Special Issue "Effects of Mycotoxins on the Intestine"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Mycotoxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2018) | Viewed by 49302

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Special Issue Editors

Dr. Isabelle P. Oswald
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INRA, UMR 1331 Toxalim, Research Center in Food Toxicology, 180 chemin de tournefeuille F-31027 Toulouse, France
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Philippe Pinton
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Toxalim (Research Centre in Food Toxicology), Université de Toulouse, INRA, ENVT, INP-Purpan, UPS, 180 Chemin de Tournefeuille, F-31027 Toulouse, Cedex, France
Dr. Imourana Alassane-Kpembi
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Toxalim (Research Centre in Food Toxicology), Université de Toulouse, INRA, ENVT, INP-Purpan, UPS, 180 Chemin de Tournefeuille, F-31027 Toulouse, Cedex, France
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The intestine is the first target when ingesting mycotoxin-contaminated food or feed. The focus of this Special Issue of Toxins is to gather the most recent advances related to the effects of mycotoxins on the intestine. Even though the mucosa is a major functional element of the intestinal integrity, increasing evidence suggests that other constituents, such as mucus and microbiota are involved. This Special Issue will, thus, not only take into consideration the effect of mycotoxins on the intestinal tissue, but will also address the most recent advances related to effect of these contaminants on mucus and microbiota. Papers dealing with animal models, intestinal explants, as well as cellular systems, are welcome. In this context, the omics data are encouraged. Both research papers and review articles proposing novelties or overviews, respectively, are welcome.

Dr. Isabelle P. Oswald
Dr. Philippe Pinton
Dr Imourana Alassane-Kpembi
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • mycotoxin

  • intestine

  • cells

  • mucus

  • microbiota

  • human

  • animals

Published Papers (17 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Effects of Mycotoxins on the Intestine
Toxins 2019, 11(3), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11030159 - 13 Mar 2019
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2200
Abstract
The gastrointestinal tract is the first physiological barrier against food contaminants, as well as the first target for these toxicants [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Mycotoxins on the Intestine)

Research

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Article
Protective Effect of N-Acetylcysteine against Oxidative Stress Induced by Zearalenone via Mitochondrial Apoptosis Pathway in SIEC02 Cells
Toxins 2018, 10(10), 407; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10100407 - 09 Oct 2018
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 2028
Abstract
Zearalenone (ZEN), a nonsteroidal estrogen mycotoxin, is widely found in feed and foodstuffs. Intestinal cells may become the primary target of toxin attack after ingesting food containing ZEN. Porcine small intestinal epithelial (SIEC02) cells were selected to assess the effect of ZEN exposure [...] Read more.
Zearalenone (ZEN), a nonsteroidal estrogen mycotoxin, is widely found in feed and foodstuffs. Intestinal cells may become the primary target of toxin attack after ingesting food containing ZEN. Porcine small intestinal epithelial (SIEC02) cells were selected to assess the effect of ZEN exposure on the intestine. Cells were exposed to ZEN (20 µg/mL) or pretreated with (81, 162, and 324 µg/mL) N-acetylcysteine (NAC) prior to ZEN treatment. Results indicated that the activities of glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) and glutathione reductase (GR) were reduced by ZEN, which induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) production. Moreover, these activities increased apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), and regulated the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, caspase-9, and cytochrome c (cyto c). Additionally, NAC pretreatment reduced the oxidative damage and inhibited the apoptosis induced by ZEN. It can be concluded that ZEN-induced oxidative stress and damage may further induce mitochondrial apoptosis, and pretreatment of NAC can degrade this damage to some extent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Mycotoxins on the Intestine)
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Article
Dietary Deoxynivalenol (DON) May Impair the Epithelial Barrier and Modulate the Cytokine Signaling in the Intestine of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar)
Toxins 2018, 10(9), 376; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10090376 - 14 Sep 2018
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3051
Abstract
Impaired growth, immunity, and intestinal barrier in mammals, poultry, and carp have been attributed to the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON). The increased use of plant ingredients in aquaculture feed implies a risk for contamination with mycotoxins. The effects of dietary DON were explored in [...] Read more.
