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Special Issue "Recent Advances in Studies of Food and Beverages"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Analytical Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Jacek Namieśnik

Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Gdańsk University of Technology, Gdańsk, Poland
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Interests: green analytical chemistry; analytics and monitoring of environmental pollutants; bioactive compounds in food; sample preparation techniques
Guest Editor
Dr. Justyna Płotka-Wasylka

Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Gdańsk University of Technology, Gdańsk, Poland
Website | E-Mail
Interests: green analytical chemistry; GC-MS; sample preparation; microextraction techniques; food; beverages; contaminants of food; spectroscopic techniques; bioactive compounds

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Food and its safety has become the topic of globally increasing research efforts, including food and its quality analysis. The interest of the scientific community in food and beverages safety is visible in thousands of scientific papers focused on this area. Analyses to ensure food and beverages safety and quality are more relevant now because of rapid changes in the quantity, diversity, and mobility of these products. Food chemistry, as well as food-contamination, must be determined to maintain health and up-hold laws, as well as for ethical and cultural concerns. In addition, the determination of bioactive compounds in food and beverages, as well as the investigation of its occurrence under different storage conditions, are other problems related to this topic. All of these problems can be solved by application of analytical techniques.

The main aims of the present Special Issue on "Recent Advances in Studies of Food and Beverages" belong to both fundamental studies, as well as real-case multidisciplinary investigations. Contributions to this issue, both in the form of original research or review articles, have the broad scope to provide an overview of current trends in analytical and bioanalytical strategies in food quality and safety control. We believe that this Special Issue will present challenging scientific approaches and recent and emerging issues and visions for future. Thus, it covers, but is not limited to, new methods and novel applications in food and beverages analysis; methods for the determination of both major and minor components of food, especially nutrients and non-nutrient bioactive compounds; characterization, purification, and validation of chiral or achiral bioactive compounds that occur in food and beverages; analysis of effects of processing on the composition, quality, and safety of foods; methods concerned with the chemical forms in food, nutrient bioavailability, and nutritional status. Studies that involve GC, HPLC, SFC, and their hyphenation with mass spectrometry, as well as spectroscopic techniques and others, are strongly encouraged.

Prof. Dr. Jacek Namieśnik
Dr. Justyna Płotka-Wasylka
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Food and beverages
  • Analytical techniques
  • Microextraction techniques
  • Food bioactive compounds
  • Food quality
  • Sensor analysis
  • Sensory evaluation of food
  • Food composition

Published Papers (21 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Multidisciplinary Approach to Characterizing the Fingerprint of Italian EVOO
Molecules 2019, 24(8), 1457; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24081457
Received: 13 March 2019 / Revised: 10 April 2019 / Accepted: 11 April 2019 / Published: 12 April 2019
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Abstract
Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is characterized by its aroma and other sensory attributes. These are determined by the geographical origin of the oil, extraction process, place of cultivation, soil, tree varieties, and storage conditions. In the present work, an array of metal [...] Read more.
Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is characterized by its aroma and other sensory attributes. These are determined by the geographical origin of the oil, extraction process, place of cultivation, soil, tree varieties, and storage conditions. In the present work, an array of metal oxide gas sensors (called S3), in combination with the SPME-GC-MS technique, was applied to the discrimination of different types of olive oil (phase 1) and to the identification of four varieties of Garda PDO extra virgin olive oils coming from west and east shores of Lake Garda (phase 2). The chemical analysis method involving SPME-GC-MS provided a complete volatile component of the extra virgin olive oils that was used to relate to the S3 multisensory responses. Furthermore, principal component analysis (PCA) and k-Nearest Neighbors (k-NN) analysis were carried out on the set of data acquired from the sensor array to determine the best sensors for these tasks and to assess the capability of the system to identify various olive oil samples. k-NN classification rates were found to be 94.3% and 94.7% in the two phases, respectively. These first results are encouraging and show a good capability of the S3 instrument to distinguish different oil samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Studies of Food and Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Processing Conditions on the Physicochemical Properties of a New-Type of Nutritional Drink—Millet Skim Milk Beverage
Molecules 2019, 24(7), 1338; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24071338
Received: 25 February 2019 / Revised: 28 March 2019 / Accepted: 1 April 2019 / Published: 4 April 2019
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Abstract
In this experiment, a new type of nutritional drink—millet skim milk beverage—was developed based on combining skim milk with millet and nutritional resource utilization. The effects of NaHCO3 concentrations in soaking water (0, 0.5 g/100 mL, and 1.0 g/100 mL) and blanching [...] Read more.
