EVS35—International Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exhibition (Oslo, Norway)

A special issue of World Electric Vehicle Journal (ISSN 2032-6653).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2023) | Viewed by 110955

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
MOBI—Electromobility Research Centre, Department of Electrical Engineering and Energy Technology, Faculty of Engineering Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, 1050 Brussel, Belgium
Interests: electric and hybrid vehicles (batteries, power converters, and energy management simulations); the environmental and economical comparison of vehicles with different drive trains and fuels (LCA and TCO)
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue will gather updated versions of a selection of best papers from EVS35, the 35th International Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exhibition, which will be held from 11 to 15 June 2022 in Oslo, Norway.

The International Electric Vehicle Symposium (EVS) is the world's longest, largest, and highest-spec event in the field of electric vehicles, covering areas including pure electric vehicles, hybrid vehicles, fuel cell vehicles, and core components. With the support of the World Electric Vehicle Association, the Symposium is hosted by three regional professional organizations under the World Electric Vehicle Association in North America (Electric Drive Transportation Association, EDTA), Europe (The European Association for Electromobility, AVERE), and Asia (Electric Vehicle Association of Asia Pacific, EVAAP) in turn. EVS already has a long history of more than 50 years since its birth in Phoenix, Arizona, USA, in 1969.

The theme of EVS35 is The Electric Future is Here. The topics will include but not be limited to technical advances and most updated research findings in hybrid electric vehicles, pure electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles, infrastructure construction and service research, marketing and policy support research, etc. For more information, see https://evs35oslo.org.

The authors of the best papers presented at EVS35 will be invited to further extend their EVS35 paper, including their most recent research findings. After a second thorough round of peer reviews, these papers will be published in this Special Issue of the World Electric Vehicle Journal (WEVJ), the official journal of the World Electric Vehicle Association (WEVA) and its members.

If you have any questions, please feel free to contact the editorial office at [email protected].

Prof. Dr. Joeri Van Mierlo
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. World Electric Vehicle Journal is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (36 papers)

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Research

24 pages, 995 KiB  
Article
Perspectives on Modeling Energy and Mobility Transitions for Stakeholders: A Dutch Case
by Younjung Choi, Marcus Vinicius Pereira Pessoa and G. Maarten Bonnema
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(7), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14070178 - 6 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1352
Abstract
We address the value of engaging stakeholders in energy and mobility transitions by using models. As a communication medium, models can facilitate the collaborative exploration of a future between modeling researchers and stakeholders. Developing models to engage stakeholders requires an understanding of state-of-the-art [...] Read more.
We address the value of engaging stakeholders in energy and mobility transitions by using models. As a communication medium, models can facilitate the collaborative exploration of a future between modeling researchers and stakeholders. Developing models to engage stakeholders requires an understanding of state-of-the-art models and the usability of models from the stakeholder perspective. We employ mixed methods in our research. We present the overview of models that have been proposed to make sense of the transitions in the scientific literature through a systematic literature mapping (n = 105). We interviewed 10 stakeholders based in The Netherlands to elaborate on use cases in which models can benefit stakeholders in practice and the characteristics of usable models. We conclude our research by elaborating on two challenges of model design that modeling research can consider to engage stakeholders. First, we argue that understanding the epistemic requirements of both modeling researchers and stakeholders that models can simultaneously meet is crucial (e.g., questions addressed using models and assumptions). Second, we seek technical solutions for producing models in a time-wise manner and developing interfaces that allow models distant in formalism and represented phenomena to communicate in tandem. Our research creates awareness of the model design aspect by considering its usability. Full article
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15 pages, 3943 KiB  
Article
Investigation and Development of Textile Lightweight Bodies for Urban Logistic Vehicles
by Fabian Edel, Corinna Pulkus, Sarah Kim, Juergen Erhardt and Sven Kuijpens
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(5), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14050121 - 4 May 2023
Viewed by 1397
Abstract
The urban logistic sector is struggling with the following two problems: a particularly high level of traffic and air pollution. For those reasons, small electric vehicles are the perfect technical solution to cope sustainably with the increasing parcel volume in urban areas. To [...] Read more.
The urban logistic sector is struggling with the following two problems: a particularly high level of traffic and air pollution. For those reasons, small electric vehicles are the perfect technical solution to cope sustainably with the increasing parcel volume in urban areas. To compensate the weight disadvantage of electric drive, a textile lightweight solution for the body of logistics vehicles is examined in this study. Therefore, various textiles and mounting solutions are examined and developed, as well as tested by multiple testing procedures. The result of this work is an ideal combination of a textile and suitable mounting method for a textile lightweight body for last—mile logistic vehicles. Full article
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10 pages, 3139 KiB  
Communication
Performance Comparison of Si IGBT and SiC MOSFET Power Module Driving IPMSM or IM under WLTC
by Hirokatsu Umegami, Toshikazu Harada and Ken Nakahara
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(4), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14040112 - 17 Apr 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4098
Abstract
The cumulative inverter losses and power consumption of a silicon insulated gate bipolar transistor (Si IGBT) and three types of silicon carbide metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (SiC MOSFETs) were evaluated on an electric motor test bench under a worldwide harmonized light vehicles test cycle [...] Read more.
The cumulative inverter losses and power consumption of a silicon insulated gate bipolar transistor (Si IGBT) and three types of silicon carbide metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (SiC MOSFETs) were evaluated on an electric motor test bench under a worldwide harmonized light vehicles test cycle (WLTC). SiC MOSFETs showed higher performance than Si IGBT regardless of the motor type and test vehicles. In the case of driving an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM), the latest 4th generation SiC MOSFET (SiC-4G) in ROHM has the lowest inverter loss and energy consumption compared with the other generations. In the case of driving an induction motor (IM), on the other hand, the 2nd generation SiC MOSFET (SiC-2G) in ROHM has the best energy consumption despite the fact that the inverter losses of SiC-2G are slightly larger than the loss of SiC-4G. The latest or later generation power device does not necessarily contribute to better performance in a total system by simply replacing early power devices. Full article
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17 pages, 5636 KiB  
Article
A Multi-Disciplinary Approach for the Electrical and Thermal Characterization of Battery Packs—Case Study for an Electric Race Car
by Claudio Santarelli, Christopher Helbig, An Li, Benoit Honel, Thomas Nyhues and Fabian Böhm
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(4), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14040102 - 10 Apr 2023
Viewed by 2452
Abstract
A novel, multi-disciplinary approach is presented where experiments, system simulation and Computational Fluid Dynamics are combined for the electrical and thermal characterization of an air-cooled battery pack. As a case study, a Formula Student race car is considered and the procedure proposed consists [...] Read more.
