Special Issue "Selected Papers from The 30th International Electric Vehicles Symposium and Exhibition (Stuttgart, Germany)"

A special issue of World Electric Vehicle Journal (ISSN 2032-6653).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (14 December 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Joeri VAN Mierlo

Department Mobility, Logistics and Automotive Technology Research Centre, Vrije Universiteit Brussels, Pleinlaan 2, Brussels 1050, Belgium
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +32 2 6292803
Interests: Electric and hybrid vehicles (batteries, power converters, and energy management simulations); The environmental and economical comparison of vehicles with different drive trains and fuels (LCA, TCO)

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue gathers updated versions of a selection of the best papers of EVS30.

EVS30, the 30th International Electric Vehicle Symposium & Exhibition, was organised from 9 to 11 October 2017 in Stuttgart, Germany.

EVS is the leading international event to address issues on e-mobility. The various components of electric mobility were on display; from markets to vehicle battery technology; from motorcycles to trucks, and from charging facilities to related services and public policy.

The authors of the best papers presented at EVS30 were invited to further extend their EVS30 paper, including their most recent research findings. After a second thorough round of review, these papers are now published in this Special Issue of the World Electric Vehicle Journal.

If you want to know more about the World Electric Vehicle Journal, feel free to read my Editorial at https://www.mdpi.com/2032-6653/9/1/1.

The hosts of EVS30 were the World Electric Vehicle Association (WEVA) and the European Association for Electromobility (AVERE). Messe Stuttgart and a network of partners comprising the German Solar Mobility Association (BSM), Baden-Württemberg International (bw-i), e-mobil BW, the Peter Sauber Agency, and the Stuttgart Region Economic Development Corporation jointly organised the event in 2017.

Prof. Dr. Joeri Van Mierlo
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. World Electric Vehicle Journal is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. As selected papers, the original 300 CHF Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication will be paid by AVERE. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (42 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Reducing the Environmental Impacts of Electric Vehicles and Electricity Supply: How Hourly Defined Life Cycle Assessment and Smart Charging Can Contribute
World Electr. Veh. J. 2019, 10(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj10010013
Received: 22 June 2018 / Revised: 5 February 2019 / Accepted: 5 March 2019 / Published: 8 March 2019
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Abstract
Increasing shares of renewable electricity generation lead to fundamental changes of the electricity supply, resulting in varying supply mixes and environmental impacts. The hourly-defined life cycle assessment (HD-LCA) approach aims to capture the environmental profile of electricity supply in an hourly resolution. It [...] Read more.
Increasing shares of renewable electricity generation lead to fundamental changes of the electricity supply, resulting in varying supply mixes and environmental impacts. The hourly-defined life cycle assessment (HD-LCA) approach aims to capture the environmental profile of electricity supply in an hourly resolution. It offers a flexible connectivity to unit commitment models or real-time electricity production and consumption data from electricity suppliers. When charging EVs, the environmental impact of the charging session depends on the electricity mix during the session. This paper introduces the combination of HD-LCA and smart charging and illustrates its impacts on the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of BEVs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Implementation Schemes for Electric Bus Fleets at Depots with Optimized Energy Procurements in Virtual Power Plant Operations
World Electr. Veh. J. 2019, 10(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj10010005
Received: 18 December 2018 / Revised: 11 January 2019 / Accepted: 14 January 2019 / Published: 17 January 2019
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Abstract
For the purpose of utilizing electric bus fleets in metropolitan areas and with regard to providing active energy management at depots, a profound understanding of the transactions between the market entities involved in the charging process is given. The paper examines sophisticated charging [...] Read more.
For the purpose of utilizing electric bus fleets in metropolitan areas and with regard to providing active energy management at depots, a profound understanding of the transactions between the market entities involved in the charging process is given. The paper examines sophisticated charging strategies with energy procurements in joint market operation. Here, operation procedures and characteristics of a depot including the physical layout and utilization of appropriate charging infrastructure are investigated. A comprehensive model framework for a virtual power plant (VPP) is formulated and developed to integrate electric bus fleets in the power plant portfolio, enabling the provision of power system services. The proposed methodology is verified in numerical analysis by providing optimized dispatch schedules in day-ahead and intraday market operations. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Advancing E-Roaming in Europe: Towards a Single “Language” for the European Charging Infrastructure
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(4), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9040050
Received: 13 May 2018 / Revised: 27 November 2018 / Accepted: 5 December 2018 / Published: 7 December 2018
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Abstract
The E.U. market for electric vehicles (EVs) is growing significantly, but the absence of widely adopted protocols and interoperability standards for charging hinders the development of cross-border EV travel (“e-roaming”). In this paper, we present our vision on what should be the basic [...] Read more.
The E.U. market for electric vehicles (EVs) is growing significantly, but the absence of widely adopted protocols and interoperability standards for charging hinders the development of cross-border EV travel (“e-roaming”). In this paper, we present our vision on what should be the basic functionalities of e-roaming. Furthermore, we describe the best practices of 6 years of e-roaming in the Netherlands, and analyze what can be learned from other sectors that were successful in introducing roaming mechanisms in the past. We translate these into proposed next steps, such as the need for piloting e-roaming on a European level using open standards, such as Open Charge Point Interface (OCPI). We conclude with a proposal for a comparative study of protocols to pave the way for future convergence, and, thus, facilitate a European market for EV products and services. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Predicting the Future Manufacturing Cost of Batteries for Plug-In Vehicles for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 2017–2025 Light-Duty Greenhouse Gas Standards
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(3), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9030042
Received: 17 July 2018 / Revised: 26 September 2018 / Accepted: 26 September 2018 / Published: 6 October 2018
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Abstract
In developing the U.S. 2017–2025 Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) modeled lithium-ion battery packs for future electrified vehicles to estimate their direct manufacturing costs through 2025. As part of the 2016 Midterm Evaluation of the standards [...] Read more.
In developing the U.S. 2017–2025 Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) modeled lithium-ion battery packs for future electrified vehicles to estimate their direct manufacturing costs through 2025. As part of the 2016 Midterm Evaluation of the standards for model years (MY) 2022 to 2025, the analysis was revised to account for developments in battery design since the 2012 rulemaking. This paper describes the methodology that was used for estimating battery capacity, power, and cost, and compares the projected cost estimates to other sources. An empirical equation is derived for specifying motor power as a function of target acceleration time, and suggested factors for converting cell-level costs to pack-level costs are developed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Design and Analysis of Partitioned-Stator Switched-Flux Dual-Excitation Machine for Hybrid Electric Vehicles
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(3), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9030040
Received: 13 July 2018 / Revised: 26 August 2018 / Accepted: 28 August 2018 / Published: 4 September 2018
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Abstract
In this paper, an advanced partitioned-stator switched-flux dual-excitation (PS-SFDE) machine, which is highly suitable for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), is proposed. By artfully implementing two excitation sources, namely the high-power-density permanent-magnet (PM) source and the DC-field excitation source, the proposed machine can take [...] Read more.