In this experiment, a new type of nutritional drink—millet skim milk beverage—was developed based on combining skim milk with millet and nutritional resource utilization. The effects of NaHCO3 concentrations in soaking water (0, 0.5 g/100 mL, and 1.0 g/100 mL) and blanching time (0, 15, and 30 min) on the physicochemical properties of millet skim milk were studied. The parameter changes caused by the above treatment were evaluated via color analysis, physicochemical analysis and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Soaking in water containing NaHCO3 had a significant (p < 0.05) effect on pH, specific gravity, viscosity, and stability. The blanching treatment had a significant (p < 0.05) influence on the total solids of the samples. However, blanching only slightly affected the physical properties of the samples. In addition, soaking and blanching treatments had significant (p < 0.05) effects on the b* value of millet skim milk beverage, whereas there was no significant (p > 0.05) change in L* and a*. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the blanching treatment had a significant (p < 0.05) effect on band 5 and band 6 and that the soaking treatment also had a significant effect on the bands of 6 and 7 (p < 0.05). By analyzing the substantial effects, we concluded that the optimum process conditions were soaking with 0.5 g/100 mL NaHCO3 solution and blanching for 15 min. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Studies of Food and Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Selected Endocrine Disrupters Fraction Including Bisphenols Extracted from Daily Products, Food Packaging and Treated Wastewater Using Optimized Solid-Phase Extraction and Temperature-Dependent Inclusion Chromatography
Molecules 2019, 24(7), 1285; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24071285
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 22 March 2019 / Accepted: 30 March 2019 / Published: 2 April 2019
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Abstract
The aim of this research is to demonstrate the concept and ability for the fast and preliminary screening of complex food and environmental samples for the presence of endocrine disrupters fractions, consisting of low-molecular mass micropollutants, particularly various bisphenols (A, B, C, E, [...] Read more.
The aim of this research is to demonstrate the concept and ability for the fast and preliminary screening of complex food and environmental samples for the presence of endocrine disrupters fractions, consisting of low-molecular mass micropollutants, particularly various bisphenols (A, B, C, E, F, S, Z, AF, AP, BP and FL). The developed analytical protocol for this research requires two main steps: (i) optimized solid phase extraction (SPE) for selective isolation, purification and pre-concentration of target fraction, and (ii) selective temperature-dependent inclusion chromatography for samples analysis via a HPLC-UV-VisDAD system using isocratic elution and internal standard quantification approach. The chromatographic experiment revealed that both β-CD and its hydroxypropyl derivative strongly interact with selected bisphenols. This is in contrast to the steroids and PAHs molecules investigated previously, where a strong interaction with β-cyclodextrin was observed. Integrated areas derived from acquired chromatographic profiles for each individual sample were used as the simple classification variable enabling samples comparison. We demonstrated that the proposed analytical protocol allows for fast estimation of EDC fractions in various daily use products, food and environmental samples. The materials of interest were selected due to the presence in surface water ecosystems of their residues, and finally, in raw wastewater including rice bags, plastic bags, cloths, sanitary towels, fish baits and various plastic foils from food products. Treated sewage water released directly to the environment from a municipal treatment plant (Jamno, Koszalin) was also investigated. It has been demonstrated that a whole range of low-molecular mass compounds, which may be detected using UV-Vis detector, can easily be emitted from various in daily use products. The presence of micropollutants in treated wastewater, water ecosystems and plastic waste utilization via technological wastewater treatment processes must be addressed, especially in terms of microplastic-based pollutants acting as endocrine disrupters. It is hoped that the proposed simple analytical protocol will be useful for fast sample classification or selection prior to advanced targeted analysis involving the more accurate quantification of specific analytes using e.g., mass spectrometry detectors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Studies of Food and Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle
Composition and Rheological Properties of Polysaccharide Extracted from Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) Seed
Molecules 2019, 24(7), 1218; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24071218
Received: 4 March 2019 / Revised: 25 March 2019 / Accepted: 25 March 2019 / Published: 28 March 2019
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Abstract
A polysaccharide was extracted in high yield from tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed (TSP) by acidic hot water extraction and ethanol precipitation. It was composed of 86.2% neutral polysaccharide, 5.4% uronic acid and 1.3% protein. The molecular weight of TSP was estimated [...] Read more.