A novel, multi-disciplinary approach is presented where experiments, system simulation and Computational Fluid Dynamics are combined for the electrical and thermal characterization of an air-cooled battery pack. As a case study, a Formula Student race car is considered and the procedure proposed consists of three steps: (1) experimental characterization of the battery cells under several thermal conditions; (2) thermal and electrical modeling of the battery stack with system simulation; (3) three-dimensional, time-dependent Conjugate Heat Transfer simulation of the whole battery pack to investigate the cooling performance of the chosen design, and to access fundamental quantities of the batteries, such as state of charge, temperature and ohmic heating. Future improvements of the current work are discussed, including the extension to a liquid-cooled design, battery aging consideration and model integration into a full vehicle system model. Full article
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21 pages, 2409 KiB  
Article
Second-Life Batteries Modeling for Performance Tracking in a Mobile Charging Station
by Marwan Hassini, Eduardo Redondo-Iglesias and Pascal Venet
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(4), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14040094 - 3 Apr 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2629
Abstract
Lithium-ion batteries are seen as a key element in reducing global greenhouse gas emissions from the transport and energy sectors. However, efforts are still needed to minimize their environmental impact. This article presents a path towards a circular economy and more sustainable batteries, [...] Read more.
Lithium-ion batteries are seen as a key element in reducing global greenhouse gas emissions from the transport and energy sectors. However, efforts are still needed to minimize their environmental impact. This article presents a path towards a circular economy and more sustainable batteries, thanks to their reuse in mobile charging stations for electric vehicles. This work presents the results of characterization tests and modeling of second life batteries. The presented characterization test and electrical models can be used as references to evaluate the performance of aged batteries after their first life. Detailed test procedures and data results are provided in an open-access data paper. Full article
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14 pages, 3160 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Different Scenarios to Switch the Whole Regional Bus Fleet of an Italian Alpine Region to Zero-Emission Buses
by Wolfram Sparber, Andrea Grotto, Pietro Zambelli, Roberto Vaccaro and Alyona Zubaryeva
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(4), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14040091 - 1 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2125
Abstract
Public bus decarbonization is increasingly important to address the global issue of climate change. There are several challenges associated with large-scale introduction of zero-emission technologies in public fleets. This is especially the case in an extra-urban context, of mountain regions with challenging weather [...] Read more.
Public bus decarbonization is increasingly important to address the global issue of climate change. There are several challenges associated with large-scale introduction of zero-emission technologies in public fleets. This is especially the case in an extra-urban context, of mountain regions with challenging weather conditions. In this work the analysis of the state-of-the-art ZEBs, local bus lines, and timetables was performed to understand the best fit of technology—battery electric buses (BEBs) or fuel cell electric buses (FCEBs)—for each line in such a region. Further, a simulation tool was developed to calculate the compatibility of zero-emission technologies with the current needs of the public transportation considering distance, altitude difference, and climate conditions. The results show that a complete switch of the fleet is possible with a slight increase in the number of buses and that there is no clear difference in the distance covered in mountainous areas by BEBs versus FCEBs, but that both technologies can cover similar distances. The tool developed is not limited to bus fleets but can be applied to all kinds of fleets that cover clearly defined daily routes. Full article
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12 pages, 1031 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Charging Infrastructure on Local Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides
by Karsten Hager and Alexandra Graf
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(4), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14040090 - 31 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1187
Abstract
Benefits from EV (Electric vehicles) and e-mobility include the reduction of local emissions of pollutants from particulate matter (PM0.5, PM5, and PM10) and nitrogen oxides (NOx and NO2). Cities and urban agglomerations benefit the most [...] Read more.
Benefits from EV (Electric vehicles) and e-mobility include the reduction of local emissions of pollutants from particulate matter (PM0.5, PM5, and PM10) and nitrogen oxides (NOx and NO2). Cities and urban agglomerations benefit the most from potential emission reductions from EVs due to the large number of cars utilized in most urban traffic systems. This abstract presents results from a corporate research and funding project in Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany (LINOx BW) which facilitates the installation of 2358 charging points within 178 different sub-projects in 23 different cities, spanning a period of four years. Utilizing several different survey waves, data about outgoing currents from these publicly funded charging points are gathered. Converting this data utilizing car classifications and emission classes (HBEFA), the reduction of local nitrogen oxides is derived. Full article
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16 pages, 3319 KiB  
Article
Academic and Corporate Vehicle Electrification Research
by Hans Pohl and Magnus Karlström
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(3), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14030071 - 10 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1615
Abstract
We developed and used methodology to analyze scientific publications in Scopus relating to vehicle electrification and associated key enabling technologies: batteries, fuel cells and electric machines with power electronics. The global research landscape was mapped, and an analysis of the 16 most active [...] Read more.
We developed and used methodology to analyze scientific publications in Scopus relating to vehicle electrification and associated key enabling technologies: batteries, fuel cells and electric machines with power electronics. The global research landscape was mapped, and an analysis of the 16 most active countries was carried out. Vehicle electrification publications are rewarded with a high citation impact, and they include corporate actors to a great extent. China dominates in vehicle electrification research as well as in the enabling technologies, and China’s position is set to become even more dominating. Battery research has grown rapidly with a high citation impact, whereas the volume of research for the other enabling technologies was more constant during 2017–2021. Automakers’ research that has led to scientific publications was specifically studied. Ford Motor Company was the automaker with the highest number of vehicle electrification publications during 2017–2021. A large share of the automakers’ publications was co-authored with academic actors, and such publications were rewarded with a higher citation impact than those without. However, the share of international co-publications among the automakers was meager. It is concluded that the analysis of vehicle electrification publications gives an overview of the rapidly developing field. Moreover, the analysis of automakers’ involvement in such research is one way of obtaining one perspective on their strategies and priorities. Full article
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15 pages, 3642 KiB  
Article
GridShield—Optimizing the Use of Grid Capacity during Increased EV Adoption
by Hanna L. van Sambeek, Marisca Zweistra, Gerwin Hoogsteen, Ivo A. M. Varenhorst and Stan Janssen
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(3), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14030068 - 7 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1941
Abstract
With the increasing adoption rate of electric vehicles, power peaks caused by many cars simultaneously charging on the same low-voltage grid can cause local overloading and power outages. Smart charging solutions should spread this load, but there is a residual risk of incidental [...] Read more.