In this paper, an advanced partitioned-stator switched-flux dual-excitation (PS-SFDE) machine, which is highly suitable for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), is proposed. By artfully implementing two excitation sources, namely the high-power-density permanent-magnet (PM) source and the DC-field excitation source, the proposed machine can take benefits from both sides. Unlike the existing PS-SFDE machines that sacrifice the PM materials for DC-field winding accommodation, the proposed machine instead shares the space of the armature winding with the DC-field winding. Hence, comparable power and torque levels can be potentially achieved. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Battery Health Monitoring and Degradation Prognosis in Fleet Management Systems
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(3), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9030039
Received: 9 July 2018 / Revised: 8 August 2018 / Accepted: 9 August 2018 / Published: 29 August 2018
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Abstract
Today, fleet management systems with battery health monitoring capabilities are in the focus more than ever. This paper addresses the development of a novel battery health monitoring algorithm with a degradation prognosis feasibility particularly adapted for usage in fleet management systems. Moreover, the [...] Read more.
Today, fleet management systems with battery health monitoring capabilities are in the focus more than ever. This paper addresses the development of a novel battery health monitoring algorithm with a degradation prognosis feasibility particularly adapted for usage in fleet management systems. Moreover, the chosen degradation prognosis approach adapts itself continuously on varying environmental conditions or utilization modes by identifying the impact factors which lead to a certain degradation trend. Such findings, when accessible with a fleet management system, offer various possibilities for fleet analysis techniques e.g., to identify an imminent battery failure. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Policy Considerations for Zero-Emission Vehicle Infrastructure Incentives: Case Study in Canada
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(3), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9030038
Received: 20 June 2018 / Revised: 13 August 2018 / Accepted: 17 August 2018 / Published: 23 August 2018
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Abstract
Transportation accounts for more than 20% of the total Greenouse Gas (GHG) emissions in Canada. Switching from fossil fuels to more environmentally friendly energy sources and to Zero-Emission Vehicles (ZEVs) is a promising option for future transportation but well to wheel emission and [...] Read more.
Transportation accounts for more than 20% of the total Greenouse Gas (GHG) emissions in Canada. Switching from fossil fuels to more environmentally friendly energy sources and to Zero-Emission Vehicles (ZEVs) is a promising option for future transportation but well to wheel emission and charging/refuelling patterns must also be considered. This paper investigates the barriers to and opportunities for electric charging and hydrogen refueling infrastructure incentives in Ontario, Canada and estimates the number of Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles (ICEVs) that would be offset by infrastructure incentives. The paper also assesses the potential of electric and hybrid-electric powertrains to enable GHG reductions, explores the impact of the electricity supply mix for supporting zero-emission vehicles in different scenarios and studies the effect of the utility factor for PHEVs in Ontario. The authors compare the use of electric vehicle charging infrastructures and hydrogen refueling stations regarding overall GHG emission reductions for an infrastructure incentive funded by a 20-million-dollar government grant. The results suggest that this incentive can provide infrastructure that can offset around 9000 ICEVs vehicles using electricity charging infrastructure and 4000–8700 when using hydrogen refuelling stations. Having appropriate limitations and policy considerations for the potential 1.7 million electric-based vehicles that may be in use by 2024 in Ontario would result in 5–7 million tonne GHG avoidances in different scenarios, equivalent to the removal of 1–1.5 million ICEVs from the road. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
New Approach for an Easily Detachable Electric Drive Unit for Off-the-Shelf Bicycles
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(3), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9030037
Received: 4 June 2018 / Revised: 6 July 2018 / Accepted: 6 August 2018 / Published: 23 August 2018
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Abstract
While an increasing number of electric bicycles are sold, the majority is still conventional, i.e., pedal powered.Electric bicycles could raise the share of people cycling in place of more inefficient modes of transportation. This paper investigates and proposes a new approach for an [...] Read more.
While an increasing number of electric bicycles are sold, the majority is still conventional, i.e., pedal powered.Electric bicycles could raise the share of people cycling in place of more inefficient modes of transportation. This paper investigates and proposes a new approach for an electric drive unit that can easily be attached and detached to a large majority of existing off-the-shelf bicycles to convert them into legal electric assisted bicycles (pedelecs). Different drive mechanisms were investigated and a design with a friction roller at the rear wheel showed the greatest potential. A good solution is achieved with a single unit that incorporates batteries, electronics, motors and sensors in a single enclosure to minimize the mounting time. With a fastening on the seat stay tube using a simple clamp mechanism it can assist the cyclist on most existing bicycles. The legally-required pedal detection is done with an integrated proximity sensor. A prototype is built to prove a simple and nonspecific installation and convenient usage. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Survey on User Acceptance of Wireless Electric Vehicle Charging
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(3), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9030036
Received: 8 May 2018 / Revised: 17 August 2018 / Accepted: 18 August 2018 / Published: 22 August 2018
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Abstract
This study presents results of a survey-based analysis on user acceptance of wireless electric vehicle charging. A structural equation model is developed based on Davis’ technology acceptance model (TAM). It is expanded integrating elements of Ajzen’s theory of planned behavior (TPB). The main [...] Read more.
This study presents results of a survey-based analysis on user acceptance of wireless electric vehicle charging. A structural equation model is developed based on Davis’ technology acceptance model (TAM). It is expanded integrating elements of Ajzen’s theory of planned behavior (TPB). The main factors influencing acceptance of wireless electric vehicle charging are evaluated and analyzed. Empirical findings indicate that survey participants’ acceptance of wireless electric vehicle charging is mainly influenced by affective evaluations of wireless charging, subjective norms, perceived usefulness of wireless charging, and environmental awareness. The results indicate a high degree of acceptance for wireless charging. Even individuals with lower degrees of acceptance are willing to use wireless charging within car-sharing or commercial fleets. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
V2G—An Economic Gamechanger in E-Mobility?
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(3), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9030035
Received: 8 May 2018 / Revised: 1 August 2018 / Accepted: 9 August 2018 / Published: 21 August 2018
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Abstract
The Vehicle-2-grid (V2G) technology enabling bidirectional charging between electric vehicles and the energy grid system for frequency regulation and load balancing has the potential of significantly improving the financial viability of electric mobility. This paper has identified that the introduction of V2G offers [...] Read more.