A polysaccharide was extracted in high yield from tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed (TSP) by acidic hot water extraction and ethanol precipitation. It was composed of 86.2% neutral polysaccharide, 5.4% uronic acid and 1.3% protein. The molecular weight of TSP was estimated to be about 1735 kDa, with glucose, xylose, and galactose in a molar ratio of 2.9:1.8:1.0 as the major monosaccharides. The steady shear and viscoelastic properties of TSP aqueous solutions were investigated by dynamic rheometry. Results revealed that TSP aqueous solution at a concentration above 0.5% (w/v) exhibited non-Newtonian shear-thinning behavior. Dynamic oscillatory analysis revealed that 10% (w/v) TSP showed as a “weak gel” structure. Apparent viscosities and viscoelastic parameters of TSP solutions decreased drastically in an alkaline solution of pH > 10, but slightly influenced by acidic solution, high temperature and the presence of salt ions and sucrose. These results indicated that TSP possessed excellent pH-resistance and thermo-stability, which might be suitable for applications in acidic beverages and high-temperature processed foodstuffs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Studies of Food and Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle
Multielemental Analysis of Various Kinds of Whisky
Molecules 2019, 24(7), 1193; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24071193
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 19 March 2019 / Accepted: 22 March 2019 / Published: 27 March 2019
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Abstract
Whisky (whiskey) consists of many trace elements coming from the raw materials used in its fermentation, distillation and maturation processes. These ingredients assure the exceptional organoleptic characteristics of the beverage. Their analysis is important to better control the stages of fermentation, distillation, taste [...] Read more.
Whisky (whiskey) consists of many trace elements coming from the raw materials used in its fermentation, distillation and maturation processes. These ingredients assure the exceptional organoleptic characteristics of the beverage. Their analysis is important to better control the stages of fermentation, distillation, taste repeatability and for product quality assurance as well as from the brand protection point of view. This article presents the usefulness of modern analytical techniques based on elemental analysis. ICP mass spectrometry and CV atomic absorption spectroscopy were applied to distinguish whisky produced in Scotland from whisky coming from Ireland and the United States. The collected semi-quantitative data were used for multivariate analysis performed using the Statistica 10.0 software. The results showed that Irish whiskey is characterized by quite a high amount of Ba and Ti compared with other samples, which made it possible to distinguish this sample from the others. No strict correlation was found between the type of whisky and the amount of trace elements, however, the projection of objects on the first two components revealed that single malt samples created one cluster. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Studies of Food and Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle
The Quality of DNA Isolated from Processed Food and Feed via Different Extraction Procedures
Molecules 2019, 24(6), 1188; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24061188
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 21 March 2019 / Accepted: 22 March 2019 / Published: 26 March 2019
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Abstract
The extraction of DNA is a critical step for species identification by PCR analysis in processed food and feed products. In this study, eight DNA extraction procedures were compared—DNeasy Blood and Tissue Kit, DNeasy mericon Food Kit, chemagic DNA Tissue 10 Kit, Food [...] Read more.
The extraction of DNA is a critical step for species identification by PCR analysis in processed food and feed products. In this study, eight DNA extraction procedures were compared—DNeasy Blood and Tissue Kit, DNeasy mericon Food Kit, chemagic DNA Tissue 10 Kit, Food DNA Isolation Kit, UltraPrep Genomic DNA Food Mini Prep Kit, High Pure PCR Template Preparation Kit, phenol—chloroform extraction, and NucleoSpin Food—Using self-prepared samples from both raw and heat-processed and/or mechanically treated muscles and different types of meat products and pet food (pork, beef, and chicken). The yield, purity, and suitability of DNA for PCR amplification was evaluated. Additionally, comparisons between the effectiveness of various extraction methods were made with regard to price, and labor- and time-intensiveness. It was found that the DNeasy mericon Food Kit was the optimal choice for the extraction of DNA from raw muscle, heat-treated muscle, and homemade meat products from multiple and single species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Studies of Food and Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle
Determination of Antioxidant Capacity, Phenolics and Volatile Maillard Reaction Products in Rye-Buckwheat Biscuits Supplemented with 3β-d-Rutinoside
Molecules 2019, 24(5), 982; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24050982
Received: 14 February 2019 / Revised: 6 March 2019 / Accepted: 6 March 2019 / Published: 11 March 2019
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Abstract
The Maillard reaction (MR) is responsible for the development of color, taste and aroma in bakery products though the formation of numerous aroma compounds such as pyrazines, pyrroles and aldehydes, nonvolatile taste active compounds and melanoidins. In this article, we investigate the effect [...] Read more.
