978) with the experimental data. All tested samples exhibited a protective effect in H2O2–stressed yeast cells. Pre-treatment with examined wines increased survival in H2O2–stressed cells and shifted antioxidative defense towards GPx–mediated defense. Finally, sensitivity analysis of obtained ANN model highlights the complexity of the impact that variations in the concentrations of specific phenolic components have on the antioxidant defense system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polyphenols and Health)
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Open AccessArticle Alpha-Mangostin-Rich Extracts from Mangosteen Pericarp: Optimization of Green Extraction Protocol and Evaluation of Biological Activity
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 1852; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23081852
Received: 14 June 2018 / Revised: 21 July 2018 / Accepted: 24 July 2018 / Published: 25 July 2018
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Abstract
Since α-mangostin in mangosteen fruits was reported to be the main compound able to provide natural antioxidants, the microwave-assisted extraction process to obtain high-quality α-mangostin from mangosteen pericarp (Garcinia mangostana L.) was optimized using a central composite design and response surface methodology.
[...] Read more.
Since α-mangostin in mangosteen fruits was reported to be the main compound able to provide natural antioxidants, the microwave-assisted extraction process to obtain high-quality α-mangostin from mangosteen pericarp (Garcinia mangostana L.) was optimized using a central composite design and response surface methodology. The parameters examined included extraction time, microwave power, and solvent percentage. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of optimized and non-optimized extracts was evaluated. Ethyl acetate as a green solvent exhibited the highest concentration of α-mangostin, followed by dichloromethane, ethanol, and water. The highest α-mangostin concentration in mangosteen pericarp of 121.01 mg/g dry matter (DM) was predicted at 3.16 min, 189.20 W, and 72.40% (v/v). The verification of experimental results under these optimized conditions showed that the α-mangostin value for the mangosteen pericarp was 120.68 mg/g DM. The predicted models were successfully developed to extract α-mangostin from the mangosteen pericarp. No significant differences were observed between the predicted and the experimental α-mangostin values, indicating that the developed models are accurate. The analysis of the extracts for secondary metabolites showed that the total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) increased significantly in the optimized extracts (OE) compared to the non-optimized extracts (NOE). Additionally, trans-ferulic acid and catechin were abundant among the compounds identified. In addition, the optimized extract of mangosteen pericarp with its higher α-mangostin and secondary metabolite concentrations exhibited higher antioxidant activities with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 20.64 µg/mL compared to those of the NOE (28.50 µg/mL). The OE exhibited the highest antibacterial activity, particularly against Gram-positive bacteria. In this study, the microwave-assisted extraction process of α-mangostin from mangosteen pericarp was successfully optimized, indicating the accuracy of the models developed, which will be usable in a larger-scale extraction process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polyphenols and Health)
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Open AccessArticle The Use of Juçara (Euterpe edulis Mart.) Supplementation for Suppression of NF-κB Pathway in the Hypothalamus after High-Fat Diet in Wistar Rats
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1814; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071814
Received: 12 June 2018 / Revised: 17 July 2018 / Accepted: 18 July 2018 / Published: 21 July 2018
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Abstract
Obesity is associated with modern diets that are rich in saturated fatty acids. These dietary patterns are linked to low-grade proinflammatory mechanisms, such as the toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) pathway rapidly activated through high-fat diets. Juçara is a berry rich in
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Obesity is associated with modern diets that are rich in saturated fatty acids. These dietary patterns are linked to low-grade proinflammatory mechanisms, such as the toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) pathway rapidly activated through high-fat diets. Juçara is a berry rich in anthocyanins and unsaturated fatty acids, which prevents obesity and associated comorbidities. We evaluated the effect of different doses of freeze-dried juçara pulp on NF-κB pathway after the consumption of short-term high-fat diet. Male Wistar rats with ad libitum access to food and water were divided into four groups: Control diet (C), high-fat diet (HFC), high-fat diet with 0.25% juçara (HFJ 0.25%), and high-fat diet with 0.5% juçara (HFJ 0.5%). Energy intake and body weight gain were increased in HFC and HFJ 0.5% groups compared to C group. The hypothalamus weight reduced in the HFC group compared to C and HFJ 0.25% groups. Cytokines, MYD88, TRAF6, and pNF-κBp50 levels in the hypothalamus, serum triacylglycerol, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), and free fatty acid levels were improved in the HFJ 0.25% group. In summary, the HFJ 0.25% group had better protective effects than those in the HFJ 0.5%. Therefore, 0.25% juçara can be used to protect against central inflammation through the high-fat diet-induced NF-κB pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polyphenols and Health)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Biosynthesis, Chemistry, and Pharmacology of Polyphenols from Chinese Salvia Species: A Review
Molecules 2019, 24(1), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24010155
Received: 11 December 2018 / Revised: 27 December 2018 / Accepted: 29 December 2018 / Published: 2 January 2019
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Abstract
Salvia species find widespread application in food and pharmaceutical products owing to their large polyphenol content. The main polyphenols in Chinese Salvia species are phenolic acids and flavonoids, which exhibit anti-oxygenation, anti-ischemia-reperfusion injury, anti-thrombosis, anti-tumour, and other therapeutic effects. However, there are few
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Salvia species find widespread application in food and pharmaceutical products owing to their large polyphenol content. The main polyphenols in Chinese Salvia species are phenolic acids and flavonoids, which exhibit anti-oxygenation, anti-ischemia-reperfusion injury, anti-thrombosis, anti-tumour, and other therapeutic effects. However, there are few peer-reviewed studies on polyphenols in Chinese Salvia species, especially flavonoids. This review is a systematic, comprehensive collation of available information on the biosynthesis, chemistry, and pharmacology of Chinese Salvia species. We believe that our study makes a significant contribution to the literature because this review provides a detailed literary resource on the currently available information on various polyphenolic components of Chinese Salvia species, including their bioactivities and structures. In addition, the study provides information that would encourage further investigation of this plant material as a natural resource with potential for a broad range of applications in various industries, such as the food and pharmaceutical industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polyphenols and Health)
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Open AccessReview Dietary Polyphenols and Periodontitis—A Mini-Review of Literature
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1786; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071786
Received: 10 June 2018 / Revised: 14 July 2018 / Accepted: 18 July 2018 / Published: 20 July 2018
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Abstract
Periodontitis, which is a chronic infection and disease of the periodontium, is a significant global health burden and is linked to other chronic health conditions such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Dietary polyphenols present in a wide variety of plant-based foods, herbs, and
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Periodontitis, which is a chronic infection and disease of the periodontium, is a significant global health burden and is linked to other chronic health conditions such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Dietary polyphenols present in a wide variety of plant-based foods, herbs, and botanicals have been shown to exert antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and reduced osteoclast and alveolar bone loss activities in animal models of periodontitis. Polyphenol-containing beverages and foods especially green tea and its active catechin epigallocatechin-3-gallate, cranberries, pomegranates, and fruit and vegetable extracts have reported bacteriostatic/bactericidal activity against microbial species such as P. gingivalis and shown total bacterial burden in clinical studies. These polyphenols also exhibit anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, which have the potential to impact various biological mechanisms for reducing the initiation and progression of periodontitis. The main objective of this mini-review is to focus on the mechanisms of action of dietary polyphenols in improving the pathophysiology underlying chronic inflammatory diseases like periodontitis based on pre-clinical and clinical models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polyphenols and Health)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Author: Arpita Basu1, Emily Masek1, Jeffrey Ebersole2
Affiliation:
1 Kinesiology and Nutrition Sciences, University of Nevada at Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV, USA
2 School of Dental Medicine, University of Nevada at Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV, USA
Tentative title: Dietary polyphenols and periodontitis- a mini-review of literature
Tentative abstract: Periodontitis, a chronic disease of the periodontium has been emerging as a significant global health burden, and linked to other conditions such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Dietary polyphenols present in a wide variety of plant-based foods, herbs and botanicals have been shown to exert antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and reduced osteoclast and alveolar bone loss activities in animal models of periodontitis. Polyphenol-containing beverages and foods, especially green tea and its active catechin epigallocatechin-3-gallate, cranberries, pomegranates and fruit and vegetable extracts have been reported to exert bactericidal activity against species such as P. gingivalis and general colony forming units in clinical studies. These polyphenols also exhibit anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, thus representing various mechanisms of reducing progression of periodontitis. The main objective of this mini-review is to focus on the mechanisms of action of dietary polyphenols in improving the pathophysiology underlying periodontitis in pre-clinical and clinical models.