Impaired growth, immunity, and intestinal barrier in mammals, poultry, and carp have been attributed to the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON). The increased use of plant ingredients in aquaculture feed implies a risk for contamination with mycotoxins. The effects of dietary DON were explored in 12-month-old Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) (start weight of 58 g) that were offered a standard feed with non-detectable levels of mycotoxins (control group) or 5.5 mg DON/kg feed (DON group). Each group comprised two tanks with 25 fish per tank. Five fish from each tank were sampled eight weeks after the start of the feeding trial, when mean weights for the control and DON groups were 123.2 g and 80.2 g, respectively. The relative expression of markers for three tight junction proteins (claudin 25b, occludin, and tricellulin) were lower, whereas the relative expression of a marker for proliferating cell nuclear antigen was higher in both the mid-intestine and the distal intestine in fish fed DON compared with fish from the control group. The relative expression of markers for two suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS1 and SOCS2) were higher in the distal intestine in fish fed DON. There was no indication of inflammation attributed to the feed in any intestinal segments. Our findings suggest that dietary DON impaired the intestinal integrity, while an inflammatory response appeared to be mitigated by suppressors of cytokine signaling. A dysfunctional intestinal barrier may have contributed to the impaired production performance observed in the DON group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Mycotoxins on the Intestine)
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Article
The Genotoxicity of Caecal Water in Gilts Exposed to Low Doses of Zearalenone
Toxins 2018, 10(9), 350; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10090350 - 01 Sep 2018
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1617
Abstract
Zearalenone is a toxic low-molecular-weight molecule that is naturally produced by moulds on crops as a secondary metabolite. The aim of this study was to determine the genotoxicity of caecal water collected successively from the caecal contents of gilts exposed to low doses [...] Read more.
Zearalenone is a toxic low-molecular-weight molecule that is naturally produced by moulds on crops as a secondary metabolite. The aim of this study was to determine the genotoxicity of caecal water collected successively from the caecal contents of gilts exposed to low doses (LOAEL, NOAEL, and MABEL) of zearalenone. The experiment was performed on 60 clinically healthy gilts with average BW of 14.5 ± 2 kg, divided into three experimental groups and a control group. Group ZEN5 were orally administered ZEN at 5 μg/kg BW, group ZEN10—10 μg ZEN/kg BW and group ZEN15—15 µg ZEN/kg BW. Five gilts from every group were euthanized on analytical dates 1, 2, and 3. Caecal water samples for in vitro analysis were collected from the ileocaecal region. The genotoxicity of caecal water was noted, particularly after date 1 in groups ZEN10 and ZEN15 with a decreasing trend. Electrophoresis revealed the presence of numerous comets without tails in groups C and ZEN5 and fewer comets with clearly expressed tails in groups ZEN10 and ZEN15. The distribution of LLC-PK1 cells ranged from 15% to 20% in groups C and ZEN5, and from 30% to 60% in groups ZEN10 and ZEN15. The analysis of caecal water genotoxicity during exposure to very low doses of ZEN revealed the presence of a counter response and a compensatory effect in gilts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Mycotoxins on the Intestine)
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Article
Colon Microbiome of Pigs Fed Diet Contaminated with Commercial Purified Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone
Toxins 2018, 10(9), 347; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10090347 - 29 Aug 2018
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2471
Abstract
Deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) can seriously affect animal health, with potentially severe economic losses. Previous studies have demonstrated that gut microbiota plays a significant role in detoxification. We analyzed the colon contents from three groups of pigs (fed either a standard diet, [...] Read more.
Deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) can seriously affect animal health, with potentially severe economic losses. Previous studies have demonstrated that gut microbiota plays a significant role in detoxification. We analyzed the colon contents from three groups of pigs (fed either a standard diet, or a diet with 8 mg/kg DON or ZEN). Bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons were obtained from the colon contents, and sequenced using next-generation sequencing on the MiSeq platform. Overall, 2,444,635 gene sequences were generated, with ≥2000 sequences examined. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were the dominant phyla in all three groups. The sequences of Lactobacillus, Megasphaera, and Faecalibacterium genera, and the unclassified Clostridiaceae family, represented more than 1.2% of the total, with significantly different abundances among the groups. Lactobacillus was especially more abundant in the DON (7.6%) and ZEN (2.7%) groups than in the control (0.2%). A total of 48,346 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified in the three groups. Two OTUs, classified as Lactobacillus, were the most dominant in the DON and ZEN groups. The abundances of the remaining OTUs were also significantly different among the groups. Thus, the mycotoxin-contaminated feed significantly affected the colon microbiota, especially Lactobacillus, which was the most abundant. Therefore, we speculate that Lactobacillus plays a major role in detoxification of these mycotoxins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Mycotoxins on the Intestine)
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Article
Low Levels of Chito-Oligosaccharides Are Not Effective in Reducing Deoxynivalenol Toxicity in Swine Jejunal Explants
Toxins 2018, 10(7), 276; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10070276 - 04 Jul 2018
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1952
Abstract
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin that affects the intestinal morphology of animals, impairing nutrient intake and growth. On the other hand, dietary supplementation with functional oligosaccharides as chito-oligosaccharides (COS) has shown positive effects on the intestinal health of piglets. Therefore, the objective of [...] Read more.