The Maillard reaction (MR) is responsible for the development of color, taste and aroma in bakery products though the formation of numerous aroma compounds such as pyrazines, pyrroles and aldehydes, nonvolatile taste active compounds and melanoidins. In this article, we investigate the effect of quercetin 3β-D-rutinoside (rutin) supplementation, at the level of 5–50 mg per 100 g, of rye-buckwheat biscuits on the formation of phenolics and volatile Maillard reaction products (MRPs) such as pyrazines, furfuryl alcohol and furfural, determined by headspace solid phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC–MS), in addition to the effect on the antioxidant capacity. The study confirmed that rutin was stable under baking conditions as showed by its content in rye-buckwheat biscuits. Supplementation of biscuits with increasing amounts of rutin resulted in the progressive increase of total phenolics and antioxidant capacity measured by DPPH and OxHLIA assays, but it had no effect on their sensory quality. From the eighteen compounds identified by HS-SPME/GC–MS in the volatile fraction of biscuits were quantitated as a compounds-of-interest: methylpyrazine, ethylpyrazine, 2,3-; 2,5- and 2,6-dimethylpyrazines, as well as furfural, furfuryl alcohol and hexanal. The rutin supplementation of biscuits might be one of the factors to influence the formation of both desirable volatile compounds and undesirable toxic compounds. In conclusion, this study indicates for the significant role of polyphenols on the formation of volatile compounds in biscuits with possible future application in the development of healthy bakery products with high antioxidant capacity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Studies of Food and Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle
Study on Speciation of As, Cr, and Sb in Bottled Flavored Drinking Water Samples Using Advanced Analytical Techniques IEC/SEC-HPLC/ICP-DRC-MS and ESI-MS/MS
Molecules 2019, 24(4), 668; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24040668
Received: 15 January 2019 / Revised: 11 February 2019 / Accepted: 12 February 2019 / Published: 14 February 2019
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Abstract
The main aim of the research was to develop a complementary analytical approach consisting of bespoke speciation analysis and non-targeted speciation analysis of As, Sb, and Cr in flavored bottled drinking water samples using HPLC/ICP-DRC-MS and ESI-MS/MS. The scope of two previously developed [...] Read more.
The main aim of the research was to develop a complementary analytical approach consisting of bespoke speciation analysis and non-targeted speciation analysis of As, Sb, and Cr in flavored bottled drinking water samples using HPLC/ICP-DRC-MS and ESI-MS/MS. The scope of two previously developed analytical procedures, (1) multielemental speciation procedure for AsIII, AsV, CrVI, SbIII, and SbV analysis and (2) arsenic speciation procedure for AsB, AsIII, DMA, MMA, and AsV quantification, was extended to the analysis of a new sample type in terms of bespoke speciation analysis. As for the non-targeted speciation, analysis size exclusion chromatography was used with ICP-MS and a complementary technique, ESI-MS/MS, was used for the organic species of As, Sb, and Cr screening. Full validation of procedures 1 and 2 was conducted. Procedure 1 and 2 were characterized with precision values in the range from 2.5% to 5.5% and from 3.6% to 7.2%, respectively. Obtained recoveries ranged from 97% to 106% and from 99% to 106% for procedures 1 and 2, respectively. Expanded uncertainties calculated for procedures 1 and 2 ranged from 6.1% to 9.4% and from 7.4% to 9.9%, respectively. The applicability of the proposed procedures was tested on bottled drinking water samples. Results for the real samples in procedure 1 were in the range from 0.286 ± 0.027 [μg L−1] to 0.414 ± 0.039 [μg L−1] for AsIII, from 0.900 ± 0.083 [μg L−1] to 3.26 ± 0.30 [μg L−1] for AsV, and from 0.201 ± 0.012 [μg L−1] to 0.524 ± 0.032 [μg L−1] for SbV. CrVI and SbIII were not detected in any sample. As for procedure 2, results were in the range from 0.0541 ± 0.0053 [μg L−1] to 0.554 ± 0.054 [μg L−1] for AsB. Results for AsIII and AsV obtained with procedure 2 were in good accordance with results obtained with procedure 1. DMA and MMA were not detected in any sample. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Studies of Food and Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle
Total Arsenic and Arsenic Species Determination in Freshwater Fish by ICP-DRC-MS and HPLC/ICP-DRC-MS Techniques
Molecules 2019, 24(3), 607; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24030607
Received: 4 January 2019 / Revised: 29 January 2019 / Accepted: 7 February 2019 / Published: 9 February 2019
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Abstract
Analytical methods for the determination of total arsenic (TAs) and arsenic species (arsenite—As(III), arsenate—As(V), monomethylarsenic acid—MMA, dimethylarsenic acid—DMA and arsenobetaine—AsB) in freshwater fish samples were developed. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with dynamic reaction cell (ICP-DRC-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography hyphenated to ICP-DRC-MS [...] Read more.