With the increasing adoption rate of electric vehicles, power peaks caused by many cars simultaneously charging on the same low-voltage grid can cause local overloading and power outages. Smart charging solutions should spread this load, but there is a residual risk of incidental peaks. A decentralized and autonomous technology called GridShield is being developed to reduce the likelihood of a transformer’s fuse blowing when other congestion solutions have failed. It serves as a measure of last resort to protect the grid against local power failures from unpredicted congestion by temporarily limiting the virtual capacity of charging stations. This paper describes the technical development and demonstrates how GridShield can keep a transformer load below a critical limit using simulations and real-world tests. It optimizes grid capacity while ensuring grid reliability. Full article
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14 pages, 2087 KiB  
Article
Charging after Lockdown: The Aftermath of COVID-19 Policies on Electric Vehicle Charging Behaviour in The Netherlands
by Mylène van der Koogh, Rick Wolbertus and Renee Heller
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(3), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14030067 - 7 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1805
Abstract
During the COVID-19—related lockdowns (2020–2022), mobility patterns and charging needs were substantially affected. Policies such as work from home, lockdowns, and curfews reduced traffic and commuting significantly. This global pandemic may have also substantially changed mobility patterns on the long term and therefore [...] Read more.
During the COVID-19—related lockdowns (2020–2022), mobility patterns and charging needs were substantially affected. Policies such as work from home, lockdowns, and curfews reduced traffic and commuting significantly. This global pandemic may have also substantially changed mobility patterns on the long term and therefore the need for electric vehicle charging infrastructure. This paper analyzes changes in electric charging in the Netherlands for different user groups during different phases of the COVID-19 lockdown to assess the effects on EV charging needs. Charging needs dropped significantly during this period, which also changed the distribution of the load on the electricity grid throughout the day. Curfews affected the start times of charging sessions during peak hours of grid consumption. Infrastructure dedicated to commuters was used less intensively, and the charging needs of professional taxi drivers were drastically reduced during lockdown periods. These trends were partially observed during a post–lockdown measuring period of roughly 8 months, indicating a longer shift in mobility and charging patterns. Full article
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14 pages, 1873 KiB  
Article
Circular Economy-Based Alternatives beyond Second-Life Applications: Maximizing the Electric Vehicle Battery First Life
by Maite Etxandi-Santolaya, Lluc Canals Casals, Beatriz Amante García and Cristina Corchero
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(3), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14030066 - 5 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2537
Abstract
Electric vehicle battery second-life applications are gaining attention as a way to minimize the environmental impact and increase economic profits. However, the demand for stationary energy storage is expected to be saturated in the near future with these second-life batteries. This fact, in [...] Read more.
Electric vehicle battery second-life applications are gaining attention as a way to minimize the environmental impact and increase economic profits. However, the demand for stationary energy storage is expected to be saturated in the near future with these second-life batteries. This fact, in addition to the several technical and economic challenges of second-life batteries, promotes exploring other alternatives. This work analyses and compares these possible approaches in terms of battery degradation and economic profit. The results show that for large batteries, intensive Vehicle to Grid does not cause an early retirement of the battery and allows reducing the underuse of the battery. In addition, for the same battery size, Vehicle to Grid provides more economic profit than second-life applications. Nevertheless, only in a few cases does this appear to be more profitable than simply utilizing the battery for driving. Importantly, this study has shown how the assessment of the second-life tends to be too optimistic as a consequence of assuming a fixed End of Life threshold for the batteries. Full article
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15 pages, 2707 KiB  
Article
Battery Pack Prospects for Long-Haul Transport Trucks Considering Electrified Highways and Megawatt Charging
by K. Darcovich, H. Ribberink, K. Qiu and E. Soufflet
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14030060 - 28 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2102
Abstract
The economics of long haul trucking on both continuous and intermittent Electric Highways were evaluated from a technical perspective as alternatives to using conventional megawatt chargers. The study revealed complex and sensitive interplay between the various technical factors related to the vehicle, its [...] Read more.
The economics of long haul trucking on both continuous and intermittent Electric Highways were evaluated from a technical perspective as alternatives to using conventional megawatt chargers. The study revealed complex and sensitive interplay between the various technical factors related to the vehicle, its battery pack and the configuration and construction of the electrified highway. Key preliminary outcomes showed that a 250 kW highway power supply level allows a 36 tonne truck to drive continuously without requiring off-road recharging, and it can operate with a battery pack of about 50% of the size required for a truck only using megawatt charging. For now, while there is no overwhelming case in favour of any particular technology, the study serves to highlight the relevant factors impacting anticipated design criteria for the electrification of highways. Full article
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15 pages, 1839 KiB  
Article
Fanbois and Fanbots: Tesla’s Entrepreneurial Narratives and Corporate Computational Propaganda on Social Media
by David A. Kirsch and Mohsen A. Chowdhury
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14020043 - 5 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4364
Abstract
This paper reports the discovery of a series of computational social media accounts (Fanbots) on Twitter that may have played a critical role in sustaining the entrepreneurial narratives of Tesla, the electric-vehicle maker. From 2010 to 2020—a period of trial, error, and eventual [...] Read more.
This paper reports the discovery of a series of computational social media accounts (Fanbots) on Twitter that may have played a critical role in sustaining the entrepreneurial narratives of Tesla, the electric-vehicle maker. From 2010 to 2020—a period of trial, error, and eventual success for Tesla—these computational agents generated pro-firm tweets (Corporate Computational Propaganda, CCP), accounting for more than 10% of the total Twitter activity that included the cashtag, $TSLA, and 23% of activity that included the hashtag, #TSLA. Though similar to programmed social media content in the political sphere, the activities of these accounts predate the existence of political computational propaganda associated with foreign support for, for instance, Brexit in the United Kingdom (2016) and Donald Trump in the United States (2016). The paper (a) characterizes the extent of Fanbot content in two large Tesla tweet corpora, (b) identifies possible motivations for the creation of these accounts in relation to the firm’s entrepreneurial narratives, and (c) explores possible mechanisms by which the Fanbots might have acted. Although we are unable to directly observe the source or stated purpose of these accounts, based upon the timing of Fanbot creation and other indirect indicators, we infer that these accounts and the social media activity they generated were intended to influence social perception of Tesla. The conclusion assesses the generalizability of a Fanbot-based strategy, highlighting contextual limitations, while also pointing to ways that firms may already be using CCP to manage social approval in emerging-industry contexts. Full article
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14 pages, 871 KiB  
Article
Electric Vehicle Charging Sessions Generator Based on Clustered Driver Behaviors
by Gilles Van Kriekinge, Cedric De Cauwer, Nikolaos Sapountzoglou, Thierry Coosemans and Maarten Messagie
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14020037 - 2 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1831
Abstract
Increasing penetration of electric vehicles brings a set of challenges for the electricity system related to its energy, power and balance adequacy. Research related to this topic often requires estimates of charging demand in various forms to feed various models and simulations. This [...] Read more.