The Vehicle-2-grid (V2G) technology enabling bidirectional charging between electric vehicles and the energy grid system for frequency regulation and load balancing has the potential of significantly improving the financial viability of electric mobility. This paper has identified that the introduction of V2G offers a plethora of potentially beneficial business models, which primarily focus on providing stability services to the energy grid and optimizing the economic benefits of owning an EV. Within these overarching categories, it is likely that several niche business models will emerge, as the current V2G concepts include the integration of intermittent renewable energy into the grid, reduction of peak load, charging optimization, and regulation of participating capacity. Most important is the balancing of the five market factors in order to create a profitable business case, as this is what makes V2G move from a potential revenue generator to a profitable business. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Capacity Recovery Effect in Lithium Sulfur Batteries for Electric Vehicles
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9020034
Received: 16 May 2018 / Revised: 9 August 2018 / Accepted: 10 August 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
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Abstract
Lithium sulfur batteries have a promisingly high theoretical specific energy density of about 2600 Wh/kg and an expected practical specific energy density of about 500–600 Wh/kg. Therefore, it is a highly promising future energy storage technology for electric vehicles. Beside these advantages, this [...] Read more.
Lithium sulfur batteries have a promisingly high theoretical specific energy density of about 2600 Wh/kg and an expected practical specific energy density of about 500–600 Wh/kg. Therefore, it is a highly promising future energy storage technology for electric vehicles. Beside these advantages, this technology shows a low cell capacity at high discharge currents. Due to the capacity recovery effect, up to 20 % of the total cell capacity becomes available again with some rest time. This study shows a newly-developed capacity recovery model for lithium sulfur batteries. Due to the long rest periods of electric vehicles, this effect has an important influence on the usable cell capacity and depth of discharge in lithium sulfur batteries. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Life Cycle Analysis of Conventional and Hybrid Heavy-Duty Trucks
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9020033
Received: 12 June 2018 / Revised: 25 July 2018 / Accepted: 3 August 2018 / Published: 13 August 2018
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Abstract
Heavy-duty trucks are one of the main contributors to greenhouse gas emissions in German traffic. Drivetrain electrification is an option to reduce tailpipe emissions by increasing energy conversion efficiency. To evaluate the vehicle’s environmental impacts, it is necessary to consider the entire life [...] Read more.
Heavy-duty trucks are one of the main contributors to greenhouse gas emissions in German traffic. Drivetrain electrification is an option to reduce tailpipe emissions by increasing energy conversion efficiency. To evaluate the vehicle’s environmental impacts, it is necessary to consider the entire life cycle. In addition to the daily use, it is also necessary to include the impact of production and disposal. This study presents the comparative life cycle analysis of a parallel hybrid and a conventional heavy-duty truck in long-haul operation. Assuming a uniform vehicle glider, only the differing parts of both drivetrains are taken into account to calculate the environmental burdens of the production. The use phase is modeled by a backward simulation in MATLAB/Simulink considering a characteristic driving cycle. A break-even analysis is conducted to show at what mileage the larger CO2eq emissions due to the production of the electric drivetrain are compensated. The effect of parameter variation on the break-even mileage is investigated by a sensitivity analysis. The results of this analysis show the difference in CO2eq/t km is negative, indicating that the hybrid vehicle releases 4.34 g CO2eq/t km over a lifetime fewer emissions compared to the diesel truck. The break-even analysis also emphasizes the advantages of the electrified drivetrain, compensating the larger emissions generated during production after already a distance of 15,800 km (approx. 1.5 months of operation time). The intersection coordinates, distance, and CO2eq, strongly depend on fuel, emissions for battery production and the driving profile, which lead to nearly all parameter variations showing an increase in break-even distance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Electric Vehicles in Rural Demand-Responsive Systems: Findings of Two Demand Responsive Transport Projects for the Improvement of Service Provision
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9020032
Received: 20 June 2018 / Revised: 3 August 2018 / Accepted: 6 August 2018 / Published: 13 August 2018
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Abstract
To fill in mobility gaps, volunteer-based flexible transit solutions have been successfully implemented in Germany since early 1980s. These concepts have evolved to address a diverse array of needs and situations, and to incorporate new solutions and technologies. Such is the case of [...] Read more.
To fill in mobility gaps, volunteer-based flexible transit solutions have been successfully implemented in Germany since early 1980s. These concepts have evolved to address a diverse array of needs and situations, and to incorporate new solutions and technologies. Such is the case of electrical vehicles (EVs), which have found an application in these systems through state-run initiatives seeking to promote sustainable mobility. This article presents two electric-car volunteer-based rural demand-responsive services, namely, a Buerger(ruf)auto (Dial-a-ride or “Citizen-operated-car”) and a Buergerbus (“Citizen-operated-bus”). The article outlines specific aspects of the EVs that are used, which need to be addressed to in order to achieve an operational efficiency that is comparable to an equivalent service using internal combustion vehicles. Specific challenges are identified, namely in relation to the technological limitations, and the size and characteristic of the vehicles required. In addition, specific challenges include the need for the vehicle components that allow data gathering directly from the car’s electric motor in order to analyze the car’s performance under different operational conditions. The article mentions the issues explicitly and specifies what would be required of electrical vehicles to become an asset in the provision of demand-responsive systems in rural settings. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Estimating Real-World Emissions of PHEVs in Norway by Combining Laboratory Measurement with User Surveys
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9020031
Received: 28 May 2018 / Revised: 20 July 2018 / Accepted: 6 August 2018 / Published: 10 August 2018
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Abstract
The paper presents the results of experimental testing of the exhaust emission and energy consumption of two gasoline plug-in hybrid vehicles in an emission testing laboratory with different drive cycles and drive modes and at summer and winter temperatures. One was a compact [...] Read more.
The paper presents the results of experimental testing of the exhaust emission and energy consumption of two gasoline plug-in hybrid vehicles in an emission testing laboratory with different drive cycles and drive modes and at summer and winter temperatures. One was a compact vehicle with a type approval electric mode range of 50 km, the other a mid-sized vehicle with an electric mode range of 31 km. Additionally, an online survey of 2065 private plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEV) owners investigated the usage pattern of the vehicles. Combining the laboratory tests with the user survey results provided an estimate for the reduction of CO2-emission of PHEVs in use in Norway. The main conclusion is that the PHEV is a vehicle type that needs to match well with the use pattern to produce low CO2- and local emissions. The achievable CO2-emission reduction was proportional to the range in electric drive-mode (E-mode), i.e., 50 km range resulted in about 50% reduction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Taxation of Electric Vehicles in Europe: A Methodology for Comparison
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9020030
Received: 11 May 2018 / Revised: 24 July 2018 / Accepted: 29 July 2018 / Published: 8 August 2018
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Abstract
In Europe, a heterogeneous range of national vehicle taxation systems exists in parallel, so that a simple comparison of electric vehicle (xEV) tax advantages is not straightforward. In this contribution, various European vehicle taxation systems are examined and a methodology is introduced which [...] Read more.