Analytical methods for the determination of total arsenic (TAs) and arsenic species (arsenite—As(III), arsenate—As(V), monomethylarsenic acid—MMA, dimethylarsenic acid—DMA and arsenobetaine—AsB) in freshwater fish samples were developed. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with dynamic reaction cell (ICP-DRC-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography hyphenated to ICP-DRC-MS were used for TAs and arsenic species determination, respectively. The DRC with oxygen as a reaction gas was used. Sample preparation, digestion, and extraction were optimized. Microwave assisted digestion and extraction provided good recovery and extraction efficiency. Arsenic species were fully separated in 8 min using 10 mmol L−1 of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate and 10 mmol L−1 of ammonium nitrate. Overlapping of AsB and As(III) of arsenic species in the presence of a high concentration of AsB and trace amounts of As(III) were studied. Detailed validation of analytical procedures proved the reliability of analytical measurements. Both procedures were characterized by short-term and long-term precision: 2.2% (TAs) up to 4.2% (AsB), and 3.6% (TAs) up to 7.2% (DMA), respectively. Limits of detection (LD) were in the range from 0.056 µg L−1 for TAs to 0.15 µg L−1 for As(V). Obtained recoveries were in the range of 85%–116%. Developed methods were applied to freshwater fish samples analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Studies of Food and Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle
Formation and Alterations of the Potentially Harmful Maillard Reaction Products during the Production and Storage of Brown Fermented Milk
Molecules 2019, 24(2), 272; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24020272
Received: 5 December 2018 / Revised: 5 January 2019 / Accepted: 5 January 2019 / Published: 12 January 2019
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Abstract
To improve the quality and safety of brown fermented milk (BFM), the formation and alterations of potentially harmful Maillard reaction products (MRPs), including 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG), methylglyoxal (MGO), 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furfural (HMF), acrylamide and flavour components were investigated during the browning, fermentation and commercial storage. MRPs [...] Read more.
To improve the quality and safety of brown fermented milk (BFM), the formation and alterations of potentially harmful Maillard reaction products (MRPs), including 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG), methylglyoxal (MGO), 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furfural (HMF), acrylamide and flavour components were investigated during the browning, fermentation and commercial storage. MRPs were shown to be produced mainly during the browning stage. The levels of different substances varied during the fermentation and commercial storage stage. The proportion and type of carboxylic acids in the flavour components significantly increased during the fermentation stage. Browning index of milk during the browning stage was shown to be positively associated with the 3-DG (Pearson’s r = 0.9632), MGO (Pearson’s r = 0.9915), HMF (Pearson’s r = 0.9772), and acrylamide (Pearson’s r = 0.7910) levels and the total percentage of the flavour components from four different categories (Pearson’s r = 0.7407). Changes in physicochemical properties of BFM during production not only contribute to predict the formation of potentially unhealthy MRPs, but also Lactobacillus species used for the fermentation should be carefully selected to improve the quality of this product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Studies of Food and Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle
LC–Q–TOF–MS/MS Identification of Specific Non-Meat Proteins and Peptides in Beef Burgers
Received: 3 December 2018 / Revised: 19 December 2018 / Accepted: 20 December 2018 / Published: 21 December 2018
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Abstract
Beef burgers are a popular food choice, due to their taste and convenience. The extensive range of beef burgers with different flavours currently offered on the market is adding to their growing consumption. This study detected and identified specific non-meat proteins and peptide [...] Read more.
Beef burgers are a popular food choice, due to their taste and convenience. The extensive range of beef burgers with different flavours currently offered on the market is adding to their growing consumption. This study detected and identified specific non-meat proteins and peptide markers originating from functional preparations, i.e., powdered mixes of protein additives and spices, used as meat substitutes in the production of ready-to-cook beef burgers. Twenty-eight soy proteins, including isoforms (nine milk-, three pea- and one beetroot-specific protein) were found concurrently with a set of peptide markers unique to soy glycinin and β-conglycinin, pea vicilin and provicilin, milk αS1-casein, β-lactoglobulin, as well as beetroot elongation factor 2. Soy and beetroot proteins and peptides were observed in all burgers containing additives. Milk and pea proteins were included in powdered mixes but were not detected in burgers, indicating that their content was below the limit of detection. The study demonstrates that the proposed method can be implemented to analyse protein additives in cooked burgers; however, the presence of low amounts of additives, below 1–2%, should be further confirmed by using a more sensitive triple quadrupole instrument. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Studies of Food and Beverages)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Determination of Metals Content in Wine Samples by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry
Molecules 2018, 23(11), 2886; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23112886
Received: 3 October 2018 / Revised: 22 October 2018 / Accepted: 1 November 2018 / Published: 5 November 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1286 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Knowledge about the metal content of wine is very important, for many reasons. Depending on the element, its quantity varies in wine from ng/L to mg/L. Despite the fact that metals are not directly connected to the taste and aroma of the wine, [...] Read more.