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin that affects the intestinal morphology of animals, impairing nutrient intake and growth. On the other hand, dietary supplementation with functional oligosaccharides as chito-oligosaccharides (COS) has shown positive effects on the intestinal health of piglets. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of low doses of COS in preventing DON-induced intestinal histological changes, using a swine jejunal explant technique. The intestinal explants were incubated at 37 °C in culture medium for 4 h and exposed to the following treatments: (a) control (only culture medium), (b) DON (10 µM), (c) 25COS (0.025 mg·mL−1 of COS); (d) 50COS (0.05 mg·mL−1 of COS); (e) 25COS plus DON (25COS + DON); (f) 50COS plus DON (50COS + DON). Explants exposed to COS presented intestinal morphology similar to control samples. DON induced a significant decrease in the histological score as a consequence of moderate to severe histological changes (apical necrosis, villi atrophy, and fusion) and a significant decrease in morphometric parameters (villi height, crypt depth, villi height:crypt depth ratio, and goblet cells density). The intestinal morphology of samples exposed to COS + DON remained similar to DON treatment. In conclusion, low levels of COS did not counteract DON-induced intestinal lesions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Mycotoxins on the Intestine)
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Article
Intestinal Microbiota Ecological Response to Oral Administrations of Hydrogen-Rich Water and Lactulose in Female Piglets Fed a Fusarium Toxin-Contaminated Diet
Toxins 2018, 10(6), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10060246 - 16 Jun 2018
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2795
Abstract
The objective of the current experiment was to explore the intestinal microbiota ecological response to oral administrations of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) and lactulose (LAC) in female piglets fed a Fusarium mycotoxin-contaminated diet. A total of 24 individually-housed female piglets (Landrace × large × [...] Read more.
The objective of the current experiment was to explore the intestinal microbiota ecological response to oral administrations of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) and lactulose (LAC) in female piglets fed a Fusarium mycotoxin-contaminated diet. A total of 24 individually-housed female piglets (Landrace × large × white; initial average body weight, 7.25 ± 1.02 kg) were randomly assigned to receive four treatments (six pigs/treatment): uncontaminated basal diet (negative control, NC), mycotoxin-contaminated diet (MC), MC diet + HRW (MC + HRW), and MC diet + LAC (MC + LAC) for 25 days. Hydrogen levels in the mucosa of different intestine segments were measured at the end of the experiment. Fecal scoring and diarrhea rate were recorded every day during the whole period of the experiment. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) profiles in the digesta of the foregut and hindgut samples were assayed. The populations of selected bacteria and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles of total bacteria and methanogenic Archaea were also evaluated. Results showed that Fusarium mycotoxins not only reduced the hydrogen levels in the caecum but also shifted the SCFAs production, and populations and communities of microbiota. HRW treatment increased the hydrogen levels of the stomach and duodenum. HRW and LAC groups also had higher colon and caecum hydrogen levels than the MC group. Both HRW and LAC protected against the mycotoxin-contaminated diet-induced higher diarrhea rate and lower SCFA production in the digesta of the colon and caecum. In addition, the DGGE profile results indicated that HRW and LAC might shift the pathways of hydrogen-utilization bacteria, and change the diversity of intestine microbiota. Moreover, HRW and LAC administrations reversed the mycotoxin-contaminated diet-induced changing of the populations of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Bifidobacterium in ileum digesta and hydrogen-utilizing bacteria in colon digesta. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Mycotoxins on the Intestine)
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Article
Fumonisin-Exposure Impairs Age-Related Ecological Succession of Bacterial Species in Weaned Pig Gut Microbiota
Toxins 2018, 10(6), 230; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10060230 - 05 Jun 2018
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 2987
Abstract
Pigs are highly affected by dietary mycotoxin contamination and particularly by fumonisin. The effects of fumonisin on pig intestinal health are well documented, but little is known regarding its impact on gut microbiota. We investigate the effects of the fumonisin (FB1, 12 mg/kg [...] Read more.