In Europe, a heterogeneous range of national vehicle taxation systems exists in parallel, so that a simple comparison of electric vehicle (xEV) tax advantages is not straightforward. In this contribution, various European vehicle taxation systems are examined and a methodology is introduced which allows a comprehensible comparison and overview by calculating CO2 based taxation step curves. This methodology provides a powerful tool for benchmarking xEV technologies and analyzing consumer acceptance of xEVs and enables furthermore the discussion about possible future taxation and incentive schemes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Vehicle Level Control Analysis for Voltec Powertrain
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9020029
Received: 2 May 2018 / Revised: 3 July 2018 / Accepted: 20 July 2018 / Published: 2 August 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (14849 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The next generation of the Volt vehicle with the new “Voltec” extended-range propulsion system was introduced into the market in 2016. The second-generation Volt’s powertrain architecture provides five modes of operation, including two electric vehicle operations and three extended-range operations. Vehicle testing was [...] Read more.
The next generation of the Volt vehicle with the new “Voltec” extended-range propulsion system was introduced into the market in 2016. The second-generation Volt’s powertrain architecture provides five modes of operation, including two electric vehicle operations and three extended-range operations. Vehicle testing was performed on a chassis dynamometer set within a thermal chamber at the Advanced Powertrain Research Facility at Argonne National Laboratory. The study first focused on assessing the improvement of the new Voltec system by comparing the system efficiency with the previous system. Second, control behavior and performance were analyzed under normal ambient temperature to understand the supervisory control strategy on the Voltec system based on the test data. The analysis focused on the engine on/off strategy, powertrain operation mode, energy management, and engine operating conditions. Third, test data from the control analysis were used to summarize the vehicle control logic. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Li-Ion Battery Lifetime Model’s Influence on the Economic Assessment of a Hybrid Electric Bus’s Operation
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9020028
Received: 21 June 2018 / Revised: 19 July 2018 / Accepted: 23 July 2018 / Published: 26 July 2018
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Abstract
The present paper is focused on the evaluation of the economic influence of a battery lifetime model upon the optimal sizing and energy management strategy of a dual energy storage system (ESS) composed of Lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors. The operation of a Hybrid [...] Read more.
The present paper is focused on the evaluation of the economic influence of a battery lifetime model upon the optimal sizing and energy management strategy of a dual energy storage system (ESS) composed of Lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors. The operation of a Hybrid Bus is taken as a case study in order to evaluate the effects of battery lifetime models’ accuracy on ESS sizing and operation in a heavy-duty application. For this purpose, two different lifetime models (a Wöhler-curve-based model and a semi-empirical model) were applied in the multi-objective optimisation of a hybrid electric urban bus. Differences up to ca. 8% on the daily operation costs and ca. 25% on the dual ESS costs were estimated depending on the lifetime model considered for the optimisation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
White Spots in Business and IT: An Explorative Study for E-Mobility Services
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9020027
Received: 17 May 2018 / Revised: 15 July 2018 / Accepted: 19 July 2018 / Published: 23 July 2018
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Abstract
E-mobility services are important enablers for the success of electric vehicles. In contrast to conventional mobility, where an ecosystem consisting of the vehicle and complementary services has been built up and has improved over decades, the ecosystem for e-mobility is far less advanced [...] Read more.
E-mobility services are important enablers for the success of electric vehicles. In contrast to conventional mobility, where an ecosystem consisting of the vehicle and complementary services has been built up and has improved over decades, the ecosystem for e-mobility is far less advanced and still in its infancy. In order to get on the sustainable path to success in the steadily growing e-mobility market, innovative ideas are necessary which are not covered by existing service offerings. This paper therefore describes a study that explored opportunities for innovative e-mobility service business models through a systematic analysis. Furthermore, each e-mobility service depends on information technology (IT) support. Therefore, IT standardization is an important issue to consider in order to build up more complex services on top of basic services and further advance the e-mobility ecosystem. Consequently, this paper presents results from a survey conducted with 27 e-mobility experts from Germany to help identify necessary standardization gaps in the context of e-mobility services. The paper contributes to the existing body of knowledge by proposing a structured, repeatable method for identifying innovative business models and by offering insights into study results. In addition, gaps in the standardization of IT infrastructure that are important for the provision of existing e-mobility services are illustrated. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Performance of Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure: Development of an Assessment Platform Based on Charging Data
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9020025
Received: 8 June 2018 / Revised: 16 July 2018 / Accepted: 18 July 2018 / Published: 20 July 2018
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Abstract
Developers of charging infrastructure, be it public or private parties, are highly dependent on accurate utilization data in order to make informed decisions where and when to expand charging points. The Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences, in close cooperation with the municipalities of [...] Read more.
Developers of charging infrastructure, be it public or private parties, are highly dependent on accurate utilization data in order to make informed decisions where and when to expand charging points. The Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences, in close cooperation with the municipalities of Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague, Utrecht, and the Metropolitan Region of Amsterdam Electric, developed both the back- and front-end of a charging infrastructure assessment platform that processes and represents real-life charging data. Charging infrastructure planning and design methods described in the literature use geographic information system data, traffic flow data of non-EV vehicles, or geographical distributions of, for example, refueling stations for combustion engine vehicles. Only limited methods apply real-life charging data. Rolling out public charging infrastructure is a balancing act between stimulating the transition to zero-emission transport by enabling (candidate) EV drivers to charge, and limiting costly investments in public charging infrastructure. Five key performance indicators for charging infrastructure utilization are derived from literature, workshops, and discussions with practitioners. The paper describes the Data Warehouse architecture designed for processing large amounts of charging data, and the web-based assessment platform by which practitioners get access to relevant knowledge and information about the current performance of existing charging infrastructure represented by the key performance indicators developed. The platform allows stakeholders in the decision-making process of charging point installation to make informed decisions on where and how to expand the already existing charging infrastructure. The results are generalizable beyond the case study regions in the Netherlands and can serve the roll-out of charging infrastructure, both public and semi-public, all over the world. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sustainability Assessment of Second Use Applications of Automotive Batteries: Ageing of Li-Ion Battery Cells in Automotive and Grid-Scale Applications
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9020024
Received: 4 June 2018 / Revised: 6 July 2018 / Accepted: 14 July 2018 / Published: 18 July 2018
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Abstract
The Sustainability Assessment of Second Life Applications of Automotive Batteries (SASLAB) exploratory research project of the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre (JRC) aims at developing and applying a methodology to analyse the sustainability of deploying electrified vehicles (xEV) batteries in second use applications. [...] Read more.
The Sustainability Assessment of Second Life Applications of Automotive Batteries (SASLAB) exploratory research project of the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre (JRC) aims at developing and applying a methodology to analyse the sustainability of deploying electrified vehicles (xEV) batteries in second use applications. A mapping of industrial demonstration and publicly-funded research projects in the area is presented, followed by an experimental assessment of the capacity and impedance change of lithium-ion cells during calendar and cycle ageing. Fresh cells and cells aged in the laboratory, as well as under real-world driving conditions, have been characterised to understand their application-specific remaining lifetime, beyond the 70% to 80% end-of-first-use criterion. For this purpose, pre-aged cells were examined under duty-cycles that resemble those of second use grid-scale applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Joining Technologies for Automotive Battery Systems Manufacturing
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9020022
Received: 13 June 2018 / Revised: 2 July 2018 / Accepted: 3 July 2018 / Published: 5 July 2018
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Abstract
An automotive battery pack for use in electric vehicles consists of a large number of individual battery cells that are structurally held and electrically connected. Making the required electrical and structural joints represents several challenges, including, joining of multiple and thin highly conductive/reflective [...] Read more.
