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Toxins 2018, 10(4), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10040138

The Impact of T-2 Toxin on Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide-Like Immunoreactive (VIP-LI) Nerve Structures in the Wall of the Porcine Stomach and Duodenum

1
Department of Clinical Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury, Oczapowskiego Str. 13, 10-718 Olsztyn, Poland
2
Department of Veterinary Prevention and Feed Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Oczapowskiego Str. 13, 10-718 Olsztyn, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 21 March 2018 / Accepted: 25 March 2018 / Published: 26 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Mycotoxins on the Intestine)
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Abstract

T-2 toxin is a secondary metabolite of some Fusarium species. It is well-known that this substance can harmfully impact living organisms. Among others, thanks to the ability of crossing the blood–brain barrier, T-2 toxin can affect the central nervous system. Mycotoxins mostly get into the organism through the digestive tract; therefore, first of all they have to break the intestinal barrier, wherein the important component is the enteric nervous system (ENS). However, knowledge about the impact of T-2 toxin on the ENS is rather scant. As a result of the influence of various physiological and pathological agents, ENS can undergo adaptive and reparative processes which manifest as changes in the immunoreactivity of perikaryons for neuronal active substances. So, the aim of the present investigation was to study how low doses of T-2 toxin affect vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-like immunoreactive (VIP-LI) nervous structures in the ENS of the porcine stomach and duodenum. Obtained results have shown that T-2 toxin causes an percentage increase of VIP-LI nerve cells and nerve fibers in every enteric plexus in both fragments of gastrointestinal tract studied. This shows that even low doses of T-2 toxin can have an influence on living organisms. View Full-Text
Keywords: T-2 toxin; enteric nervous system; pig; vasoactive intestinal polypeptide T-2 toxin; enteric nervous system; pig; vasoactive intestinal polypeptide
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Makowska, K.; Obremski, K.; Gonkowski, S. The Impact of T-2 Toxin on Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide-Like Immunoreactive (VIP-LI) Nerve Structures in the Wall of the Porcine Stomach and Duodenum. Toxins 2018, 10, 138.

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