Increasing penetration of electric vehicles brings a set of challenges for the electricity system related to its energy, power and balance adequacy. Research related to this topic often requires estimates of charging demand in various forms to feed various models and simulations. This paper proposes a methodology to simulate charging demand for different driver types in a local energy system in the form of time series of charging sessions. The driver types are extracted from historical charging session data via data mining techniques and then characterized using a kernel density estimation process. The results show that the methodology is able to capture the stochastic nature of the drivers’ charging behavior in time, frequency and energy demand for different types of drivers, while respecting aggregated charging demand. This is essential when studying the energy balance of a local energy system and allows for calculating future demand scenarios by compiling driver population based on number of drivers per driver type. The methodology is then tested on a simulator to assess the benefits of smart charging. Full article
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19 pages, 23518 KiB  
Article
Estimation of Public Charging Demand Using Cellphone Data and Points of Interest-Based Segmentation
by Victor Radermecker and Lieselot Vanhaverbeke
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14020035 - 30 Jan 2023
Viewed by 2043
Abstract
The race for road electrification has started, and convincing drivers to switch from fuel-powered vehicles to electric vehicles requires robust Electric Vehicle (EV) charging infrastructure. This article proposes an innovative EV charging demand estimation and segmentation method. First, we estimate the charging demand [...] Read more.
The race for road electrification has started, and convincing drivers to switch from fuel-powered vehicles to electric vehicles requires robust Electric Vehicle (EV) charging infrastructure. This article proposes an innovative EV charging demand estimation and segmentation method. First, we estimate the charging demand at a neighborhood granularity using aggregated cellular signaling data. Second, we propose a segmentation model to partition the total charging needs among different charging technology: normal, semi-rapid, and fast charging. The segmentation model, an approach based on the city’s points of interest, is a state-of-the-art method that derives useful trends applicable to city planning. A case study for the city of Brussels is proposed. Our demand estimation results heavily correlate with the government’s predictions under similar assumptions. The segmentation reveals clear city patterns, such as transportation hubs, commercial and industrial zones or residential districts, and stresses the importance of a deployment plan involving all available charging technologies. Full article
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13 pages, 2184 KiB  
Article
Review on Smart Charging of Electric Vehicles via Market-Based Incentives, Grid-Friendly and Grid-Compatible Measures
by Doris Johnsen, Lars Ostendorf, Mischa Bechberger and Daniel Strommenger
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14010025 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3355
Abstract
Smart charging of electric vehicles is a promising concept for solving the current challenges faced by connecting mobility and electricity within the context of the ongoing sustainable energy transition. It allows cost savings for the expansion and operation of the power grid and [...] Read more.
Smart charging of electric vehicles is a promising concept for solving the current challenges faced by connecting mobility and electricity within the context of the ongoing sustainable energy transition. It allows cost savings for the expansion and operation of the power grid and a more efficient use of renewable energies. However, wide implementation of smart charging requires further work on technical and regulatory issues and further development of standards, especially an end-to-end consistency of the control signals. A fully automated process, as well as customisable services and flexible tariffs, would also facilitate wider market penetration. The novelty of this paper is the consensus of German pilot projects funded within the German programme “Elektro-Mobil” on the communication channel between all stakeholders for the use cases of smart charging based on market price incentives. Within this consensus, the projects have illustrated how specific standards can facilitate the communication between smart charging stakeholders, become a reality in the pilot projects and should be applied to further use cases in the low-voltage network. This consensus results in a white paper. On this basis, the adjustment of the standards can be made to ensure the consistency of the control signals from the beginning of the control process up to the end. In an advanced Edition, solutions for the prioritisation and orchestration of the different control signals could be designed. Full article
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17 pages, 2458 KiB  
Article
Profitability Evaluation of Vehicle-to-Grid-Enabled Frequency Containment Reserve Services into the Business Models of the Core Participants of Electric Vehicle Charging Business Ecosystem
by Andrei Goncearuc, Nikolaos Sapountzoglou, Cedric De Cauwer, Thierry Coosemans, Maarten Messagie and Thomas Crispeels
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14010018 - 6 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2615
Abstract
The current paper defines a framework for the introduction of frequency containment reserve (FCR) services, enabled by vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology, into the business model of an entity owning and operating electric vehicle (EV) charging infrastructure. Moreover, the defined framework can also be extrapolated, [...] Read more.
The current paper defines a framework for the introduction of frequency containment reserve (FCR) services, enabled by vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology, into the business model of an entity owning and operating electric vehicle (EV) charging infrastructure. Moreover, the defined framework can also be extrapolated, with minor adjustments, to the business models of different core participants of the EV charging business ecosystem. This study also investigates the financial factors impacted by this introduction, eventually evaluating its financial profitability under given assumptions and comparing it to the profitability of the traditional business model of an entity owning and operating a unidirectional EV charging infrastructure. The current research shows that offering additional V2G-enabled FCR services can be potentially more profitable than the existing unidirectional approach if the V2G technology reaches its maturity phase with mass market adoption and economies of scale. Full article
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0 pages, 3610 KiB  
Article
Design and Application of the unIT-e2 Project Use Case Methodology
by Adrian Ostermann, Patrick Vollmuth and Valerie Ziemsky
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14010013 - 5 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1876
Abstract
The ramp-up of electromobility requires cross-industry holistic solutions. However, bringing together stakeholders from different branches holds challenges. One prerequisite for successful collaboration is a uniform understanding of roles, processes, and interfaces. Based on existing methods and experience from former projects, this paper describes [...] Read more.
The ramp-up of electromobility requires cross-industry holistic solutions. However, bringing together stakeholders from different branches holds challenges. One prerequisite for successful collaboration is a uniform understanding of roles, processes, and interfaces. Based on existing methods and experience from former projects, this paper describes a method for the systematic description of use cases for smart charging of electric vehicles. This method enables a uniform understanding of all actors involved and guarantees application-oriented usability. The unIT-e2 use case methodology consists of the business-use case level and the technical-use case level, which describe the use case in a structured layout. The method was applied in all so-called clusters of project unIT-e2. In total, we identify 25 higher-level business use cases and highlight similarities and differences between them. Further, this paper describes the business-use case regulatory-defined grid-serving flexibility in detail. Full article
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10 pages, 4241 KiB  
Article
Top-Down Validation Framework for Efficient and Low Noise Electric-Driven Vehicles with Multi-Speed Gearbox
by Steffen Jäger, Jonas Schätzle and Tilmann Linde
World Electr. Veh. J. 2022, 13(12), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj13120228 - 30 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1730
Abstract
The shift towards e-mobility is resulting in new technological challenges. Thus, new, more efficient product development methods and a better product understanding are required. During product development, validation is essential both to achieve significantly increased knowledge of the system in question and to [...] Read more.