Pigs are highly affected by dietary mycotoxin contamination and particularly by fumonisin. The effects of fumonisin on pig intestinal health are well documented, but little is known regarding its impact on gut microbiota. We investigate the effects of the fumonisin (FB1, 12 mg/kg feed) on the fecal microbiota of piglets (n = 6) after 0, 8, 15, 22, and 29 days of exposure. A control group of six piglets received a diet free of FB1. Bacterial community diversity, structure and taxonomic composition were carried out by V3–V4 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Exposure to FB1 decreases the diversity index, and shifts and constrains the structure and the composition of the bacterial community. This takes place as early as after 15 days of exposure and is at a maximum after 22 days of exposure. Compared to control, FB1 alters the ecological succession of fecal microbiota species toward higher levels of Lactobacillus and lower levels of the Lachnospiraceae and Veillonellaceae families, and particularly OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Units) of the genera Mitsuokella, Faecalibacterium and Roseburia. In conclusion, FB1 shifts and constrains age-related evolution of microbiota. The direct or indirect contribution of FB1 microbiota alteration in the global host response to FB1 toxicity remains to be investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Mycotoxins on the Intestine)
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Article
Saccharomyces cerevisiae Boulardii Reduces the Deoxynivalenol-Induced Alteration of the Intestinal Transcriptome
Toxins 2018, 10(5), 199; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10050199 - 15 May 2018
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3012
Abstract
Type B trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most frequently occurring food contaminants. By inducing trans-activation of a number of pro-inflammatory cytokines and increasing the stability of their mRNA, trichothecene can impair intestinal health. Several yeast products, especially Saccharomyces cerevisiae, [...] Read more.
Type B trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most frequently occurring food contaminants. By inducing trans-activation of a number of pro-inflammatory cytokines and increasing the stability of their mRNA, trichothecene can impair intestinal health. Several yeast products, especially Saccharomyces cerevisiae, have the potential for improving the enteric health of piglets, but little is known about the mechanisms by which the administration of yeast counteracts the DON-induced intestinal alterations. Using a pig jejunum explant model, a whole-transcriptome analysis was performed to decipher the early response of the small intestine to the deleterious effects of DON after administration of S. cerevisiae boulardii strain CNCM I-1079. Compared to the control condition, no differentially expressed gene (DE) was observed after treatment by yeast only. By contrast, 3619 probes—corresponding to 2771 genes—were differentially expressed following exposure to DON, and 32 signaling pathways were identified from the IPA software functional analysis of the set of DE genes. When the intestinal explants were treated with S. cerevisiae boulardii prior to DON exposure, the number of DE genes decreased by half (1718 probes corresponding to 1384 genes). Prototypical inflammation signaling pathways triggered by DON, including NF-κB and p38 MAPK, were reversed, although the yeast demonstrated limited efficacy toward some other pathways. S. cerevisiae boulardii also restored the lipid metabolism signaling pathway, and reversed the down-regulation of the antioxidant action of vitamin C signaling pathway. The latter effect could reduce the burden of DON-induced oxidative stress. Altogether, the results show that S. cerevisiae boulardii reduces the DON-induced alteration of intestinal transcriptome, and point to new mechanisms for the healing of tissue injury by yeast. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Mycotoxins on the Intestine)
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Article
Ergot Alkaloids at Doses Close to EU Regulatory Limits Induce Alterations of the Liver and Intestine
Toxins 2018, 10(5), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10050183 - 01 May 2018
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3477
Abstract
An increase in the occurrence of ergot alkaloids (EAs) contamination has been observed in North America and Europe in recent years. These toxins are well known for their effects on the circulatory and nervous systems. The aim of this study was to investigate [...] Read more.
