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Open AccessArticle

Vitamin E (α- and γ-Tocopherol) Levels in the Community: Distribution, Clinical and Biochemical Correlates, and Association with Dietary Patterns

1
Institute of Epidemiology, University of Kiel, 24105 Kiel, Germany
2
Institute of Human Nutrition and Food Science, University of Kiel, 24118 Kiel, Germany
3
Biobank PopGen, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, 24105 Kiel, Germany
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Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Bonn, 53113 Bonn, Germany
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Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
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Institute for Biometry and Epidemiology, Leibniz Institute for Diabetes Research, Heinrich Heine University Duesseldorf, 40225 Duesseldorf, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010003
Received: 18 October 2017 / Revised: 11 December 2017 / Accepted: 18 December 2017 / Published: 21 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
Little is known about the distribution and determinants of circulating vitamin E levels in a German population. In this cross-sectional study we assessed the distribution of both α- and γ-tocopherol levels, identified their clinical and biochemical correlates, and assessed their relationships with a priori and a posteriori derived dietary patterns. Plasma α- and γ-tocopherol concentrations were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection in 641 individuals (mean-age: 61 years; 40.6% women). Correlates of both markers were determined using linear regression with backward selection. Using a validated food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ), an a priori defined vitamin E-rich dietary pattern was constructed, and three a posteriori derived dietary patterns were identified by principal component analysis. Each pattern was related to α- and γ-tocopherol levels using linear regression. Median concentrations of α- and γ-tocopherol were 31.54 μmol/L and 1.35 µmol/L, respectively. 57.6% of participants had α-tocopherol levels >30 µmol/L. Triglycerides, high density lipoprotein (HDL)- and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, and vitamin E supplementation were identified as correlates of vitamin E levels. After excluding supplement users, a dietary pattern rich in meat, bread, fats, potatoes, and sugar/confectionery was inversely related to α-tocopherol levels (β, −0.032, SE = 0.016; p = 0.047). Prospective studies are warranted to evaluate the actual impact of the reported findings in terms of nutrition and health outcomes. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin E; α-tocopherol; γ-tocopherol; dietary patterns vitamin E; α-tocopherol; γ-tocopherol; dietary patterns
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Waniek, S.; Di Giuseppe, R.; Esatbeyoglu, T.; Plachta-Danielzik, S.; Ratjen, I.; Jacobs, G.; Nöthlings, U.; Koch, M.; Schlesinger, S.; Rimbach, G.; Lieb, W. Vitamin E (α- and γ-Tocopherol) Levels in the Community: Distribution, Clinical and Biochemical Correlates, and Association with Dietary Patterns. Nutrients 2018, 10, 3.

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