The shift towards e-mobility is resulting in new technological challenges. Thus, new, more efficient product development methods and a better product understanding are required. During product development, validation is essential both to achieve significantly increased knowledge of the system in question and to ensure that customers’ expectations of characteristics are met. Based on existing top-down validation approaches, this article discusses an innovative both-ends-against-the-middle-approach (BEATM) developed by the author. A validation framework which combines physical and virtual elements is presented. By way of example, a development approach for the toothing validation layer of an electric vehicle powertrain with a multi-speed gearbox is introduced. Full article
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10 pages, 2222 KiB  
Article
Optimizing Torque Delivery for an Energy-Limited Electric Race Car Using Model Predictive Control
by Thomas Maull and Adriano Schommer
World Electr. Veh. J. 2022, 13(12), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj13120224 - 24 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1920
Abstract
This paper presents a torque controller for the energy optimization of the powertrain of an electric Formula Student race car. Limited battery capacity within electric race car designs requires energy management solutions to minimize lap time while simultaneously controlling and managing the overall [...] Read more.
This paper presents a torque controller for the energy optimization of the powertrain of an electric Formula Student race car. Limited battery capacity within electric race car designs requires energy management solutions to minimize lap time while simultaneously controlling and managing the overall energy consumption to finish the race. The energy-managing torque control algorithm developed in this work optimizes the finite onboard energy from the battery pack to reduce lap time and energy consumption when energy deficits occur. The longitudinal dynamics of the vehicle were represented by a linearized first-principles model and validated against a parameterized electric Formula Student race car model in commercial lap time simulation software. A Simulink-based model predictive controller (MPC) architecture was created to balance energy use requirements with optimum lap time. This controller was tested against a hardware-limited and torque-limited system in a constant torque request and a varying torque request scenario. The controller decreased the elapsed time to complete a 150 m straight-line acceleration by 11.4% over the torque-limited solution and 13.5% in a 150 m Formula Student manoeuvre. Full article
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19 pages, 2279 KiB  
Article
On the Collaborative Use of EV Charging Infrastructures in the Context of Commercial Real Estate
by Joela Gauss, Sascha Gohlke and Zoltán Nochta
World Electr. Veh. J. 2022, 13(12), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj13120223 - 23 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2302
Abstract
Resource sharing in general is a means of solving the problem of infrequent and, thus, inefficient utilization of expensive or scarce resources. In this paper, we present an approach to run shared EV-charging infrastructures in the context of commercial real-estate facilities. Collaborating EV-charger [...] Read more.
Resource sharing in general is a means of solving the problem of infrequent and, thus, inefficient utilization of expensive or scarce resources. In this paper, we present an approach to run shared EV-charging infrastructures in the context of commercial real-estate facilities. Collaborating EV-charger owners thereby create a pool of chargers for shared use. In our work, we consider aspects of economic viability, desirability and technical feasibility as prerequisites of a successful solution. We formally prove that the basic economic potential of the proposed pooling with regard to overall infrastructure utilization is given. In order to operate the shared pool of charging points at a given location, the corresponding management software must fulfil specific requirements. Our prototype implementation that was realized as an extension of the open-source system Open E-Mobility demonstrates the technical feasibility of the sharing idea in a user-friendly way. Questionnaires and personal interviews conducted with owners of small and medium-sized businesses revealed that they would share charging stations if it helped overcome availability bottlenecks, thus improving customer and employee perception. Full article
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15 pages, 1519 KiB  
Article
Electrification of Vehicle Miles Traveled and Fuel Consumption within the Household Context: A Case Study from California, U.S.A.
by Ahmet Mandev, Frances Sprei and Gil Tal
World Electr. Veh. J. 2022, 13(11), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj13110213 - 15 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2523
Abstract
Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), consisting of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), combined with the decarbonization of the electricity sector, can significantly help reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the transport sector. This study used empirical data from 287 households [...] Read more.
Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), consisting of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), combined with the decarbonization of the electricity sector, can significantly help reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the transport sector. This study used empirical data from 287 households with at least one plug-in electric vehicle in California between 2016 and 2020. We estimated electric vehicle miles traveled (eVMT), fuel consumption and utility factor at the household level, i.e., taking into consideration all vehicles. We also studied the effect of household-specific factors—such as frequency of overlaps between vehicles, frequency of charging and frequency of long-distance trips—on eVMT, utility factor and fuel consumption within two-car households. Our results indicate that PHEVs with a range of at least 35 miles have the potential to electrify a similar share of total household miles as some short range BEVs, or can reach up to 70% as much electrification as some long range BEVs and, thus, can play an important role in decarbonizing the transport sector. Full article
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14 pages, 1863 KiB  
Article
The “Semiconductor Crisis” as a Result of the COVID-19 Pandemic and Impacts on the Automotive Industry and Its Supply Chains
by Benjamin Frieske and Sylvia Stieler
World Electr. Veh. J. 2022, 13(10), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj13100189 - 16 Oct 2022
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 20566
Abstract
In the first half of 2020, the coronavirus pandemic led to a drastic slump in the automotive industry, which was replaced by a surprisingly rapid growth in demand in the fall of 2020, and consequently led to the current shortages in microelectronic products. [...] Read more.
In the first half of 2020, the coronavirus pandemic led to a drastic slump in the automotive industry, which was replaced by a surprisingly rapid growth in demand in the fall of 2020, and consequently led to the current shortages in microelectronic products. The prospect of an equally rapid economic recovery in the automotive industry is still threatened by supply bottlenecks for raw materials and key components, foremost for semiconductors. The so-called ‘semiconductor crises’ show exemplarily the overlapping of short-term supply chain disruptions with long-term structural features of the semiconductor industry. The combination of both is preventing that the supply situation in the automotive industry will improve quickly. First in this paper, the reasons for and respective effects of the crisis on the automotive industry are investigated by a quantitative market analysis. Second, specific strategic measures and options of automotive Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) and suppliers in Germany to cope with the situation and increase resilience in future supply chains are described by the means of qualitative expert interviews. By that, the paper helps in understanding the actual situation in the automotive industry, on the one hand, and contributes to the field of strategic supply chain and risk management with a focus on practical implications on the other hand. The results aim to support political stakeholders as well as small and medium sized enterprises to prepare themselves for future developments in the automotive market and changes in manufacturer–supplier relationships due to the transformation to new powertrain technologies and digitization. Full article
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24 pages, 3174 KiB  
Article
Empirical Analysis of the User Needs and the Business Models in the Norwegian Charging Infrastructure Ecosystem
by Erik Figenbaum, Paal Brevik Wangsness, Astrid Helene Amundsen and Vibeke Milch
World Electr. Veh. J. 2022, 13(10), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj13100185 - 3 Oct 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3778
Abstract
The Norwegian charging infrastructure ecosystem was investigated from a user perspective by (1) developing knowledge of end-user experiences with public charging, (2) mapping BEV owners and future owner’s user-friendliness needs and the extent to which these needs are met, (3) pointing at potential [...] Read more.