An increase in the occurrence of ergot alkaloids (EAs) contamination has been observed in North America and Europe in recent years. These toxins are well known for their effects on the circulatory and nervous systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of EAs on the liver and on the intestine using the pig both as a target species and as a non-rodent model for human. Three groups of 24 weaned piglets were exposed for 28 days to control feed or feed contaminated with 1.2 or 2.5 g of sclerotia/kg, i.e., at doses close to EU regulatory limits. Contaminated diets significantly reduced feed intake and consequently growth performance. In the liver, alteration of the tissue, including development of inflammatory infiltrates, vacuolization, apoptosis and necrosis of hepatocytes as well as presence of enlarged hepatocytes (megalocytes) were observed. In the jejunum, EAs reduced villi height and increased damage to the epithelium, reduced the number of mucus-producing cells and upregulated mRNA coding for different tight junction proteins such as claudins 3 and 4. In conclusion, in term of animal health, our data indicate that feed contaminated at the regulatory limits induces lesions in liver and intestine suggesting that this limit should be lowered for pigs. In term of human health, we establish a lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) of 100 μg/kg body weight (bw) per day, lower than the benchmark dose limit (BMDL) retained by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) to set the tolerable daily intake, suggesting also that regulatory limit should be revised. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Mycotoxins on the Intestine)
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Article
The Effects of Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone on the Pig Large Intestine. A Light and Electron Microscopy Study
Toxins 2018, 10(4), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10040148 - 04 Apr 2018
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 3629
Abstract
The contamination of feed with mycotoxins results in reduced growth, feed refusal, immunosuppression, and health problems. Deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) are among the most important mycotoxins. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of low doses of these mycotoxins [...] Read more.
The contamination of feed with mycotoxins results in reduced growth, feed refusal, immunosuppression, and health problems. Deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) are among the most important mycotoxins. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of low doses of these mycotoxins on the histological structure and ultrastructure of the large intestine in the pig. The study was performed on 36 immature gilts of mixed breed (White Polish Big × Polish White Earhanging), which were divided into four groups administrated per os with ZEN at 40 µg/kg BW, DON at 12 µg/kg BW, a mixture of ZEN (40 µg/kg BW) and DON (12 µg/kg BW) or a placebo. The pigs were killed by intravenous overdose of pentobarbital after one, three, and six weeks of treatment. The cecum, ascending and descending colon samples were prepared for light and electron microscopy. Administration of toxins did not influence the architecture of the mucosa and submucosa in the large intestine. ZEN and ZEN + DON significantly decreased the number of goblet cells in the cecum and descending colon. The mycotoxins changed the number of lymphocytes and plasma cells in the large intestine, which usually increased in number. However, this effect differed between the intestine segments and toxins. Mycotoxins induced some changes in the ultrastructure of the mucosal epithelium. They did not affect the expression of proliferative cell nuclear antigen and the intestinal barrier permeability. The obtained results indicate that mycotoxins especially ZEN may influence the defense mechanisms of the large intestine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Mycotoxins on the Intestine)
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Article
The Impact of T-2 Toxin on Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide-Like Immunoreactive (VIP-LI) Nerve Structures in the Wall of the Porcine Stomach and Duodenum
Toxins 2018, 10(4), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10040138 - 26 Mar 2018
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 2507
Abstract
T-2 toxin is a secondary metabolite of some Fusarium species. It is well-known that this substance can harmfully impact living organisms. Among others, thanks to the ability of crossing the blood–brain barrier, T-2 toxin can affect the central nervous system. Mycotoxins mostly get [...] Read more.
T-2 toxin is a secondary metabolite of some Fusarium species. It is well-known that this substance can harmfully impact living organisms. Among others, thanks to the ability of crossing the blood–brain barrier, T-2 toxin can affect the central nervous system. Mycotoxins mostly get into the organism through the digestive tract; therefore, first of all they have to break the intestinal barrier, wherein the important component is the enteric nervous system (ENS). However, knowledge about the impact of T-2 toxin on the ENS is rather scant. As a result of the influence of various physiological and pathological agents, ENS can undergo adaptive and reparative processes which manifest as changes in the immunoreactivity of perikaryons for neuronal active substances. So, the aim of the present investigation was to study how low doses of T-2 toxin affect vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-like immunoreactive (VIP-LI) nervous structures in the ENS of the porcine stomach and duodenum. Obtained results have shown that T-2 toxin causes an percentage increase of VIP-LI nerve cells and nerve fibers in every enteric plexus in both fragments of gastrointestinal tract studied. This shows that even low doses of T-2 toxin can have an influence on living organisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Mycotoxins on the Intestine)
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Article
Histopathological Injuries, Ultrastructural Changes, and Depressed TLR Expression in the Small Intestine of Broiler Chickens with Aflatoxin B1
Toxins 2018, 10(4), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10040131 - 21 Mar 2018
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 3279
Abstract
To explore AFB1-induced damage of the small intestine, the changes in structure and expression of TLRs (Toll-like Receptors) in the small intestine of chickens were systematically investigated. Ninety healthy neonatal Cobb chickens were randomized into a control group (0 mg/kg AFB [...] Read more.