An automotive battery pack for use in electric vehicles consists of a large number of individual battery cells that are structurally held and electrically connected. Making the required electrical and structural joints represents several challenges, including, joining of multiple and thin highly conductive/reflective materials of varying thicknesses, potential damage (thermal, mechanical, or vibrational) during joining, a high joint durability requirement, and so on. This paper reviews the applicability of major and emerging joining techniques to support the wide range of joining requirements that exist during battery pack manufacturing. It identifies the advantages, disadvantages, limitations, and concerns of the joining technologies. The maturity and application potential of current joining technologies are mapped with respect to manufacturing readiness levels (MRLs). Further, a Pugh matrix is used to evaluate suitable joining candidates for cylindrical, pouch, and prismatic cells by addressing the aforementioned challenges. Combining Pugh matrix scores, MRLs, and application domains, this paper identifies the potential direction of automotive battery pack joining. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Inhomogeneities in Battery Packs
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9020020
Received: 9 May 2018 / Revised: 18 June 2018 / Accepted: 28 June 2018 / Published: 28 June 2018
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Abstract
The market of accumulator based technologies is changing very fast, especially the electro mobility market due to different decisions made to reduce the impact on climate change. In most markets battery packs are used, which means accumulators are connected to form a battery [...] Read more.
The market of accumulator based technologies is changing very fast, especially the electro mobility market due to different decisions made to reduce the impact on climate change. In most markets battery packs are used, which means accumulators are connected to form a battery system consisting of, from a few accumulators up to thousands. Research of battery technologies often focuses on single cells, however considering the applications it is important to know the behaviour of different cells in a system. This paper deals with the inhomogeneities which influence the electrical behaviour of the system in simulation and measurement with a special focus on parallel connected cells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Dimensioning and Optimization of Hybrid Li-Ion Battery Systems for EVs
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9020019
Received: 31 May 2018 / Revised: 24 June 2018 / Accepted: 25 June 2018 / Published: 28 June 2018
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Abstract
Commercial electric vehicles nowadays are powered by a battery system containing one kind of lithium-ion battery cell. Due to the fixed ratio of the cells’ maximum power to nominal energy, the possibilities for designing power and energy of the battery pack independently are [...] Read more.
Commercial electric vehicles nowadays are powered by a battery system containing one kind of lithium-ion battery cell. Due to the fixed ratio of the cells’ maximum power to nominal energy, the possibilities for designing power and energy of the battery pack independently are limited. The battery system’s energy and maximum power can only be scaled by adapting the number of cells and modules, and the parameters furthermore depend on the characteristics of the cells used. Additional power electronics in the form of one or more dc/dc converters can be used to form a hybrid battery system comprised of more than one pack and different cell technologies. This allows for individually designing each battery pack and thus optimizing the overall battery system specification. This work presents a battery dimensioning and optimization approach for single pack and hybrid battery systems. It is based on an evolutionary optimization algorithm and a detailed, modular Matlab-Simulink vehicle model. Studies on the advantages of hybrid batteries for different vehicle classes were carried out. Results indicate that optimized hybrid battery systems can lead to weight and volume savings and further advantages in total cost of ownership, for example, by enhanced battery life time or reduced investment costs. On the other hand, they require more complex control logic, which is also discussed in this paper. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Method for the Quantification of Powertrain Electrification Impacts on Driving Dynamics
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(2), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9020018
Received: 2 May 2018 / Revised: 24 June 2018 / Accepted: 25 June 2018 / Published: 27 June 2018
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Abstract
This paper discusses a novel simulation-based study quantifying the impacts of driving dynamics in the electrification of conventional powertrains into hybrid powertrains. Towards this aim, the Fourier amplitude sensitivity test (FAST) is used to facilitate sensitivity analysis. Design of experiments and artificial neural [...] Read more.
This paper discusses a novel simulation-based study quantifying the impacts of driving dynamics in the electrification of conventional powertrains into hybrid powertrains. Towards this aim, the Fourier amplitude sensitivity test (FAST) is used to facilitate sensitivity analysis. Design of experiments and artificial neural network methods are employed to approximate the solution space to ensure a computationally efficient application of the FAST. To demonstrate this method, a simulation-based study was conducted to evaluate the electrification impacts in a challenging driving dynamic investigation scenario. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Estimating the Charging Profile of Individual Charge Sessions of Electric Vehicles in The Netherlands
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(2), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9020017
Received: 18 May 2018 / Revised: 8 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 22 June 2018
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Abstract
The mass adoption of Electric Vehicles (EVs) might raise pressure on the power system, especially during peak hours. Therefore, there is a need for delayed charging. However, to optimize the charging system, the progression of charging from an empty battery to a full [...] Read more.
The mass adoption of Electric Vehicles (EVs) might raise pressure on the power system, especially during peak hours. Therefore, there is a need for delayed charging. However, to optimize the charging system, the progression of charging from an empty battery to a full battery of the EVs, based on real-world data, needs to be analyzed. Currently, many researchers view this charging profile as a static load and ignore the actual charging behavior during the charging session. However, this study investigates how different factors influence the charging profile of individual EVs based on real-world data of charging sessions in The Netherlands, and thereby enable optimization analysis of EV smart charging schemes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Perceived Usage Potential of Fast-Charging Locations
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9010014
Received: 22 May 2018 / Revised: 13 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (951 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fast-charging infrastructure with charging time of 20–30 min can help minimizing current perceived limitations of electric vehicles, especially considering the unbalanced and incomprehensive distribution of charging options combined with a long perceived charging time. Positioned on optimal location from user and business perspective, [...] Read more.
Fast-charging infrastructure with charging time of 20–30 min can help minimizing current perceived limitations of electric vehicles, especially considering the unbalanced and incomprehensive distribution of charging options combined with a long perceived charging time. Positioned on optimal location from user and business perspective, the technology is assumed to help increasing the usage of an electric vehicle (EV). Considering the user perspectives, current and potential EV users were interviewed in two different surveys about optimal fast-charging locations depending on travel purposes and relevant location criteria. The obtained results show that customers prefer to rather charge at origins and destinations than during the trip. For longer distances, charging locations on axes with attractive points of interest are also considered as optimal. From the business model point of view, fast-charging stations at destinations are controversial. The expensive infrastructure and the therefore needed large number of charging sessions are in conflict with the comparatively time consuming stay. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Fast-Charge Life Cycle Test on a Lithium-Ion Battery Module
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9010013
Received: 14 May 2018 / Revised: 4 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 16 June 2018
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Abstract
This study addresses the effects of fast charge on a lithium-ion battery module made by four lithium-iron-phosphate cells connected in series, submitted to a test profile which included a fast-charge step at a current rate of 3 C. This test profile simulated the [...] Read more.