The Norwegian charging infrastructure ecosystem was investigated from a user perspective by (1) developing knowledge of end-user experiences with public charging, (2) mapping BEV owners and future owner’s user-friendliness needs and the extent to which these needs are met, (3) pointing at potential user-friendliness improvements, (4) mapping the charging infrastructure ecosystem and business models, and (5) developing scenarios for the future system development and the impact on charging infrastructure user-friendliness. The article draws on the literature, a BEV (battery electric vehicle) and ICEV (internal combustion engine vehicle) owner survey, 15 BEV owner interviews, 21 charging infrastructure actor interviews, and open information sources on the charger actors. The unregulated charging system evolved into a complex web of actors that developed their own charging networks following their individually sensible business models, which in sum led to serious user-friendliness issues. To gain access to all chargers, users need to interact with up to 20–30 apps and 13 payment systems, which comes on top of different plug types, power levels, and charger interfaces. Some actors support roaming, while others oppose it. OEMs want users to interface with chargers through the navigation system. In the future, the system will become even more complex and less user friendly as more actors join unless, e.g., consolidation, regulation, or independent network orchestrators reduce the complexity. Full article
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11 pages, 2231 KiB  
Article
Potentials of Light Electric Vehicles for Climate Protection by Substituting Passenger Car Trips
by Simone Ehrenberger, Isheeka Dasgupta, Mascha Brost, Laura Gebhardt and Robert Seiffert
World Electr. Veh. J. 2022, 13(10), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj13100183 - 2 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3107
Abstract
For the transformation of the mobility sector, small and light electric vehicles (LEV) show great promise, owing to their efficiency and low vehicle weight resulting in low energy consumption and lower greenhouse gas emissions per driven kilometer. The presented study focuses on the [...] Read more.
For the transformation of the mobility sector, small and light electric vehicles (LEV) show great promise, owing to their efficiency and low vehicle weight resulting in low energy consumption and lower greenhouse gas emissions per driven kilometer. The presented study focuses on the theoretical potential of substitutability of passenger car trips in Germany by varied LEVs based on the “Mobilität in Deutschland 2017” (“Mobility in Germany 2017”) dataset, for the year 2030. A detailed approach for identifying substitutable car trips was developed, reflecting age, trip purpose, number of passengers, and other decision criteria. By conducting a life cycle assessment of the considered LEVs and passenger cars, potential emission savings were analyzed. In the considered baseline scenario, it is found that emissions could be reduced by 44 % with 50% of passenger car mileage being substituted by LEVs. This study, thereby, gives way to further research on LEVs, and would urge both policy makers and general users to steer towards comprehensive measures that encourage a switch from cars to LEVs. Full article
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18 pages, 8759 KiB  
Article
Impact of Electric Vehicle Charging Synchronization on the Urban Medium Voltage Power Distribution Network of Frederiksberg
by Tim Unterluggauer, F. Hipolito, Sergey Klyapovskiy and Peter Bach Andersen
World Electr. Veh. J. 2022, 13(10), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj13100182 - 30 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2500
Abstract
The uptake of electric vehicles (EVs) may pose a challenge to power distribution networks (PDNs). While smart charging can be deployed to relieve stress on the grid, user-centric smart charging strategies could also exacerbate peak power demand due to synchronization when optimizing charging [...] Read more.
The uptake of electric vehicles (EVs) may pose a challenge to power distribution networks (PDNs). While smart charging can be deployed to relieve stress on the grid, user-centric smart charging strategies could also exacerbate peak power demand due to synchronization when optimizing charging with regard to different objectives, such as charging costs. In this paper, we assess the charging demand emerging from a large fleet of EVs, with models for the decision to charge and distribution of the steady-state state-of-charge (SoC). These are applied to the municipality of Frederiksberg, Denmark, using data from the Danish national travel survey. Home and workplace charging are mapped to the urban 10 kV medium voltage PDN of Frederiksberg considering different charging behaviors and degrees of synchronization. Results indicate that the likelihood of severe congestion in the power distribution network is low and that it can be attributed to rare scenarios in which high synchronization is observed, particularly when maintaining the normal steady-state demand. Despite the low likelihood, preventive measures should be devised to mitigate such scenarios, especially if additional high-power consumers are connected. Full article
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11 pages, 7002 KiB  
Article
Novel Battery Module Design for Increased Resource Efficiency
by Simon Schmidt, Jan Clausen, Robin van der Auwera, Oliver Klapp, Rico Schmerler, David Löffler, Maximilian Jakob Werner and Lukas Block
World Electr. Veh. J. 2022, 13(10), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj13100177 - 23 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2497
Abstract
The work presented focuses on a material efficient, modular design of a battery module for vehicle applications. Furthermore, the possibility of disassembly of individual components was considered. The constructive design focused on the combination of cast aluminum components, lightweight composites panels, and aluminum-foam [...] Read more.
The work presented focuses on a material efficient, modular design of a battery module for vehicle applications. Furthermore, the possibility of disassembly of individual components was considered. The constructive design focused on the combination of cast aluminum components, lightweight composites panels, and aluminum-foam phase-change material (PCM) composites. This led to an innovative battery module, which was finally implemented on a demonstrator level. The required cooling power of the module could be reduced by approx. 20% compared to conventional battery module setups. Furthermore, the constructive design of the module and the use of a “debonding-on-demand” technology enabled significantly faster disassembly. Die to the combination of these advantages and the possibility to give individual parts of the module a second life for new modules, the module shows a high resource efficiency as well as high CO2 savings potential. Full article
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14 pages, 290 KiB  
Article
Green Public Procurement for Accelerating the Transition towards Sustainable Freight Transport
by Hampus Karlsson, Solveig Meland, Kristin Ystmark Bjerkan, Astrid Bjørgen, Nina Møllerstuen Bjørge and Sahar Babri
World Electr. Veh. J. 2022, 13(9), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj13090173 - 16 Sep 2022
Viewed by 2086
Abstract
Requests for emission reduction in the freight transport sector will be more intense in the coming years. One possible strategy to reduce emissions from freight transport is through utilising zero emission vehicles, which requires substantial investments both by transporters and by authorities. This [...] Read more.
