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Open AccessArticle

Dietary Balance Index-07 and the Risk of Anemia in Middle Aged and Elderly People in Southwest China: A Cross Sectional Study

1
Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Yunnan Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Kunming 650022, China
2
Department of Epidemiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
3
School of Public Health, Kunming Medical University, Kunming 650500, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020162
Received: 29 November 2017 / Revised: 10 January 2018 / Accepted: 26 January 2018 / Published: 31 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
A balanced diet is essential to achieve and maintain good health. In this study, we assessed diet quality of middle aged and elderly people based on Chinese Diet Balance Index-07 (DBI-07) and explored the associations between DBI-07 and anemia. Data analyzed for this study was from the 2010–2012 National Nutrition and Health Survey in Yunnan province, southwest China (n = 738, aged 50–77 years). Dietary recalls over there consecutive days were done in a face-to-face interview. The scores of DBI-07 for each component and three DBI-07 indicators ((Lower Bound Score (LBS), Higher Bound Score (HBS), Diet Quality Distance (DQD)) were calculated according to compliance with the Dietary Guidelines for Chinese residents. Hemoglobin (Hb) concentration was determined using the cyanmethemoglobin method. Univariate and multivariate linear regression models were used to explore the associations between DBI-07 indicators and anemia, as well as scores of DBI-07 components and Hb level. The sample included 336 men and 402 women. Inadequate intakes of vegetables, fruits, dairy, soybean, eggs, fish and excessive intakes of cereals, meat, cooking oil, salt were both common. 91.3% of the participants had moderate or high levels of inadequate food intake, while 37.7% had moderate or high levels of excessive food intake. The mean Hb was 14.2 ± 1.7 g/dL, with a prevalence of anemia of 13.0%. Subjects with high LBS and DQD were more likely to be anemic (all p < 0.05). After adjustment for potential confounders, there were positive correlations between Hb level and the intakes of vegetables and soybean (βvegetables = 1.04, p < 0.01; βsoybean = 0.82, p = 0.04). In conclusion, dietary imbalance and anemia are common in middle aged and elderly population in southwest China and inadequate intakes of vegetables and soybean may increase the risk of anemia. View Full-Text
Keywords: Dietary Balance Index; anemia; elderly population; Nutrition Survey; Chinese Dietary Balance Index; anemia; elderly population; Nutrition Survey; Chinese
MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, Q.; Qin, G.; Liu, Z.; Li, Z.; Li, J.; Varma, D.S.; Wan, Q.; Zhao, J.; Min, X.; Han, X.; Liu, M. Dietary Balance Index-07 and the Risk of Anemia in Middle Aged and Elderly People in Southwest China: A Cross Sectional Study. Nutrients 2018, 10, 162.

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