To explore AFB1-induced damage of the small intestine, the changes in structure and expression of TLRs (Toll-like Receptors) in the small intestine of chickens were systematically investigated. Ninety healthy neonatal Cobb chickens were randomized into a control group (0 mg/kg AFB1) and an AFB1 group (0.6 mg/kg AFB1). The crypt depth of the small intestine in the AFB1 group was significantly increased in comparison to the control chickens, while the villus height and area were evidently decreased, as well as the villus:crypt ratio and epithelial thickness. The histopathological observations showed that the villi of the small intestine exposed to AFB1 were obviously shedding. Based on ultrastructural observation, the absorptive cells of small intestine in the AFB1 group exhibited fewer microvilli, mitochondrial vacuolation and the disappearance of mitochondrial cristae, and junctional complexes as well as terminal web. Moreover, the number of goblet cells in the small intestine in the AFB1 group significantly decreased. Also, AFB1 evidently decreased the mRNA expression of TLR2-2, TLR4, and TLR7 in the small intestine. Taken together, our study indicated that dietary 0.6 mg/kg AFB1 could induce histopathological injuries and ultrastructural changes, and depress levels of TLR mRNA in the chicken small intestine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Mycotoxins on the Intestine)
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Article
Molecular and Physiological Effects on the Small Intestine of Weaner Pigs Following Feeding with Deoxynivalenol-Contaminated Feed
Toxins 2018, 10(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10010040 - 12 Jan 2018
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3038
Abstract
We intended to assess how exposure of piglets to deoxynivalenol (DON)-contaminated feed impacted their growth, immune response and gut development. Piglets were fed traditional Phase I, Phase II and Phase III diets with the control group receiving 0.20–0.40 ppm DON (referred to as [...] Read more.
We intended to assess how exposure of piglets to deoxynivalenol (DON)-contaminated feed impacted their growth, immune response and gut development. Piglets were fed traditional Phase I, Phase II and Phase III diets with the control group receiving 0.20–0.40 ppm DON (referred to as the Control group) and treatment group receiving much higher level of DON-contaminated wheat (3.30–3.80 ppm; referred to as DON-contaminated group). Feeding a DON-contaminated diet had no impact on average daily feed intake (ADFI) (p < 0.08) or average daily gain (ADG) (p > 0.10) but it did significantly reduce body weight over time relative to the control piglets (p < 0.05). Cytokine analysis after initial exposure to the DON-contaminated feed did not result in significant differences in serum interleukin (IL) IL1β, IL-8, IL-13, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α or interferon (IFN)-γ. After day 24, no obvious changes in jejunum or ileum gut morphology, histology or changes in gene expression for IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNFα, or Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 genes. IL-8 showed a trend towards increased expression in the ileum in DON-fed piglets. A significant increase in gene expression for claudin (CLDN) 7 gene expression and a trend towards increased CLDN 2-expression was observed in the ileum in piglets fed the highly DON-contaminated wheat. Because CLDN localization was not negatively affected, we believe that it is unlikely that gut permeability was affected. Exposure to DON-contaminated feed did not significantly impact weaner piglet performance or gut physiology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Mycotoxins on the Intestine)
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Article
Modulation of Intestinal Epithelial Permeability in Differentiated Caco-2 Cells Exposed to Aflatoxin M1 and Ochratoxin A Individually or Collectively
Toxins 2018, 10(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10010013 - 27 Dec 2017
Cited by 50 | Viewed by 3985
Abstract
Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) and ochratoxin A (OTA) are mycotoxins commonly found in milk; however, their effects on intestinal epithelial cells have not been reported. In the present study, we show that AFM1 (0.12 and 12 μM) and OTA (0.2 and 20 μM) individually [...] Read more.
Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) and ochratoxin A (OTA) are mycotoxins commonly found in milk; however, their effects on intestinal epithelial cells have not been reported. In the present study, we show that AFM1 (0.12 and 12 μM) and OTA (0.2 and 20 μM) individually or collectively increased the paracellular flux of lucifer yellow and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextrans (4 and 40 kDa) and decreased transepithelial electrical resistance values in differentiated Caco-2 cells after 48 h of exposure, indicating increased epithelial permeability. Immunoblotting and immunofluorescent analysis revealed that AFM1, OTA, and their combination decreased the expression levels of tight junction (TJ) proteins and disrupted their structures, namely, claudin-3, claudin-4, occludin, and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), and p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) partially involved in the mycotoxins-induced disruption of intestinal barrier. The effects of a combination of AFM1 and OTA on intestinal barrier function were more significant (p < 0.05) than those of AFM1 and OTA alone, yielding additive or synergistic effects. The additive or synergistic effects of AFM1 and OTA on intestinal barrier function might affect human health, especially in children, and toxin risks should be considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Mycotoxins on the Intestine)
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Article
Effects of Adding Clostridium sp. WJ06 on Intestinal Morphology and Microbial Diversity of Growing Pigs Fed with Natural Deoxynivalenol Contaminated Wheat
Toxins 2017, 9(12), 383; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins9120383 - 27 Nov 2017
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 3255
Abstract
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is commonly detected in cereals, and is a threat to human and animal health. The effects of microbiological detoxification are now being widely studied. A total of 24 pigs (over four months) were randomly divided into three treatments. Treatment A was [...] Read more.
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is commonly detected in cereals, and is a threat to human and animal health. The effects of microbiological detoxification are now being widely studied. A total of 24 pigs (over four months) were randomly divided into three treatments. Treatment A was fed with a basal diet as the control group. Treatment B was fed with naturally DON-contaminated wheat as a negative control group. Treatment C was fed with a contaminated diet that also had Clostridium sp. WJ06, which was used as a detoxicant. Growth performance, relative organ weight, intestinal morphology, and the intestinal flora of bacteria and fungi were examined. The results showed that after consuming a DON-contaminated diet, the growth performance of the pigs decreased significantly (p < 0.05), the relative organ weight of the liver and kidney increased significantly (p < 0.05), and the integrity of the intestinal barrier was also impaired, though the toxic effects of the contaminated diets on growing pigs were relieved after adding Clostridium sp. WJ06. The data from MiSeq sequencing of the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene and internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) gene suggested that the abundance of intestinal flora was significantly different across the three treatments. In conclusion, the application of Clostridium sp. WJ06 can reduce the toxic effects of DON and adjust the intestinal microecosystem of growing pigs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Mycotoxins on the Intestine)
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Article
Response of Intestinal Bacterial Flora to the Long-term Feeding of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in Mice
Toxins 2017, 9(10), 317; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins9100317 - 12 Oct 2017
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 3311
Abstract
In order to investigate the influence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on intestinal bacterial flora, 24 Kunming mice (KM mice) were randomly placed into four groups, which were labeled as control, low-dose, medium-dose, and high-dose groups. They were fed intragastrically with 0.4 mL of [...] Read more.
In order to investigate the influence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on intestinal bacterial flora, 24 Kunming mice (KM mice) were randomly placed into four groups, which were labeled as control, low-dose, medium-dose, and high-dose groups. They were fed intragastrically with 0.4 mL of 0 mg/L, 2.5 mg/L, 4 mg/L, or 10 mg/L of AFB1 solutions, twice a day for 2 months. The hypervariable region V3 + V4 on 16S rDNA of intestinal bacterial flora was sequenced by the use of a high-flux sequencing system on a Miseq Illumina platform; then, the obtained sequences were analyzed. The results showed that, when compared with the control group, both genera and phyla of intestinal bacteria in the three treatment groups decreased. About one third of the total genera and one half of the total phyla remained in the high-dose group. The dominant flora were Lactobacillus and Bacteroides in all groups. There were significant differences in the relative abundance of intestinal bacterial flora among groups. Most bacteria decreased as a whole from the control to the high-dose groups, but several beneficial and pathogenic bacterial species increased significantly with increasing dose of AFB1. Thus, the conclusion was that intragastric feeding with 2.5~10 mg/mL AFB1 for 2 months could decrease the majority of intestinal bacterial flora and induce the proliferation of some intestinal bacteria flora. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Mycotoxins on the Intestine)
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