This study addresses the effects of fast charge on a lithium-ion battery module made by four lithium-iron-phosphate cells connected in series, submitted to a test profile which included a fast-charge step at a current rate of 3 C. This test profile simulated the real working profile requested by the batteries of an electric bus to perform a particular service of local public transportation, with the batteries recharging at the end of line. More than 3000 shallow cycles were performed. The battery module did not show a significant reduction in performance in terms of capacity and energy; however, a relevant increase in resistance was observed. Due to this change, the autonomy of the electric bus was reduced correspondingly. By fixing a minimum value for the autonomy, a life estimate of the battery module was made. Finally, on the base of this result, a cost estimate and comparison between slow and fast charge was made, under the same service conditions throughout the vehicle’s lifespan, for a real case of a minibus equipped with a battery system sized for fast charge at the end of line, and a larger battery system sized for slow charge at the end of a working day. This comparison proved that, in the case study considered, the solution using fast charge was cheaper, and fast charge can be a valid approach to solve the problem of short autonomy of electric vehicles. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Model-Based Optimization of a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Powertrain with Multimode Transmission
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9010012
Received: 3 May 2018 / Revised: 6 June 2018 / Accepted: 7 June 2018 / Published: 13 June 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2302 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles are developed in order to reduce the fuel consumption and the emission of carbon dioxide. Besides the series, parallel and power split configurations are commonly used for conventional hybrid electric vehicles, and multimode transmissions are used for plug-in hybrid [...] Read more.
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles are developed in order to reduce the fuel consumption and the emission of carbon dioxide. Besides the series, parallel and power split configurations are commonly used for conventional hybrid electric vehicles, and multimode transmissions are used for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, which are able to switch between different modes like parallel or series operation of the combustion engine and electric motor. Several concepts have already been discussed and presented. These concepts comprise novel structures and multi-speed operation for the combustion engine and the electric motor, respectively. For improving the fuel and energy consumption, model-based optimizations of multimode transmissions are performed. In the first step of the optimization, the optimal number of gears and transmission ratios, as well as the corresponding fuel and energy savings, are estimated. Based on these results, a new multimode transmission concept with two-speed transmissions for the combustion engine and the electric motor has been developed. The knowledge of the concrete concept enables the further optimizations of the transmission ratios and the transmission control. In order to prove the benefit of the new and optimized transmission concept, powertrain simulations have been carried out. The new powertrain concept is compared to a powertrain concept with single-speed transmissions for the internal combustion engine (ICE) and electric motor operation. The new transmission concept enables a significant improvement of the fuel consumption. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Optimal Powertrain Design through a Virtual Development Process
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9010011
Received: 10 May 2018 / Revised: 8 June 2018 / Accepted: 11 June 2018 / Published: 13 June 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1816 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The ever more stringent global CO2 and pollutant emission regulations imply that the optimization of conventional powertrains can only provide partial reductions in fleet emissions. Vehicle manufacturers are therefore responding by increasing the electrification of their powertrain portfolios. This in turn, results [...] Read more.
The ever more stringent global CO2 and pollutant emission regulations imply that the optimization of conventional powertrains can only provide partial reductions in fleet emissions. Vehicle manufacturers are therefore responding by increasing the electrification of their powertrain portfolios. This in turn, results in higher levels of electrification of the individual powertrain units. The increase in electric power leads to a comprehensive range of possible technologies—from 48 V mild hybrids to pure electric concepts. The powertrain topology and the configuration of the electrical components of a hybrid powertrain play a decisive role in determining the overall efficiency when considering the individual market requirements. Different hybrid functions as well as performance and customer requirements are determined from statutory cycles and in customer operation. A virtual development chain that is based on MATLAB/Simulink then represents the steps for the identification, configuration, and evaluation of new electrified powertrains. The tool chain presented supports powertrain development through automated conceptualization, design, and evaluation of powertrain systems and their components. The outcome of the entire tool chain is a robust concept decision for future powertrains. Using this methodical and reproducible approach, future electrified powertrain concepts are identified. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Electric Roads: Analyzing the Societal Cost of Electrifying All Danish Road Transport
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9010009
Received: 14 May 2018 / Revised: 1 June 2018 / Accepted: 3 June 2018 / Published: 7 June 2018
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Abstract
Electric Road Systems (ERS) have emerged as an alternative to deal with the main drawbacks that battery electric vehicles present (i.e., higher cost, short driving range, long charging times, etc.). This paper analyses the societal cost of electrifying all road transport in Denmark [...] Read more.
Electric Road Systems (ERS) have emerged as an alternative to deal with the main drawbacks that battery electric vehicles present (i.e., higher cost, short driving range, long charging times, etc.). This paper analyses the societal cost of electrifying all road transport in Denmark under four different scenarios. The first scenario considered in this study is based on today’s approach of having electric vehicles with high battery capacity and fast charging stations, the remaining scenarios study the cost of implementing different ERS at a national level. The results clearly show the benefits of implementing road bound electric road solutions that can be used both by commercial and passenger vehicles. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Modelling and Evaluation of Battery Packs with Different Numbers of Paralleled Cells
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9010008
Received: 2 May 2018 / Revised: 2 June 2018 / Accepted: 4 June 2018 / Published: 7 June 2018
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Abstract
To better evaluate the configuration of battery packs in electric vehicles (EV) in the early design phase, this paper proposes a mathematic model for the simulation of battery packs based on the elementwise calculations of matrices. This model is compatible with the different [...] Read more.
To better evaluate the configuration of battery packs in electric vehicles (EV) in the early design phase, this paper proposes a mathematic model for the simulation of battery packs based on the elementwise calculations of matrices. This model is compatible with the different battery models and has a fast simulation speed. An experimental platform is built for the verification. Based on the proposed model and the statistic features of battery cells, the influence of the number of paralleled cells in a battery pack is evaluated in Monte-Carlo experiments. The simulation results obtained from Monte-Carlo experiments show that the parallel number is able to influence the total energy loss inside the cells, the energy loss caused by the balancing of the battery management system (BMS) and the degradation of the battery pack. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Operating Point Adaptation for NVH-Optimization of Induction Machines
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9010010
Received: 6 May 2018 / Revised: 1 June 2018 / Accepted: 4 June 2018 / Published: 7 June 2018
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Abstract
Inverter-fed drive systems are mostly optimized to operate at the best efficiency, neglecting the possibility of acoustic optimization. The chosen operating point can lead to undesired harmonics involving vibrations and noises of the electrical drive. In order to optimize the system with respect [...] Read more.