Requests for emission reduction in the freight transport sector will be more intense in the coming years. One possible strategy to reduce emissions from freight transport is through utilising zero emission vehicles, which requires substantial investments both by transporters and by authorities. This paper examines how green public procurement (GPP) can be used to push the market in an environmentally sustainable direction. For this purpose, interviews with both public authorities and freight service providers are conducted. The results show that GPP is considered a useful tool for public authorities to both boost the uptake of zero emission vehicles and to share the investment costs with freight service providers. However, our study shows that there are differences between small and large municipalities. Moreover, to succeed with GPP, public authorities must prioritise such tasks in their daily routines through political decisions and strategies. Additionally, barriers related to financial possibilities are crucial to handle, as public support schemes are important to reduce costs for all involved stakeholders. Altogether, our paper shows that with the right tools and willingness among both public and private stakeholders, GPP can contribute to the use of more environmentally friendly solutions in the freight transport sector. Full article
12 pages, 1630 KiB  
Article
Synergy of Unidirectional and Bidirectional Smart Charging of Electric Vehicles for Frequency Containment Reserve Power Provision
by Jonas Schlund, Reinhard German and Marco Pruckner
World Electr. Veh. J. 2022, 13(9), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj13090168 - 2 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2642
Abstract
Besides the integration of renewable energies, electric vehicles pose an additional challenge to modern power grids. However, electric vehicles can also be a flexibility source and contribute to the power system stability. Today, the power system still heavily relies on conventional technologies to [...] Read more.
Besides the integration of renewable energies, electric vehicles pose an additional challenge to modern power grids. However, electric vehicles can also be a flexibility source and contribute to the power system stability. Today, the power system still heavily relies on conventional technologies to stay stable. In order to operate a future power system based on renewable energies only, we need to understand the flexibility potential of assets such as electric vehicles and become able to use their flexibility. In this paper, we analyzed how vast amounts of coordinated charging processes can be used to provide frequency containment reserve power, one of the most important ancillary services for system stability. Therefore, we used an extensive simulation model of a virtual power plant of millions of electric vehicles. The model considers not only technical components but also the stochastic behavior of electric vehicle drivers based on real data. Our results show that, in 2030, electric vehicles have the potential to serve the whole frequency containment reserve power market in Germany. We differentiate between using unidirectional and bidirectional chargers. Bidirectional chargers have a larger potential but also result in unwanted battery degradation. Unidirectional chargers are more constrained in terms of flexibility, but do not lead to additional battery degradation. We conclude that using a mix of both can combine the advantages of both worlds. Thereby, average private cars can provide the service without any notable additional battery degradation and achieve yearly earnings between EUR 200 and EUR 500, depending on the volatile market prices. Commercial vehicles have an even higher potential, as the results increase with vehicle utilization and consumption. Full article
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13 pages, 5270 KiB  
Article
Where to Charge Electric Trucks in Europe—Modelling a Charging Infrastructure Network
by Daniel Speth, Verena Sauter and Patrick Plötz
World Electr. Veh. J. 2022, 13(9), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj13090162 - 28 Aug 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 5164
Abstract
Heavy-duty trucks account for 27% of the European greenhouse gas emissions in the transport sector. To decarbonize road freight transport, the European Union plans to build a fast charging network for trucks. This paper presents two scenarios, covering European highways with charging stations [...] Read more.
Heavy-duty trucks account for 27% of the European greenhouse gas emissions in the transport sector. To decarbonize road freight transport, the European Union plans to build a fast charging network for trucks. This paper presents two scenarios, covering European highways with charging stations at regular intervals every 50 or 100 km along the most important highways. For each location, the required number of charging points at 15% battery electric trucking is calculated individually using queueing theory. A third scenario takes into account the infrastructure ramp-up in 2025 and assumes a share of 5% battery electric trucking in a network with a 100 km distance. We define a network of 660 (100 km distance) or 1468 stations (50 km distance). Depending on the scenario and the individual station, the projected number of charging points per station varies between 1 and 18 in 2030. The results give a first insight into what a fast charging infrastructure for trucks in Europe might look like. In particular, we show that large charging stations with more than ten charging points could be necessary in the next few years. This knowledge might help to design future charging infrastructure for electric road freight transport. Full article
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14 pages, 3584 KiB  
Article
Technical Feasibility of Heavy-Duty Battery-Electric Trucks for Urban and Regional Delivery in Germany—A Real-World Case Study
by Steffen Link and Patrick Plötz
World Electr. Veh. J. 2022, 13(9), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj13090161 - 27 Aug 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3979
Abstract
Cutting greenhouse gas emissions to comply with the Paris Agreement is challenging for road freight. While heavy-duty battery-electric trucks (BET) promise tremendous and immediate reduction potential, literature increasingly confirms technical feasibility in general, and several manufacturers launched BET models. However, their real-world application [...] Read more.
Cutting greenhouse gas emissions to comply with the Paris Agreement is challenging for road freight. While heavy-duty battery-electric trucks (BET) promise tremendous and immediate reduction potential, literature increasingly confirms technical feasibility in general, and several manufacturers launched BET models. However, their real-world application is still being questioned by fleet owners due to the limited range or payload penalties. Thus, our case study aims to assess the technical feasibility of urban and regional delivery in Germany based on real-world and per-vehicle operational data that feed into an energy simulation with Monte-Carlo modeling. Our results demonstrate the importance of vehicle-specific examination for the right battery capacity that ideally matches the vehicle’s operating profile. We find that full electrification may be most accessible for 18-t and 26-t rigid solo trucks, soon followed by tractor-trailers, while truck-trailers turn out as most challenging. With up to 600 kWh battery capacity available in all truck classes, we find nearly 40% of all transport performance and 60% of all diesel trucks may be replaced with BET—while already 400 kWh is sufficient for half of all trucks. Additional measures such as intermediate charging and adjusted and more flexible truck-tour allocation may significantly accelerate electrification. Full article
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12 pages, 1895 KiB  
Article
Characterisation of Norwegian Battery Electric Vehicle Owners by Level of Adoption
by Nina Møllerstuen Bjørge, Odd André Hjelkrem and Sahar Babri
World Electr. Veh. J. 2022, 13(8), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj13080150 - 9 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2574
Abstract
In this paper we investigate differences between groups of Norwegian electric vehicle owners, sorted by their adoption level. The grouping is based on adoption theory and the share of battery electric vehicles in new car sales numbers. We investigate Norwegian adopters’ preferences, values, [...] Read more.