Author: Minhui Li
Tentative title: The Polyphenols from Salvia Species and their Pharmacological Activities
Tentative abstract: Nowadays, the polyphenols from famous Chinese tradiational medicine Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge) has been used as a functional food.
Polyphenols such as phenolic acids were found in Salvia species. In Salvia species, phenolic acids are chiefly caffeoyl depsidic glycosides. According to the number of caffeic acid units, phenolic acids are divided into unimers, dimers, trimers, tetramer , and other oligomers. Among them the most abundant forms are trimers and tetramers, such as lithospermic acid, salvianolic acid A, salvianolic acid B.
Phenolic acids are used to treat various diseases, particular the cardiovascular and immune system diseases. It can also be used to treat the ant-ibacterial, anti-diabetic, and anti-viral activities.
The review will intend to summarize the polyphenols from Salvia species and their pharmacological activities to make better use of the Salvia species.

Author: Dongmin Liu
Affiliation: Department of Human Nutrition Faculty of Health Sciences ILSB, Mail Code 0913
Corporate Research Center 1981 Kraft Drive, Room 1030 Virginia Tech Blacksburg, VA
Tentative title: Small molecule kaempferol protects against streptozotocin-induced diabetes through suppressing hepatic glucose production
Tentative abstract: In both insulin-deficient type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes, the increase in the activity of the key enzymes that control gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis in the liver causes an increase in the rate of hepatic glucose production, which is the main contributor to the development of hyperglycemia, in particular, fasting hyperglycemia. In the present study, we investigated whether kaempferol, a naturally occurring flavonol present in some medicinal herbs and certain types of foods, can be used to ameliorate diabetes in an insulin-deficient mouse model and further explored the mechanism underlying the anti-diabetic action of this compound. We show that oral administration of kaempferol (50 mg/kg) to streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice significantly ameliorated hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance. After 12 wks of treatment, the incidence of overt diabetes was decreased from 100% to 77.8%. This effect was associated with reduced hepatic glucose production and increased glucose oxidation in the muscle of diabetic mice, whereas body weight (BW), food intake, body composition, or plasma insulin and glucagon levels were not affected. On the molecular level, kaempferol treatment restored hexokinase activity in the liver and skeletal muscle while reduced glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis via inhibiting pyruvate carboxylase in the liver. These findings suggest that kaempferol holds a great potential to ameliorate diabetes by improving glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle and suppressing hepatic gluconeogenesis.

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