Inverter-fed drive systems are mostly optimized to operate at the best efficiency, neglecting the possibility of acoustic optimization. The chosen operating point can lead to undesired harmonics involving vibrations and noises of the electrical drive. In order to optimize the system with respect to acoustics, the given operating point for best efficiency is left and a noise, vibration and harshness (NVH)-optimized operating point is chosen. This paper shows the influence of the operating point on NVH, describes an NVH-optimized control and draws a comparison between simulation and measurement. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Modelling of a Power Converter with Multiple Operating Modes
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9010007
Received: 7 May 2018 / Revised: 22 May 2018 / Accepted: 28 May 2018 / Published: 5 June 2018
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Abstract
In order to achieve DC voltage matching, on-board charging, and DC/AC power inversion, three independent power converters are often needed in traditional Distributed Power Converter (DPC) systems of electric vehicles (EVs): bidirectional DC/DC (Bi-DC/DC), AC/DC, and DC/AC. The requirement of electronic devices such [...] Read more.
In order to achieve DC voltage matching, on-board charging, and DC/AC power inversion, three independent power converters are often needed in traditional Distributed Power Converter (DPC) systems of electric vehicles (EVs): bidirectional DC/DC (Bi-DC/DC), AC/DC, and DC/AC. The requirement of electronic devices such as power switches, inductors, and capacitors make the converter costly and complicated in structure. In this paper, a power converter with multi-operating mode (PCMM) is presented. The proposed PCMM can work in Bi-DC/DC, AC/DC, and DC/AC modes. The state-space averaging model of PCMM considering resistance of Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) and the inductor is presented. Based on this model, the transfer function of the system is derived and the controller is designed. The simulation and experimental results show that PCMM can meet the design target and verify the feasibility of the model. The measurement results show that the weight of PCMM proposed in this paper is reduced by 51.2% compared with the traditional structure. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Analysis of a Fictive Active e-Trailer
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9010006
Received: 14 May 2018 / Revised: 29 May 2018 / Accepted: 30 May 2018 / Published: 4 June 2018
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Abstract
Trucks consume an enormous amount of diesel annually and contribute significantly to the total CO2 emissions around the world. Electrification of these freight vehicles would lead to a reduction in fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. Trailers, as part of heavy freight [...] Read more.
Trucks consume an enormous amount of diesel annually and contribute significantly to the total CO2 emissions around the world. Electrification of these freight vehicles would lead to a reduction in fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. Trailers, as part of heavy freight vehicles, are a great opportunity for innovative change. Electrifying the trailer would allow the combustion engine of the truck to cooperate with the electric motors in the trailer. The trailer would be able to regenerate energy using the electric motors built into the rear axis of the trailer. The energy that is regenerated could be stored in a battery power pack for later use. Using the principle of peak shaving, the combustion engine would be assisted by the active e-trailer. Peak shaving would occur when the calculated load on the combustion engine is highly above average, for example, during acceleration, climbing a hill, or during high speed. Energy from the power pack could be routed to the electric motors, adding propulsive force. This analysis of a fictive active e-trailer has focused on reducing fuel consumption and emissions. The energy consumption of the trailer and the energy regeneration were studied. For this analysis, two vehicle configurations were simulated within the MATLAB Simulink: one truck–trailer combination without the e-trailer application and one truck–trailer combination with the e-trailer application. Differences between the two simulated vehicle combinations have been analyzed and documented. The whole system would be self-sustaining by using the regenerating energy from braking and adjusting its assisting function according to the energy level of the power pack. However, better results would be achieved by charging the power pack periodically. By doing so, the reduction of fuel cost and emissions could be significantly improved. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Holistic Testing Strategies for Electrified Vehicle Powertrains in Product Development Process
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9010005
Received: 8 May 2018 / Revised: 28 May 2018 / Accepted: 28 May 2018 / Published: 30 May 2018
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Abstract
In the field of powertrain engineering, longstanding knowledge was gained for testing conventional vehicle powertrains. The hitherto used test strategies here were more focused on the subsystems of the powertrain than on the powertrain as an integrated system. Through the electrification of the [...] Read more.
In the field of powertrain engineering, longstanding knowledge was gained for testing conventional vehicle powertrains. The hitherto used test strategies here were more focused on the subsystems of the powertrain than on the powertrain as an integrated system. Through the electrification of the powertrain, the topology and the range of functions have changed. This leads to new challenges for the validation and requires not only adjustments of the test strategies for electric vehicle powertrains but establish and develop integrative tests for the powertrain as an integrated system in order to meet the increased complexity. This paper presents a method to develop a holistic test strategy for a hybrid and electrical vehicle powertrain. In order to avoid misunderstandings of the used terms, it is necessary to create a standard understanding of them. Therefore, a nomenclature is defined and described. Furthermore, a definition of a holistic test strategy is provided. The focus of this present study is on the powertrain and not on its single subsystems. Subsequently, the four steps of the method are introduced and the current results are presented. Finally, a new developed test element within the holistic test strategy is introduced. The findings of this study support the integrative testing for powertrains. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Mobility from Renewable Electricity: Infrastructure Comparison for Battery and Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9010003
Received: 4 May 2018 / Revised: 20 May 2018 / Accepted: 21 May 2018 / Published: 24 May 2018
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1322 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work presents a detailed breakdown of the energy conversion chains from intermittent electricity to a vehicle, considering battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs). The traditional well-to-wheel analysis is adapted to a grid to mobility approach by introducing the [...] Read more.
This work presents a detailed breakdown of the energy conversion chains from intermittent electricity to a vehicle, considering battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs). The traditional well-to-wheel analysis is adapted to a grid to mobility approach by introducing the intermediate steps of useful electricity, energy carrier and on-board storage. Specific attention is given to an effective coupling with renewable electricity sources and associated storage needs. Actual market data show that, compared to FCEVs, BEVs and their infrastructure are twice as efficient in the conversion of renewable electricity to a mobility service. A much larger difference between BEVs and FCEVs is usually reported in the literature. Focusing on recharging events, this work additionally shows that the infrastructure efficiencies of both electric vehicle (EV) types are very close, with 57% from grid to on-board storage for hydrogen refilling stations and 66% for fast chargers coupled with battery storage. The transfer from the energy carrier at the station to on-board storage in the vehicle accounts for 9% and 12% of the total energy losses of these two modes, respectively. Slow charging modes can achieve a charging infrastructure efficiency of 78% with residential energy storage systems coupled with AC chargers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Hydrogen Mobility Europe (H2ME): Vehicle and Hydrogen Refuelling Station Deployment Results
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9010002
Received: 9 May 2018 / Revised: 16 May 2018 / Accepted: 17 May 2018 / Published: 19 May 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (5827 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hydrogen Mobility Europe (H2ME, 2015–2022) is the largest European Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking (EU FCH JU)-funded hydrogen light vehicle and infrastructure demonstration. Up until April 2017, the 40 Daimler passenger car fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) and 62 Symbio Fuel Cell-Range [...] Read more.
