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Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010049

Association between Diet-Quality Scores, Adiposity, Total Cholesterol and Markers of Nutritional Status in European Adults: Findings from the Food4Me Study

1
Hugh Sinclair Unit of Human Nutrition and Institute for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AP, UK
2
School of Life and Medical Sciences, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB, UK
3
Human Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Cellular Medicine, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE1 7RU, UK
4
Department of Nutrition, Food Science and Physiology, University of Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
5
CIBERObn, Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28023 Madrid, Spain
6
Department of Human Biology, NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre +, 6200MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
7
UCD Institute of Food and Health, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland
8
ZIEL Research Center of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Biochemistry Unit, Technische Universität München, 85354 Munich, Germany
9
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Harokopio University, 17671 Athens, Greece
10
Microbiology and Systems Biology Group, TNO, 3704HE Zeist, The Netherlands
11
Institute of Food and Nutrition (IZZ),02-903 Warsaw, Poland
12
Instituto Madrileño de Estudios Avanzados (IMDEA) Alimentacion, 28049 Madrid, Spain
13
Vitas Analytical Services, 0349 Oslo, Norway
14
Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, 0317 Oslo, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 December 2017 / Revised: 22 December 2017 / Accepted: 28 December 2017 / Published: 6 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
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Abstract

Diet-quality scores (DQS), which are developed across the globe, are used to define adherence to specific eating patterns and have been associated with risk of coronary heart disease and type-II diabetes. We explored the association between five diet-quality scores (Healthy Eating Index, HEI; Alternate Healthy Eating Index, AHEI; MedDietScore, MDS; PREDIMED Mediterranean Diet Score, P-MDS; Dutch Healthy Diet-Index, DHDI) and markers of metabolic health (anthropometry, objective physical activity levels (PAL), and dried blood spot total cholesterol (TC), total carotenoids, and omega-3 index) in the Food4Me cohort, using regression analysis. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire. Participants (n = 1480) were adults recruited from seven European Union (EU) countries. Overall, women had higher HEI and AHEI than men (p < 0.05), and scores varied significantly between countries. For all DQS, higher scores were associated with lower body mass index, lower waist-to-height ratio and waist circumference, and higher total carotenoids and omega-3-index (p trends < 0.05). Higher HEI, AHEI, DHDI, and P-MDS scores were associated with increased daily PAL, moderate and vigorous activity, and reduced sedentary behaviour (p trend < 0.05). We observed no association between DQS and TC. To conclude, higher DQS, which reflect better dietary patterns, were associated with markers of better nutritional status and metabolic health. View Full-Text
Keywords: diet scores; metabolic health; personalized nutrition; Healthy Eating Index; Mediterranean Diet Score; Dutch Healthy Diet Index; nutritional biomarkers; dried blood spots diet scores; metabolic health; personalized nutrition; Healthy Eating Index; Mediterranean Diet Score; Dutch Healthy Diet Index; nutritional biomarkers; dried blood spots
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Fallaize, R.; Livingstone, K.M.; Celis-Morales, C.; Macready, A.L.; San-Cristobal, R.; Navas-Carretero, S.; Marsaux, C.F.M.; O’Donovan, C.B.; Kolossa, S.; Moschonis, G.; Walsh, M.C.; Gibney, E.R.; Brennan, L.; Bouwman, J.; Manios, Y.; Jarosz, M.; Martinez, J.A.; Daniel, H.; Saris, W.H.M.; Gundersen, T.E.; Drevon, C.A.; Gibney, M.J.; Mathers, J.C.; Lovegrove, J.A. Association between Diet-Quality Scores, Adiposity, Total Cholesterol and Markers of Nutritional Status in European Adults: Findings from the Food4Me Study. Nutrients 2018, 10, 49.

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