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Article

Age and Smoking Predict Antibody Titres at 3 Months after the Second Dose of the BNT162b2 COVID-19 Vaccine

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Department of Respiratory Medicine and Clinical Immunology, National Hospital Organization Utsunomiya National Hospital, Utsunomiya 329-1193, Japan
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Department of Pulmonary Medicine and Clinical Immunology, Dokkyo Medical University, Shimotsuga 321-0293, Japan
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Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke 329-0498, Japan
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Department of Public Health, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke 329-0498, Japan
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Department of Surgery, National Hospital Organization Utsunomiya National Hospital, Utsunomiya 329-1193, Japan
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Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, National Hospital Organization Utsunomiya National Hospital, Utsunomiya 329-1193, Japan
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Department of Respiratory Medicine and Clinical Immunology, Dokkyo Medical University Saitama Medical Center, Shimotsuga 321-0293, Japan
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Ger Rijkers and Jean-Luc Murk
Vaccines 2021, 9(9), 1042; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9091042
Received: 6 September 2021 / Revised: 15 September 2021 / Accepted: 16 September 2021 / Published: 18 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Topic Global Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Serology)
Objective: We aimed to determine antibody (Ab) titres 3 months after the second dose of the BNT162b2 coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) vaccine and to explore clinical variables predicting these titres in Japan. Methods: We enrolled 378 healthcare workers (255 women, 123 men) whose blood samples were collected 91 ± 15 days after the second of two inoculations of the BNT162b2 COVID-19 mRNA vaccine (Pfizer/BioNTech) given 3 weeks apart. Medical histories and demographic characteristics were recorded using a structured self-reported questionnaire. The relationships between Ab titres and these factors were analysed. Results: Median age (interquartile range (IQR)) of the participants was 44 (32–54) years. Median Ab titre (IQR) against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike antigen was 764 (423–1140) U/mL. Older participants had significantly lower Ab titres; median (IQR) Ab titres were 942 (675–1390) and 1095 (741–1613) U/mL in men and women in their 20s, respectively, but 490 (297–571) and 519 (285–761) U/mL in men and women in their 60–70s, respectively. In the age-adjusted analysis, the only risk factors for lower Ab titres were male sex and smoking. However, the sex difference may have arisen from the sex difference in smoking rate. Moreover, Ab titres were significantly lower in current smokers than in ex-smokers. Conclusions: The most important factors associated with low Ab titres were age and smoking habit. In particular, current smoking status caused lower Ab titres, and smoking cessation before vaccination may improve the individual efficacy of the BNT162b2 vaccine. View Full-Text
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; viral infection; clinical epidemiology SARS-CoV-2; viral infection; clinical epidemiology
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nomura, Y.; Sawahata, M.; Nakamura, Y.; Kurihara, M.; Koike, R.; Katsube, O.; Hagiwara, K.; Niho, S.; Masuda, N.; Tanaka, T.; Sugiyama, K. Age and Smoking Predict Antibody Titres at 3 Months after the Second Dose of the BNT162b2 COVID-19 Vaccine. Vaccines 2021, 9, 1042. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9091042

AMA Style

Nomura Y, Sawahata M, Nakamura Y, Kurihara M, Koike R, Katsube O, Hagiwara K, Niho S, Masuda N, Tanaka T, Sugiyama K. Age and Smoking Predict Antibody Titres at 3 Months after the Second Dose of the BNT162b2 COVID-19 Vaccine. Vaccines. 2021; 9(9):1042. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9091042

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nomura, Yushi, Michiru Sawahata, Yosikazu Nakamura, Momoko Kurihara, Ryousuke Koike, Otohiro Katsube, Koichi Hagiwara, Seiji Niho, Norihiro Masuda, Takaaki Tanaka, and Kumiya Sugiyama. 2021. "Age and Smoking Predict Antibody Titres at 3 Months after the Second Dose of the BNT162b2 COVID-19 Vaccine" Vaccines 9, no. 9: 1042. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9091042

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