Hydrogen Mobility Europe (H2ME, 2015–2022) is the largest European Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking (EU FCH JU)-funded hydrogen light vehicle and infrastructure demonstration. Up until April 2017, the 40 Daimler passenger car fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) and 62 Symbio Fuel Cell-Range Extended Electric Vans (FC-REEV)-vans deployed by the project drove 625,300 km and consumed a total of 7900 kg of hydrogen with no safety incidents. During its first year of operation (to April 2017), the NEL Hydrogen Fueling HRS (hydrogen refuelling station) in Kolding, Denmark dispensed 900 kg of hydrogen, and demonstrated excellent reliability (98.2% availability) with no safety incidents. The average hydrogen refuelling time for passenger cars is comparable to that for conventional vehicles (2–3 min). Full article
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Jump to: Research

Open AccessTechnical Note
Mode 2 Charging—Testing and Certification for International Market Access
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9020026
Received: 8 May 2018 / Revised: 25 June 2018 / Accepted: 18 July 2018 / Published: 20 July 2018
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Abstract
This paper provides an analysis of the current IEC 62752 standard. Establishing measures to protect against electric shock is one of the major tasks in the development of safe electric appliances. For electric vehicles this is very important too, because they are movable [...] Read more.
This paper provides an analysis of the current IEC 62752 standard. Establishing measures to protect against electric shock is one of the major tasks in the development of safe electric appliances. For electric vehicles this is very important too, because they are movable and in a public area most of the time. Even during recharge of the batteries, it is very likely that the electric vehicle is accessible to playing children or other people. IEC 62752 is a standard for a product which connects the electric vehicle with a standard household socket. This connection is required to provide electricity to the on-board charger of the electric vehicle and is called Mode 2 charging. In this article, the complexity of worldwide standardization for eMobility products is shown. Because the development of these products is still going on, some special requirements of IEC 62752 are explained, and some unique tests are described to help development engineers to design a safe, reliable, and durable product. Full article
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Open AccessProject Report
Factors Influencing Energy Consumption and Cost-Competiveness of Plug-in Electric Vehicles
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9020023
Received: 24 May 2018 / Revised: 27 June 2018 / Accepted: 29 June 2018 / Published: 11 July 2018
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Abstract
The widespread adoption of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) will depend on public appreciation of the potential savings in ownership costs that PEVs offer over conventional, internal combustion energy vehicles (ICEVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including fuel savings. This study compares the energy [...] Read more.
The widespread adoption of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) will depend on public appreciation of the potential savings in ownership costs that PEVs offer over conventional, internal combustion energy vehicles (ICEVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including fuel savings. This study compares the energy consumption and estimated ownership costs of various technologies for multiple drive cycles in the United States and the European Union; identifies and quantifies the impacts of the main parameters influencing the ownership costs of PEVs in comparison with other powertrains for different timeframes, vehicle classes, and technologies; and assesses under what combinations of parameters the cost of PEVs can be competitive with other powertrains. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
Load Shifting Potentials of Plug-In Electric Vehicles—A Case Study for Germany
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9020021
Received: 15 May 2018 / Revised: 22 June 2018 / Accepted: 25 June 2018 / Published: 30 June 2018
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Abstract
Plug-in electric vehicles are the currently favoured option to decarbonize the passenger car sector. However, a decarbonisation is only possible with electricity from renewable energies and plug-in electric vehicles might cause peak loads if they started to charge at the same time. Both [...] Read more.
Plug-in electric vehicles are the currently favoured option to decarbonize the passenger car sector. However, a decarbonisation is only possible with electricity from renewable energies and plug-in electric vehicles might cause peak loads if they started to charge at the same time. Both of these issues could be solved with coordinated load shifting (demand response). Previous studies analysed this research question by focusing on private vehicles with domestic and work charging infrastructure. This study additionally includes the important early adopter group of commercial fleet vehicles and reflects the impact of domestic, commercial, work, and public charging. For this purpose, two models are combined that capture the market diffusion of electric vehicles and their charging behaviour (ALADIN), as well as the load shifting potential of several new energy technologies (eLOAD). In a comparison of three different scenarios, we find that the charging of commercial vehicles does not inflict evening load peaks in the same magnitude as purely domestic charging of private cars does. Also, for private cars, charging at work occurs during the day and may reduce the necessity of load shifting while public charging plays a less important role in total charging demand as well as load shifting potential. Nonetheless, demand response reduces the system load by about 2.2 GW or 2.8% when domestic and work charging are considered when compared to a scenario with only domestic charging where a new peak might be created in the winter hours due to load shifting into the night. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
Application of Driverless Electric Automated Shuttles for Public Transport in Villages: The Case of Appelscha
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9010015
Received: 16 May 2018 / Revised: 11 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 21 June 2018
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Abstract
This paper reports on the application of electric automated vehicles in the city of Appelscha, The Netherlands. Appelscha is challenged with a predicted decline of inhabitants and an already shrinking public transport network. To preserve the region’s accessibility, the municipality started a pilot [...] Read more.
This paper reports on the application of electric automated vehicles in the city of Appelscha, The Netherlands. Appelscha is challenged with a predicted decline of inhabitants and an already shrinking public transport network. To preserve the region’s accessibility, the municipality started a pilot with electric automated vehicles. These vehicles drove on a separate cycle lane for six weeks in 2016. This pilot has shown that a pilot is possible, with little infrastructural changes. Even though the maximum speed of 15 km/h might suggest that automated vehicles are suitable to share the road with cyclists, the cycle lane in Appelscha was not sufficient due to the width of the cycle lane. No accidents occurred during the pilot. Full article
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Open AccessProject Report
Development, Implementation (Pilot) and Evaluation of a Demand-Responsive Transport System
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9010004
Received: 9 May 2018 / Revised: 21 May 2018 / Accepted: 22 May 2018 / Published: 30 May 2018
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Abstract
This paper presents the partial results of the first phases of the BOOLEAN (Bürgerorientierte Optimierung der Leistungsfähigkeit, Effizienz und Attraktivität im Nahverkehr) research project. The demand-responsive transport and operating systems as well as virtual vehicle concepts are developed in a “real-world laboratory” in [...] Read more.
This paper presents the partial results of the first phases of the BOOLEAN (Bürgerorientierte Optimierung der Leistungsfähigkeit, Effizienz und Attraktivität im Nahverkehr) research project. The demand-responsive transport and operating systems as well as virtual vehicle concepts are developed in a “real-world laboratory” in Schorndorf. The demand-responsive transport system is implemented as a part of the existing public transport system and will be tested for nine months. The paper focuses on the derivation of system requirements for the operating system and vehicle concepts. The virtual vehicle concepts developed within the project are specifically designed according to the needs of demand-responsive transport systems and are based on automation technologies and electric propulsion. An inter- and transdisciplinary approach integrates perspectives from the social, technical and computer sciences and various local stakeholders (operators, municipality, politics and citizens of a medium sized town in Southern Germany). Transformative processes are induced, supported and scrutinized during and beyond the pilot phase. Full article
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World Electr. Veh. J. EISSN 2032-6653 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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