Knowledge about the metal content of wine is very important, for many reasons. Depending on the element, its quantity varies in wine from ng/L to mg/L. Despite the fact that metals are not directly connected to the taste and aroma of the wine, their content should be determined and controlled, because excess is undesirable, and in some cases prohibited, due to potential toxicity. Several analytical procedures for metal determination are applied. However, due to sensitivity, low limit of detection and speed of analysis, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is one of the most frequently used techniques. The aim of this study was to reveal specific relationships between the wine samples or between the chemical variables in order to classify the wines according to their metal content by application of chemometric analysis. For metals content determination, two techniques, ICP-MS and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), were applied. Data obtained showed that none of the wine samples surpassed the toxic levels reported for metals in the literature, thus, these wines appeared to be safe as regards the risk associated with the potentially toxic metals intake. However, specific correlations between metals and specific aspects of the wines themselves have been found. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Studies of Food and Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle
Determination of 2′-Fucosyllactose and Lacto-N-neotetraose in Infant Formula
Molecules 2018, 23(10), 2650; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102650
Received: 15 August 2018 / Revised: 30 September 2018 / Accepted: 10 October 2018 / Published: 16 October 2018
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Abstract
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) are the third most abundant solid component of human milk. It is likely that they are responsible for at least some of the benefits experienced by breast-fed infants. Until recently HMO were absent from infant formula, but 2′-fucosyllactose (2′-FL) [...] Read more.
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) are the third most abundant solid component of human milk. It is likely that they are responsible for at least some of the benefits experienced by breast-fed infants. Until recently HMO were absent from infant formula, but 2′-fucosyllactose (2′-FL) and lacto-N-neoteraose (LNnT) have recently become available as ingredients. The development of formula containing these HMO and the quality control of such formula require suitable methods for the accurate determination of the HMO. We developed two different approaches for analysis of 2′-FL and LNnT in formula; high performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HILIC-FLD). In lab trials using blank formula spiked with the two oligosaccharides, both approaches worked well with recoveries of 94–111% (HPAEC-PAD) and 94–104% (HILIC-FLD) and RSD (iR) of 2.1–7.9% (HPAEC-PAD) and 2.0–7.4% (HILIC-FLD). However, when applied to products produced in a pilot plant, the HPAEC-PAD approach sometimes delivered results below those expected from the addition rate of the ingredients. We hypothesize that the oligosaccharides interact with the formula matrix during the production process and, during sample preparation for HPAEC-PAD those interactions have not been broken. The conditions required for labeling the HMO for detection by the FLD apparently disrupt those interactions, and result in improved recoveries. It is likely that both analytical approaches are appropriate if a suitable extraction process is used to recover the HMO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Studies of Food and Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle
HPTLC Fingerprinting—Rapid Method for the Differentiation of Honeys of Different Botanical Origin Based on the Composition of the Lipophilic Fractions
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1811; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071811
Received: 16 June 2018 / Revised: 16 July 2018 / Accepted: 20 July 2018 / Published: 21 July 2018
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Abstract
Bee honey possess various nutritional and medicinal functions, which are the result of its diverse chemical composition. The numerous bioactive compounds in honey come from flower nectar; thus, the identification of the specific chemical profiles of honey samples is of great importance. The [...] Read more.
Bee honey possess various nutritional and medicinal functions, which are the result of its diverse chemical composition. The numerous bioactive compounds in honey come from flower nectar; thus, the identification of the specific chemical profiles of honey samples is of great importance. The lipophilic compounds from eight monofloral honeys (rape, buckwheat, clover, willow, milk thistle, dandelion, raspberry and sweet yellow clover) were investigated. Analyses of the lipophilic fractions obtained by UAE (ultrasound assisted extraction) and SPE (solid phase extraction) extractions were performed using high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). Chromatographic and cluster analyses allowed the identification of a unique, colorful pattern of separated compounds with specific Rf values on the HPTLC plate for each type of monofloral honey. HPTLC is a simple and effective visual method of analysis, and it can serve as a basis for authenticating different types of honey. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Studies of Food and Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle
Oxidative Stability of Selected Edible Oils
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1746; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071746
Received: 18 June 2018 / Revised: 11 July 2018 / Accepted: 14 July 2018 / Published: 17 July 2018
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Abstract
The aim of the study was to examine and compare oxidative stability of refined (peanut, corn, rice bran, grapeseed, and rapeseed) oils. The oils were subject a Schaal Oven Test (temperature 63 ± 1 °C) and a Rancimat test (temperature 120 °C) and [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to examine and compare oxidative stability of refined (peanut, corn, rice bran, grapeseed, and rapeseed) oils. The oils were subject a Schaal Oven Test (temperature 63 ± 1 °C) and a Rancimat test (temperature 120 °C) and their stability was compared at the 1st and 12th month of storage. Changes in the peroxide (PV) and anisidine (AnV) values in the thermostat test were the fastest in rapeseed oil and grapeseed oil. The best quality was preserved by peanut and corn oils both in the first and the twelfth month of storage. The induction times for the rice bran, corn, peanut, and rapeseed oils were similar from 4.77 h to 5.02 h in the first month and from 3.22 h to 3.77 h in the twelfth month. The shortest induction times were determined for grapeseed oil: 2.4 h and 1.6 h, respectively. A decrease of oxidative stability of about 30% was found in all the oils after 12 months of storage. The PV of 10, determined in the thermostat and Rancimat tests, were achieved at the latest in corn oil and the fastest in rice bran oil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Studies of Food and Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle
Inactivation, Aggregation and Conformational Changes of Polyphenol Oxidase from Quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) Juice Subjected to Thermal and High-Pressure Carbon Dioxide Treatment
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1743; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071743
Received: 19 June 2018 / Revised: 11 July 2018 / Accepted: 12 July 2018 / Published: 17 July 2018
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Abstract
Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) causes the browning reaction in fruits and vegetables and deteriorates the quality. Thermal treatment for enzyme inactivation may result in defects as opposed to high pressure CO2 (HPCD) processing. In this study, the changes in activity, dissociation, aggregation and [...] Read more.
Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) causes the browning reaction in fruits and vegetables and deteriorates the quality. Thermal treatment for enzyme inactivation may result in defects as opposed to high pressure CO2 (HPCD) processing. In this study, the changes in activity, dissociation, aggregation and conformation of purified PPO from thermal and HPCD treated juice were investigated. HPCD exhibited inactivation of PPO at 55–65 °C whereas thermal processing alone at the same temperature resulted in PPO still showing activity. Under thermal treatment at 25 and 65 °C, the browning degree was higher (0.39 and 0.24) than for HPCD-treated juice (0.23 and 0.12). Fluorescence and circular dichroism spectral results indicated that HPCD induced large decreases in intensities, revealing a rearrangement of the secondary structure and destruction of the native configuration of the PPO molecule. The particle size distribution (PSD) pattern revealed structural modification leading to initial dissociation and subsequent aggregation of PPO after HPCD treatment. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) analysis exhibited that molecular size of protein was 40 kDa. In conclusion, the HPCD method was found to be more effective than thermal treatment to inactivate PPO. Structural modifications provided better insights into the phenomena of activation and inactivation of PPO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Studies of Food and Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle
Supercritical Fluid Chromatography with Photodiode Array Detection in the Determination of Fat-Soluble Vitamins in Hemp Seed Oil and Waste Fish Oil
Molecules 2018, 23(5), 1131; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23051131
Received: 10 April 2018 / Revised: 6 May 2018 / Accepted: 8 May 2018 / Published: 10 May 2018
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Abstract
In the presented study for the first time a new, optimized, fast SFC (supercritical fluid chromatography) method was applied to separate in one run fat-soluble vitamins from waste fish oil, including cis-and trans-retinyl palmitate, cis- and trans-retinyl acetate, retinol, [...] Read more.
In the presented study for the first time a new, optimized, fast SFC (supercritical fluid chromatography) method was applied to separate in one run fat-soluble vitamins from waste fish oil, including cis-and trans-retinyl palmitate, cis- and trans-retinyl acetate, retinol, α-tocopherol, β-tocopherol, γ‑tocopherol, δ-tocopherol, ergocalciferol (D2), cholecalciferol (D3), cis- and trans-phylloquinone (K1) and menaquinone-4 (K2-MK4). Vitamins were baseline separated on an Acquity UPC2 (ultra performance convergence chromatography) HSS C18 SB (highly strength chemically modified silica) column within 13 min. The influence of the stationary phase, such as Torus 1-AA (1-aminoanthracene), Torus Diol (high density diol), Torus DEA (diethylamine), BEH (silica with no bonding), BEH-2EP (2-ethylpirydine), CSH Fluoro-Phenyl (silica with fluoro-phenyl groups), column temperature, flow rate and back pressure on the separation of the compounds was described. The application of the modified saponification procedure allowed us to increase concentration in the sample prepared for the analysis of γ‑tocopherol from less than 1% (wt %) to 14% for the first time. In addition, α‑tocopherol, γ‑tocopherol, δ‑tocopherol and retinol were identified in waste fish oil. Vitamin purification and analysis in waste fish oil are reported for the first time here. Due to the short time and effectiveness of the proposed method, it can be easily applied in industrial processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Studies of Food and Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of the Impact of Storage Conditions on the Biogenic Amines Profile in Opened Wine Bottles
Molecules 2018, 23(5), 1130; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23051130
Received: 10 April 2018 / Revised: 3 May 2018 / Accepted: 8 May 2018 / Published: 9 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2313 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A survey of biogenic amine (BA) profiles in opened wine bottles has been established to monitor the level of biogenic amines (BAs) in opened bottles against time and other conditions. Bottles of red and white wine were submitted to different temperatures, stopper type [...] Read more.