In this paper we investigate differences between groups of Norwegian electric vehicle owners, sorted by their adoption level. The grouping is based on adoption theory and the share of battery electric vehicles in new car sales numbers. We investigate Norwegian adopters’ preferences, values, and motivations for choosing a battery electric vehicle. The main data source is a yearly survey between 2015 and 2020 amongst Norwegian electric vehicle drivers. The motivation of the study is to reveal different choices by the adopter groups, contributing to policy recommendations and incentives for other countries. However, the Norwegian case might be a special one, having economic advantages which many other countries do not have access to. We assess the validity of the results and policy recommendations by analysing the results of a survey amongst the Nordic countries on investment choices concerning battery electric vehicles. Full article
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14 pages, 3521 KiB  
Article
Parametric Optimisation of a Direct Liquid Cooling–Based Prototype for Electric Vehicles Focused on Pouch-Type Battery Cells
by Manex Larrañaga-Ezeiza, Gorka Vertiz Navarro, Igor Galarza Garmendia, Peru Fernandez Arroiabe, Manex Martinez-Aguirre and Joanes Berasategi Arostegui
World Electr. Veh. J. 2022, 13(8), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj13080149 - 9 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2336
Abstract
In this work, a numerical optimisation process is applied to improve the fluid dynamical aspect of an innovative direct liquid cooling strategy for lithium-ion–based HEV/EV. First, the thermofluidic numerical model of the battery cell defined by means of CFD computational tools was validated [...] Read more.
In this work, a numerical optimisation process is applied to improve the fluid dynamical aspect of an innovative direct liquid cooling strategy for lithium-ion–based HEV/EV. First, the thermofluidic numerical model of the battery cell defined by means of CFD computational tools was validated with experimental tests. Then, a comparison between different flow patterns was developed to analyse the influence of the fluid distribution geometry. Finally, a parametric multi-objective optimisation process was implemented arranged by a two-level full factorial design. Considering as input variables the height of the fluid, the number of cooling channels, the number of distributors, and the flow rate, the optimal relationship between the thermal performance of the battery cell, the volumetric energy density of the system, and the power consumption of the strategy was obtained. As a result, the energy density of the system was maximised, and the power consumption was reduced while keeping the cell temperature within the optimal range. Full article
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14 pages, 3804 KiB  
Article
Experimental Validation of an Automated Approach for Estimating the Efficiency and Heat Balance of Gearboxes Based on an Electrified Heavy Commercial Vehicle Axle
by Roland Uerlich, Sven Köller, Gordon Witham, Theo Koch and Lutz Eckstein
World Electr. Veh. J. 2022, 13(8), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj13080142 - 2 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2298
Abstract
Freight transport accounts for about half of all distances travelled in Europe. Therefore, freight transport is one of the decisive factors for reducing greenhouse gases and air pollutants. For this reason, the electrification of road freight transport is being promoted as part of [...] Read more.
Freight transport accounts for about half of all distances travelled in Europe. Therefore, freight transport is one of the decisive factors for reducing greenhouse gases and air pollutants. For this reason, the electrification of road freight transport is being promoted as part of the project “BEV Goes eHighway—[BEE]”. The data basis for the modelling used in this project is an electric drive axle for a heavy commercial vehicle, which was developed in the “Concept-ELV2” project. Based on the results of the previous project, the methodological tools that were developed are presented in this paper. These allow a wide range of possible powertrain topologies to be considered at the concept stage of development based on an estimation of future system characteristics. For this purpose, the components are automatically designed taking into account the mutual influence of the requirements and are evaluated in the context of the holistic system. This publication focuses on the efficiency and thermal evaluation of the transmission stages of the addressed electric drive units and validates the developed models using a pototypically designed electric commercial vehicle axle. Full article
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9 pages, 2333 KiB  
Article
Pathways to Carbon-Free Transport in Germany until 2050
by Till Gnann, Daniel Speth, Michael Krail, Martin Wietschel and Stella Oberle
World Electr. Veh. J. 2022, 13(8), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj13080136 - 28 Jul 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2517
Abstract
The transport sector has to be widely decarbonized by 2050 to reach the targets of the Paris Agreement. This can be performed with different drive trains and energy carriers. This paper explored four pathways to a carbon-free transport sector in Germany in 2050 [...] Read more.
The transport sector has to be widely decarbonized by 2050 to reach the targets of the Paris Agreement. This can be performed with different drive trains and energy carriers. This paper explored four pathways to a carbon-free transport sector in Germany in 2050 with foci on electricity, hydrogen, synthetic methane, or liquid synthetic fuels. We used a transport demand model for future vehicle use and a simulation model for the determination of alternative fuel vehicle market shares. We found a large share of electric vehicles in all scenarios, even in the scenarios with a focus on other fuels. In all scenarios, the final energy consumption decreased significantly, most strongly when the focus was on electricity and almost one-third lower in primary energy demand compared with the other scenarios. A further decrease of energy demand is possible with an even faster adoption of electric vehicles, yet fuel cost then has to be even higher or electricity prices lower. Full article
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13 pages, 3088 KiB  
Article
Development of the State of Warranty (SOW) for Electric Vehicles
by Mikel Arrinda, Denis Sánchez, Mikel Oyarbide, Haritz Macicior and Ander Zubiria
World Electr. Veh. J. 2022, 13(8), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj13080135 - 27 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1801
Abstract
There is an exponential increase in electric vehicles on the road that need a follow up in terms of warranty. The proposed state of warranty (SOW) is a metastate that qualitatively describes the warranty fulfillment level of an electric vehicle. All the relevant [...] Read more.
There is an exponential increase in electric vehicles on the road that need a follow up in terms of warranty. The proposed state of warranty (SOW) is a metastate that qualitatively describes the warranty fulfillment level of an electric vehicle. All the relevant warranty information is synthesized in a single merit while maintaining the level of detail through the qualitative substates. The developed SOW is calculated with a rule-based logic of an expert system that evaluates the quantitative value of three substates: the remaining warranty, the remaining health and the remaining useful warranty. The SOW provides a synthesized and user-friendly description of the warranty fulfillment state while providing quantitative detailed information of the most relevant features of each of the different maintenance methodologies. Full article
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