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Open AccessArticle

Vitamin E (α- and γ-Tocopherol) Levels in the Community: Distribution, Clinical and Biochemical Correlates, and Association with Dietary Patterns

Institute of Epidemiology, University of Kiel, 24105 Kiel, Germany
Institute of Human Nutrition and Food Science, University of Kiel, 24118 Kiel, Germany
Biobank PopGen, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, 24105 Kiel, Germany
Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Bonn, 53113 Bonn, Germany
Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Institute for Biometry and Epidemiology, Leibniz Institute for Diabetes Research, Heinrich Heine University Duesseldorf, 40225 Duesseldorf, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 3;
Received: 18 October 2017 / Revised: 11 December 2017 / Accepted: 18 December 2017 / Published: 21 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
Little is known about the distribution and determinants of circulating vitamin E levels in a German population. In this cross-sectional study we assessed the distribution of both α- and γ-tocopherol levels, identified their clinical and biochemical correlates, and assessed their relationships with a priori and a posteriori derived dietary patterns. Plasma α- and γ-tocopherol concentrations were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection in 641 individuals (mean-age: 61 years; 40.6% women). Correlates of both markers were determined using linear regression with backward selection. Using a validated food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ), an a priori defined vitamin E-rich dietary pattern was constructed, and three a posteriori derived dietary patterns were identified by principal component analysis. Each pattern was related to α- and γ-tocopherol levels using linear regression. Median concentrations of α- and γ-tocopherol were 31.54 μmol/L and 1.35 µmol/L, respectively. 57.6% of participants had α-tocopherol levels >30 µmol/L. Triglycerides, high density lipoprotein (HDL)- and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, and vitamin E supplementation were identified as correlates of vitamin E levels. After excluding supplement users, a dietary pattern rich in meat, bread, fats, potatoes, and sugar/confectionery was inversely related to α-tocopherol levels (β, −0.032, SE = 0.016; p = 0.047). Prospective studies are warranted to evaluate the actual impact of the reported findings in terms of nutrition and health outcomes. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin E; α-tocopherol; γ-tocopherol; dietary patterns vitamin E; α-tocopherol; γ-tocopherol; dietary patterns
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Waniek, S.; Di Giuseppe, R.; Esatbeyoglu, T.; Plachta-Danielzik, S.; Ratjen, I.; Jacobs, G.; Nöthlings, U.; Koch, M.; Schlesinger, S.; Rimbach, G.; Lieb, W. Vitamin E (α- and γ-Tocopherol) Levels in the Community: Distribution, Clinical and Biochemical Correlates, and Association with Dietary Patterns. Nutrients 2018, 10, 3.

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