A survey of biogenic amine (BA) profiles in opened wine bottles has been established to monitor the level of biogenic amines (BAs) in opened bottles against time and other conditions. Bottles of red and white wine were submitted to different temperatures, stopper type (screw cap, cork), and use of vacuum devices. A total of six wines made from a variety of grapes were obtained from vineyards from regions across Poland. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (DLLME-GC-MS) procedure for BAs determination was validated and applied for wine sample analysis. The total content of BAs from the set of immediately opened wine samples ranged from 442 to 929 µg/L for white wines, and 669 to 2244 µg/L for red wines. The most abundant BAs in the analysed wines were histamine and putrescine. Considering the commercial availability of the analysed wines, there was no relationship between the presence of BAs in a given wine and their availability on the market. However, it was observed and confirmed by chemometric analysis that the different storage conditions employed in this experiment affect not only the BAs profile, but also the pH. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Studies of Food and Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle
Residue and Dietary Risk Assessment of Chiral Cyflumetofen in Apple
Molecules 2018, 23(5), 1060; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23051060
Received: 3 April 2018 / Revised: 20 April 2018 / Accepted: 29 April 2018 / Published: 2 May 2018
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Abstract
Ultra-performance convergence chromatography is an environmentally-friendly analytical method that uses dramatically reduced amounts of organic solvents. In addition, a robust and highly sensitive chiral separation method was developed for the novel chiral acaricide cyflumetofen by using ultra-performance convergence chromatography coupled with tandem mass [...] Read more.
Ultra-performance convergence chromatography is an environmentally-friendly analytical method that uses dramatically reduced amounts of organic solvents. In addition, a robust and highly sensitive chiral separation method was developed for the novel chiral acaricide cyflumetofen by using ultra-performance convergence chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry, which shows that stereoisomer recoveries determined for various apple parts ranged from 78.3% to 119.9%, with the relative standard deviations being lower than 14.0%. The half-lives of (−)-cyflumetofen and (+)-cyflumetofen obtained under 5-fold applied dosage equal to 22.13 and 22.23 days, respectively. For 1.5-fold applied dosage, the respective values were determined as 22.42 and 23.64 days, i.e., the degradation of (−)-cyflumetofen was insignificantly favored over that of its enantiomer. Importantly, cyflumetofen was unevenly distributed in apples, with its relative contents in apple peel, peduncle, and pomace equal to 50%, 22%, and 16%, respectively. The proposed method can be used to efficiently separate and quantify chiral pesticide with advantages of a shorter analysis time, greater sensitivity, and better environmental compatibility. Additionally, the consumption of apples with residue of cyflumetofen did not pose a health risk to the population if the cyflumetofen applied under satisfactory agricultural practices after the long-term dietary risk assessment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Studies of Food and Beverages)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview
Alternative Molecular-Based Diagnostic Methods of Plant Pathogenic Fungi Affecting Berry Crops—A Review
Molecules 2019, 24(7), 1200; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24071200
Received: 13 February 2019 / Revised: 14 March 2019 / Accepted: 23 March 2019 / Published: 27 March 2019
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Abstract
Increasing consumer awareness of potentially harmful pesticides used in conventional agriculture has prompted organic farming to become notably more prevalent in recent decades. Central European countries are some of the most important producers of blueberries, raspberries and strawberries in the world and organic [...] Read more.
Increasing consumer awareness of potentially harmful pesticides used in conventional agriculture has prompted organic farming to become notably more prevalent in recent decades. Central European countries are some of the most important producers of blueberries, raspberries and strawberries in the world and organic cultivation methods for these fruits have a significant market share. Fungal pathogens are considered to be the most significant threat to organic crops of berries, causing serious economic losses and reducing yields. In order to ameliorate the harmful effects of pathogenic fungi on cultivations, the application of rapid and effective identification methods is essential. At present, various molecular methods are applied for fungal species recognition, such as PCR, qPCR, LAMP and NGS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Studies of Food and Beverages)
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Open AccessReview
Quality and Authenticity Control of Fruit Juices-A Review
Molecules 2019, 24(6), 1014; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24061014
Received: 15 February 2019 / Revised: 8 March 2019 / Accepted: 9 March 2019 / Published: 13 March 2019
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Abstract
Food fraud, being the act of intentional adulteration of food for financial advantage, has vexed the consumers and the food industry throughout history. According to the European Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety, fruit juices are included in the top [...] Read more.
Food fraud, being the act of intentional adulteration of food for financial advantage, has vexed the consumers and the food industry throughout history. According to the European Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety, fruit juices are included in the top 10 food products that are most at risk of food fraud. Therefore, reliable, efficient, sensitive and cost-effective analytical methodologies need to be developed continuously to guarantee fruit juice quality and safety. This review covers the latest advances in the past ten years concerning the targeted and non-targeted methodologies that have been developed to assure fruit juice authenticity and to preclude adulteration. Emphasis is placed on the use of hyphenated techniques and on the constantly-growing role of MS-based metabolomics in fruit juice quality control area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Studies of Food and Beverages)
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